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Addressing Protection Challenges

Associated With Type 3 and Type 4


Wind Turbine Generators
Bing Chen
CG Power Solutions USA Inc.

Arun Shrestha, Fred A. Ituzaro,


and Normann Fischer
Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.
Copyright CG Power and SEL 2013

Agenda
Fault current characteristics of Type 3
and Type 4 WTGs
Study of WECC Type 4 WTG under
balanced and unbalanced faults
Case study misoperation of directional
overcurrent relay at collector circuit
Conclusion and recommendations

Converter-Based WTGs
Variable-speed operation
Fast and independent control of active
and reactive power
Low-voltage ride through, zero-voltage ride
through, and reactive power support
Small fault current contribution
Proprietary controls

Type 4 WTG Short-Circuit


Characteristics
AC-DC-AC converter connects to grid
Fault current is limited to 1.1 pu following
initial transient
Fault current behavior is governed by
proprietary control design
Voltage source behind impedance model
does not work

Type 4 WTG Schematic Diagram

Type 3 WTG Short-Circuit


Characteristics
AC-DC-AC converter excites rotor
of machine
Crowbar circuit is activated and fault
contribution is similar to induction generator
for faults near generator terminal
Fault current is similar to Type 4 WTG for
other faults

Type 3 WTG Schematic Diagram

WECC Type 4 WTG Model


WECC and IEC developed generic
WTG models
Models developed were for positivesequence phasor time-domain simulation,
primarily for power system stability
Models are validated against field data
from multiple WTG manufacturers

WECC Type 4
WTG Model

Current Limit Logic

Fault Study of Detailed Type 4 WTG


Detailed Type 4 WTG model in
MATLAB and Simulink is used as
base case
WTG model and control are based on
GE turbine
WECC current limit logic is added
WECC Type 4 WTG fault current
behaviors for balanced and unbalanced
faults are studied

Simulation Model

Case 1: Balanced Three-Phase Fault


Three-Phase Fault at WTG Terminal (575 V)
Fault current is limited to 1.1 pu
Idref decreases and Iqref increases to
provide needed reactive power support

Three-Phase Fault at WTG

Three-Phase Fault at WTG

Case 2: Balanced Three-Phase Fault


Three-Phase Fault at Collector Bus (25 kV)
Fault current is again limited to 1.1 pu
Fault current is independent of impedance
between fault point and WTG location
Iqref increases to provide needed reactive
power support

Three-Phase Fault at Collector Bus

Three-Phase Fault at Collector Bus

Case 3: Unbalanced Fault


Single-Phase-to-Ground Fault at
WTG Terminal (575 V)
Fault current increases slightly
Current from WTG remains balanced
Active power is reduced and reactive
power is increased during fault

Single-Phase-to-Ground Fault at WTG

Single-Phase-to-Ground Fault at WTG

Case 4: Unbalanced Fault


Single-Phase-to-Ground Fault
at Collector Bus (25 kV)
Fault current increases slightly
Current from WTG remains balanced
Fault current is independent of impedance
between fault point and WTG location
LG fault on collector bus appears as
LL fault to WTG due to delta-wye
pad-mounted transformer

Single-Phase-to-Ground Fault
at Collector Bus

Single-Phase-to-Ground Fault
at Collector Bus

Negative-Sequence Directional Element


I2 leads V2 in an inductive power system for
forward fault direction
I2 lags V2 for reverse fault direction

Relay 11F7B Event Report

Relay 11F7B Vector Diagram

Magnitude of I1 and I2 are very close


I2 leads V2 (forward fault direction)

Relay 11F7A Event Report

Relay 11F7A Vector Diagram

I2 suppressed by WTG converter controller


I2 leads V2 (forward fault direction
misoperation)

Conclusion
Fault current of converter-based WTG is
small and governed by proprietary controls
Complex fault current characteristics pose
challenge for overcurrent relays in
determining fault direction

Recommendations
Lower Z1ANG to determine reverse
fault direction
Supervise directional overcurrent element
Consider line current differential with pilot
protection schemes
Work toward development of generic
WTG models

Questions?