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Impedance Protection

for Power Transformers


Texas A&M Relay Conference/ March-April 2015

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siemens.com

Scope
Development of protection

Electromechanical

Discrete function

Microprocessor

Diverse functions in one device

Restricted Siemens AG 2014


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2014-11-12

Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1

Scope
Managing the diversity Communication HW

Yes, it is still a protection relay

Communication is a central aspect


of multi-function protection device

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2014-11-12

Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1

Scope
Managing the diversity HW

Increasing the number of Measuring


Points adds new application
possibilities.
eg. Multiple Feeders
with one relay

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2014-11-12

Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1

Scope
Managing the diversity Configuration SW

Step by step engineering


Efficient
configuration
software

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2014-11-12

Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1

Integration of multiple Functions in a single IED


Bay RTU for Bus Protection

Complete
diameter
with a
single IED

Bay RTU for Bus Protection


Many options to optimize the protection and redundancy concept
Economics of substation protection gets an all new perspective

Restricted Siemens AG 2014


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2014-11-12

Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1

Impedance protection for various tasks


Single Phase loops evaluated without
ground current or zero sequence voltage

Various options

MHO
Quad
RMD
Klassic

Generators / Motors / Transformers

OHL / Cables

Select the best suited Impedance Protection for the application


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2014-11-12

Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1

Example
The application of impedance protection on LV side
of distribution transformer

Task:
Task:
1.
1. Protection
Protection for
for 22kV
22kV busfaults
busfaults
2.
2. Back-up
Back-up protection
protection for
for 22kV
22kV
Feeders
Feeders
3.
3. Back-up
Back-up protection
protection for
for
Transformer
Transformer
4.
4. Back-feed
Back-feed protection
protection for
for
transformer
transformer and
and 110
110 kV
kV Bus
Bus

Restricted Siemens AG 2014


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2014-11-12

Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1

Scope
22 kV Bus Protection This is a Main Protection

Zone 1:
22kV Bus Protection
reverse interlocking

Standard Ph-G and Ph-Ph distance protection fault


detection
Zone 1 reach graded with Feeder Protection.
Reverse interlocking allows fast and selective fault
clearance.

Restricted Siemens AG 2014


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2014-11-12

Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1

Scope
22 kV Feeder Backup protection time graded
The remote back-up protection of the 22 kV
Feeders is a central function in this device:

Zone 2 reach must match the feeder protection


coverage
Load encroachment limits reach

Zone 2:
backup 22kV feeders
Special Ph-G and Ph-Ph distance protection to
obtain large reach without load encroachment.
Zone 2 time graded with Feeder Protection.
Single protection device per feeder
Single Trip coil/circuit per breaker

Redundancy fully dependant on remote backup

Restricted Siemens AG 2014


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2014-11-12

Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1

Scope
Transformer backup protection
The backup protection of the Transformer from LV
side has gained importance due to decentralized
generation:

Special fault detection/measurement is required; e.g.


single phase loop with no zero sequence current or
voltage

Zone 3:
80% of Xtrfr
Zone 4:
120% Xtrfr

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2014-11-12

Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1

Scope
One impedance protection different requirements

Zone 1:
22kV Bus Protection
reverse interlocking
Zone 2:
backup 22kV feeders
Zone 3:
backup Transformer
Zone 4:
backup Transformer

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2014-11-12

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Zone 1: 22kv Bus Protection


Reverse Interlocking scheme

Main Protection for 22kV Bus Faults


Setting co-ordination with least
sensitive feeder protection

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Zone 2: 22kv Feeder Backup


Impedance protection fault criteria

Must dependably clear Remote Faults


May not trip due to load

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2014-11-12

Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1

Zone 2: 22kv Feeder Backup


Impedance protection fault criteria

Iload =
1050 A

Load Impedance cuts


deep into the required
Zone 2 reach

Iload =
300 A

Zone 2 coverage
required for reliable
backup of feeder
protection

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2014-11-12

Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1

Zone 2: 22kv Feeder Backup


Ph-Ph loop reaches into load cutout (example)
Minimum Z load (example for 40 MVA)
= 9.1

Required reach of Zone 2 to cover


a feeder O/C setting of 400 A
=26

Faults here must be cleared


for reliable redundancy

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2014-11-12

Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1

Zone 2: 22kv Feeder Backup - RMD Impedance:


Ph-Ph loop only responds to faults
Loop equation polarized with I2 = Isub

Multiple criteria loop


selection:
V, I, dV, dI

*
Im V
I
BC sub

*
Im ( Z
I Z
I )I
Line C sub
Line B

2
1

No measurement during balanced load.


Ph-Ph loop reach restrained during balanced
load

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Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1

Zone 3 and 4: Transformer Backup


Impedance protection fault criteria

HV Ph-G fault is measured at approx 150% with Ph-Ph loop

HV Ph-Ph fault is measured at 100% with Ph-G loop

The Ph-G loop will have no zero sequence current or voltage

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Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1

Zone 3 and 4: Transformer Backup


Example AG Fault on HV side

CA loop
AG
Fault
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2014-11-12

Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1

Simulated AG Fault on HV Bus


HV Voltage
Pre-fault

Fault

HV Current
Pre-fault
Faulted

UA Voltage drops to Zero


Fault current only ph A
No load current

LV Voltage
Pre-fault

LV Current
Fault

UCA Voltage decreases

Pre-fault

Fault

Fault current IC IA

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2014-11-12

Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1

LV side Loop CA measurement


during AG fault on HV bus

CA loop measures fault location = 1.5 times X1 trfr

AG Fault

CA loop

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2014-11-12

Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1

Zone 3 and 4: Transformer Backup


Example BC Fault on HV side
BG loop

BC
Fault

Correct loop for impedance protection is BG


No Zero Sequence current
No Zero Sequence voltage

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Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1

Contradicting Requirements
Zone 3 and 4 must select Ph-G loops when there
is no zero sequence current or voltage
Zone 2 must cover remote faults inside load cutout only pick-up Ph-G loops with zero sequence
current/voltage

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Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1

Compromise Solution

Additional Criteria:
User defined logic:
I0
U0
I2
dI
dV
etc

Impedance protection with


no specific loop selection
Unblock Zone 2
Block Ph-G loop

Prone to programming errors that will not be found


during normal commissioning test.

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2014-11-12

Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1

Apply two different Impedance protections


Obtain the best possible protection for each zone with ZERO COMPROMISE

Zone 1 and 2

Zone 3 and 4

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2014-11-12

Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1

Conclusion

Step by step engineering


Efficient
configuration
software

Optimized Results
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2014-11-12

Gustav Steynberg / EM EA PRO LM1