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CFE Generator Protection

Guidelines for Setting 40 and 64G


Elements Based on Simulations
and Field Experience
Mauricio Sosa-Aguiluz
Comisin Federal de Electricidad

Armando Guzmn and Jean Len


Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.
Copyright CFE and SEL 2014

CFE Power Plants Are Diverse


Installed Base Consists of 451 Generators

Capability Curve Determines Safe


Generator Operating Region
Rotor Current Limit

150

Q (MVAR)

100
50

Armature
Current Limit

0
50

Stator End-Core
Heating Limit

100
0

50

100
150
P (MW)

200

Leakage Flux Causes Stator


End-Core Heating

Leakage Flux Causes Stator


End-Core Heating

Direct Air-Cooled Turbogenerator End

Two-Zone Loss-of-Field Protection


With Directional Element Supervision

Two-Zone Loss-of-Field Protection


With Directional Element Supervision

IEEE

Original CFE Guide Recommendation:


Match Zone 2 With Capability Curve
80
60
40

MVAR

20

Capability Curve

CFE

20
40

(P2,Q2)

60
(P1,Q1)
0

20

40 60
MW

80 100

Original CFE Guide Recommendation:


Match Zone 2 With Capability Curve
80
60
40

MVAR

20

Capability Curve

CFE

20
40

(P2,Q2)

60
(P1,Q1)
0

20

40 60
MW

80 100

Set Zone 2 to Match


Stator End-Core Heating Limit
Offset

kV 2 Q2 Q1

CTR
P22 Q22 Q1 Q2 VTR

2
kV 2 Q2 Q1 P22

CTR
Diameter
Q1 Q1 Q2 P22 Q22 VTR

Q2

P2

Angle atan

Zone 2 Matches Stator End-Core


Heating Limit
30

Imaginary (secondary ohms)

20

Capability Curve

Healthy Operating
Zone

10
0
10
20

Zone 2

30
40
20 10 0
10 20
Real (secondary ohms)

30

Proposed Settings Provide


Better Protection
80
60
40

MVAR

20
0
20
40

IEEE
CFE

60
0

20

40 60
MW

80 100

Static AVR Includes


Manual Control

40 Element Operation Avoids Generator


Damage During Black Start Testing

Power Oscillations Entering Z2


While AVR Is in Manual Control
40
30
Capability
Curve

MVAR

20
10
0

MEL

10
20
0

10 20 30 40 50 60
MW

Imaginary (secondary ohms)

10

10
Zone 2
20

10
0
10
Real (secondary ohms)

20

Undesired Operation of
40 Element During MEL Testing

Zone 2 Setting According to


CFE Guide
30

60

20

MVAR

40
Capability Curve

20
0

MEL

20
40

Zone 2

60
0

20

40 60
MW

80 100

Imaginary (secondary ohms)

80

Capability Curve

10
0
10
20

Zone 2

30
40

MEL
20 10 0 10 20
Real (secondary ohms)

30

Apparent Impedance Enters


Zone 2, Causing Undesired Operation
30

60

20

MVAR

40
20

Operating Point

0
20
40

Imaginary (secondary ohms)

80

10
0
10

Operating Point

20
30
40

60
0

20

40 60
MW

80 100

20 10 0 10 20
Real (secondary ohms)

30

After Improving Coordination,


Apparent Impedance Is Outside Zone 2
30

60

20

MVAR

40
20

Operating Point

0
20
40

Imaginary (secondary ohms)

80

10
0
10

Operating Point

20
30
40

60
0

20

40 60
MW

80 100

20 10 0 10 20
Real (secondary ohms)

30

CFE Generator Units Have


High-Impedance Grounding

Characteristics of
High-Impedance Grounding
Ground fault current is limited (2 to 15 A) to
minimize core and winding thermal damage
Ground faults cause overvoltages on
healthy phases
Common protection settings use long
delays for coordination purpose

Conventional
64G Delay
Settings

May consider coordination with VT fuses


and external faults on high-side voltage
of GSU transformer

Concerns With Slow Fault


Clearing Times
Transient overvoltages due to arcing and
intermittent faults stress winding insulation
Probability of second fault increases after
first fault because of transient overvoltages
and arc restrikes

Effects of Second Fault Lead to


Major Damage
Second fault on another phase produces
high currents that lead to differential
element operation
Second fault on same phase bypasses
high-impedance grounding resistor and
protection CTs (clearing time depends on
64G element only)

Fault Clearing Delay Makes a


Big Difference
Delayed operation of 64G causes second fault
at different winding location

First phase-to-ground fault

Second fault

Intermittent Ground Faults


Arcing faults with low current can be totally extinguished,
can reignite several times, and are difficult to detect

Intermittent Fault Acceleration Logic

Activates 5 s observation window when


64G element deasserts
Operates if 64G reasserts for 3 cycles
when observation window is active

For Better Generator Protection


Set loss-of-field element according to
capability curve
Consider reduced operating voltage
conditions when coordinating loss-of-field
element with minimum excitation limiter

For Better Generator Protection


Quickly detect ground faults to reduce risk
of having multiple winding faults and to
minimize generator damage
Apply intermittent fault acceleration logic
for fast detection of ground faults
Use field event reports and programmable
logic to improve generator protection

Questions?

Admittance Plane is Also Affected by


Voltage Variations
Admittance Plane

0.03

0.02

Imag (Secondary S)

0.01

-0.01

-0.02

-0.03

-0.04
-0.01

0.01

0.02

0.03

Real (Secondary S)

0.04

0.05

0.06

Admittance Plane is Also Affected by


Voltage Variations
Admittance Plane

0.03

0.02

Imag (Secondary S)

0.01

-0.01

-0.02

-0.03

-0.04
-0.01

0.01

0.02

0.03

Real (Secondary S)

0.04

0.05

0.06