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Motivation

at Work
Chapter 5
Organizational
Behavior
Nelson & Quick,
6th edition

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Definition of Motivation
Motivation - the
process of
arousing and
sustaining goaldirected
behavior

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Early Philosophers
Internal Motivational Theories
Max Weber
work contributes to salvation
Protestant work ethic
Sigmund Freud - Psychoanalysis
delve into the unconscious mind to
better understand a persons motives
and needs
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Early Philosophers
External Motivational Theories
Adam Smith
Enlightened self-interest; that which is in
the best interest and benefit to the
individual and to other people
Technology is a labor productivity multiplier
Frederick Taylor
Founder of scientific management
Emphasized cooperation between
management and labor to enlarge profits
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Employee Recognition
and Ownership
Built on Smith and Taylors theories
Emphasize external incentives
Aimed at reducing turnover;
Employee
Of the
building commitment
Month
Feelings of ownership increases
organizational citizenship behavior
(includes both psychological needs and
external incentives)
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Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


SA
Esteem
Love (Social)

Need hierarchy theory that behavior is


determined by a
progression of
physical, social, and
psychological needs

Safety & Security


Physiological
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Motivational Theories X & Y


Theory X
A set of assumptions of how to
manage individuals who are
motivated by lower order needs

Theory Y
A set of assumptions of how to
manage individuals who are
motivated by higher order needs.
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Human Needs, Theory X,


and Theory Y
SA
Esteem

Theory Y

Love (Social)
Safety & Security

Theory X
Physiological
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McGregors Assumptions
About People Based on Theory X
Naturally indolent
Lack ambition, dislike
responsibility, and prefer to be led
Inherently self-centered and
indifferent to organizational needs
Naturally resistant to change
Gullible, not bright, ready dupes
SOURCE: Adapted from Table 5.1 which is from The Human Side of Enterprise by
Douglas M. McGregor, reprinted from Management Review, November 1957. Copyright
1957 American Management Association International. Reprinted by permission of American
Management Association International, New York, NY. All rights reserved.
http://www.amanet.org.

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McGregors Assumptions
About People Based on Theory Y
Passive and resistant behaviors not
inherent: result of organizational
experience
People possess
Motivation
Development potential
Capacity for assuming responsibility
Readiness to direct behavior toward
organizational goals
SOURCE: Adapted from Table 5.1 which is from The Human Side of Enterprise by
Douglas M. McGregor, reprinted from Management Review, November 1957. Copyright
1957 American Management Association International. Reprinted by permission of American
Management Association International, New York, NY. All rights reserved.
http://www.amanet.org.

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2008 Microsoft Corporation

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McGregors Assumptions
About People Based on Theory Y
Managements task - arrange conditions
and operational methods so people can
achieve their own goals by directing
efforts to organizational goals
Individuals
goals

SOURCE: Adapted from Table 5.1 which is from The Human Side of Enterprise by
Douglas M. McGregor, reprinted from Management Review, November 1957. Copyright
1957 American Management Association International. Reprinted by permission of American
Management Association International, New York, NY. All rights reserved.
http://www.amanet.org.

Organizations
goals

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Alderfers ERG Theory


SA
Esteem
Love (Social)
Safety & Security

Growth
Relatedness
Existence

Physiological
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McClellands Need Theory:


Need for Achievement
Need for Achievement - a
manifest (easily perceived)
need that concerns individuals
issues of excellence,
competition, challenging
goals, persistence, and
overcoming difficulties

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McClellands Need Theory:


Need for Power
Need for Power - a manifest (easily
perceived) need that concerns an
individuals need to make an impact on
others, influence others, change people
or events, and make
a difference in life

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McClellands Need Theory:


Need for Affiliation
Need for Affiliation - a
manifest (easily
perceived) need that
concerns an individuals
need to establish and
maintain warm, close,
intimate relationships
with other people
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3 Motivational Need Theories


Maslow

McGregor Alderfer

Self-actualization
Esteem
Higher
self
Order
interpersonal
Needs

Growth

Need for
Achievement
Need for
Power

Theory Y

Belongingness
(social & love)

McClelland

Relatedness Need for


Affiliation

Safety & Security


Lower
Order
Needs

interpersonal
physical
Physiological

Theory X

Existence

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Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory


Motivation Factor work condition related to the
satisfaction of the need for
psychological growth
job enrichment
leads to superior performance &
effort

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Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory


Hygiene Factor work condition related to
dissatisfaction caused by
discomfort or pain
maintenance factor
contributes to employees feeling not
dissatisfied
contributes to absence of complaints

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Motivation-Hygiene
Theory of Motivation
Company policy &
administration
Supervision
Interpersonal relations
Working conditions
Salary
Status
Security

Hygiene factors avoid


job dissatisfaction
SOURCE: Adapted from Frederick Herzberg, The Managerial Choice: To be Efficient or to Be
Human. (Salt Lake City: Olympus, 1982). Reprinted by permission.

Motivation factors increase


job satisfaction

Achievement
Achievement recognition
Work itself
Responsibility
Advancement
Growth
Salary?
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Motivation-Hygiene
Combinations

(Motivation = M, Hygiene = H)
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Questions on Herzbergs Theory


Is salary a hygiene or a
motivational factor?
What role do individual differences
(age, sex, social status, education)
play?
What role do intrinsic job factors
(work flow process) play?
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New Ideas in Human Motivation:


Eustress, Strength, Hope
Eustress healthy, normal stress

Opportunities

Obstacles

Challenges

Barriers

Energy

Frustration
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New Ideas in Human Motivation:


Positive Energy & Full Engagement
Management
of
Energy

Build
Positive
Energy

Expend
Energy

Renewal
and
Recovery
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Social Exchange
& Equity Theory
Equity theory focuses on individualenvironment interaction
Concerned with social processes
Etzionicalculated working relationships
Both parties have demands
Both parties make contributions
Expect fair, equitable, ethical treatment
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IndividualOrganizational
Exchange Relationship
Contributions Demands

Organization

Individual

Organizational goals
Departmental objectives
Job tasks

Physiological needs
Security needs
Physical needs

Company status
Benefits
Income

Developmental potential
Employee knowledge
Employee skills and
abilities

SOURCE: J. P. Campbell, M. D. Dunnette, E. E. Lawler, III. And K. E. Weick, Jr. Managerial Behavior. Performance
and Effectiveness (New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1970. Reproduced with permission from McGraw-Hill, Inc.

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Adams Theory of Inequity


Inequity - the situation in which a
person perceives he or she is
receiving less than he or she is
giving, or is giving less than he or
she is receiving

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Equity and Inequity at Work


Person
Comparison
other
Equity

Outcomes = Outcomes
Inputs
Inputs

Negative Outcomes < Outcomes


Inequity
Inputs
Inputs
Positive
Outcomes > Outcomes
Inequity
Inputs
Inputs

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division
South-Western, a division
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Learning
of Cengage
Learning
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rights reserved

Strategies for
Resolution of Inequity

Alter the persons outcomes


Alter the persons inputs
Alter the comparison others outputs
Alter the comparison others inputs
Change who is used as a comparison other
Rationalize the inequity
Leave the organizational situation
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New Perspectives
on Equity Theory
I prefer an equity
ratio equal to that of
my comparison
other

Equity Sensitive

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New Perspectives
on Equity Theory
I am comfortable
with an equity ratio
less than that of my
comparison other

Benevolent
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New Perspectives
on Equity Theory
Entitled
I am comfortable
with an equity ratio
greater than that of
my comparison
other
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Expectancy Theory of
Motivation: Key Constructs
Valence - value or importance
placed on a particular reward
Expectancy - belief that effort leads
to performance
Instrumentality - belief that
performance is related to rewards
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Expectancy Model
of Motivation
Effort

Performance

Reward

Perceived effort performance


probability

Perceived
performance reward probability

Perceived value
of rewards

What are my chances of


getting the job done if I
put forth the necessary
effort?

What are my chances


of getting the rewards I
value if I satisfactorily
complete the job?

What rewards do I
value?

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3 Causes of
Motivational Problems
Belief that effort will not result in
performance
Belief that performance will not
result in rewards
The value a person places on, or
the preference a person has for,
certain rewards
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Moral Maturity
Moral Maturity - the measure of a persons
cognitive moral development
Morally mature
people behave and
act based on
universal ethical
principles.

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Morally immature
people behave and
act based on
egocentric
motivations.

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Cultural Differences
Motivational theories are culturally bound
Research results differ among cultures

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Ways to Motivate People


Training
Coaching
Task assignments
Rewards contingent
on good performance
Valued rewards available

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Chapter 5: Reflect & Discuss


For Love of the Game Video Clip
What to Watch for and Ask Yourself
At what level are Billy Chapels esteem
needs at this point in the game?
Do you expect Gus Sinskis talk to have any
effect on Chapel? If it will, what effect do
you expect it to have?
What rewards potentially exist for Billy
Chapel? Remember, this is the last baseball
game of his career.
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