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Chapter 5:

PARTNERSHIP & ALLIANCES IN SUPERMARKET


SUPPLY NETWORK

FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN .


DCA2023
BACHELOR IN CULINARY
ARTS
SHCA

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Key Concepts
A Transformation in Relationships
Types of Buyer-Supplier Relationships
Transactional Relationships
Collaborative and Alliance Relationships
Collaborative Relationships
Supply Alliances

The Supplier's Perspective


Developing and Managing Collaborative
and Alliance Relationships
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A Transformation in Relationships
The transformation from reactive and
mechanical purchasing to proactive
procurement and on to strategic Supply
Chain Management equivalents a similar
transformation in relationships between
buyers and suppliers
Prior to the 1980s most purchasing
relationships were reactive
Interaction between vendor and
purchasing resulted in outcomes where
ones gain would be the others loss
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Problems with the Term Partner


During the late 1980s and early 1990s,
partnerships became popular
Implications of the term partner were not
well understood
Legal problems and concerns inevitably arose

While the term partnership is still


relatively common, we avoid use of the
term preferring the terms collaborative
relationship and strategic alliance.

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Three Types of Buyer Supplier Relationships


Transactional:
Psychology. an interaction of an individual with one or
more other persons, especially as influenced by their
assumed relational roles of parent, child, or adult.
Transactions, the published records of the proceedings,
as papers read, addresses delivered, or discussions, at
the meetings of a learned society or the like.

Collaborative: Produced or conducted by two or


more parties working together.
Alliance: A union or association formed for mutual
benefit, especially between countries or
organizations.
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Continuum (Varietry) of Buyer-Seller


Relationships
Figure 4-1

Continuum of Buyer-Seller Relationships


Activity/Attribute

Communication
Competitive Adv.
Connectedness
Continuous Impr.
Contributions to NPD
Difficulty of Exit
Duration
Expediting
Focus
Level of Integration

Transactional

Collaborative

High pot. for problems


Low
Independence
Little
Few
Low
Short
Reactive
Price
Little or none

Alliance

Systematic approach
High
Interdependence
A focus
Many ESI
Difficult high impact
Long
Proactive
Total cost
High or total
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Continuum of Buyer-Seller Relationships


Figure 5-1 Continued

Continuum of Buyer-Seller Relationships


Activity/Attribute

Number of Suppliers
Open Books
Quality
Relations
Resources
Service
Shared Forecasts
Supply Disruptions
Technology Inflows
Type of Interaction

Transactional

Many
No
Incoming inspection
Inward looking
Few low skill level
Minimal
No
Possible
No
Tactical

Collaborative

Alliance

One or few
Yes
Design quality in system
Concern w/well being
Professional
Greatly improved
Yes
Unlikely
Yes
Strategic synergy
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Transactional Relationships Characteristics


An absence (lack) of concern
One of a series of independent deals
Costs, data and forecasts are not shared
Price is the focus of the relationship
A minimum of purchasing time and energy
is required to establish prices
Transactional purchases lend themselves
to e-procurement

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Advantages of Transactional Relationships

Relatively less purchasing time and effort


are required to establish price
Lower skill levels of procurement
personnel are required

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Disadvantages of Transactional Relationships


Potential for communication difficulties
Expediting and monitoring of incoming quality
Inflexible when flexibility may be required
Tend to result in more delivery problems
Quality will be only as good as required
Suppliers provide the minimum service required
Less effective performance by suppliers
Customers are subject to more supply
disruptions
Supplier is not motivated to invest time and
energy development of buyers products
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Collaborative and Alliance Relationships

76% of CEOs think external collaboration


with business partners and customers is
key to innovation
Collaborative and alliance relationships
tend to result in lower total costs and
improve performance of the supply chain

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Three Success Factors


Researchers Stanley and Pearson found
that the three most important factors in a
successful buyer-supplier relationship
are:
(1) two-way communication,
(2) the supplier's responsiveness to supply
management's needs, and
(3) clear product specifications

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Collaborative Relationships
Typically used for the procurement of noncommodity items and services
A collaborative relationship frequently is
an appropriate first step on the road to a
strategic alliance

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Collaborative Relationships
Collaborative relationships tend to
foster.
Longer term contracts
Reduction of risk for suppliers
Reducing total costs
Improvement of processes
Improvement of products
Increased investment in R & D
Increased investment in training
Increased investment in equipment
Better focus on customer needs

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Supply Alliances
The fundamental difference between
collaborative relationships and supply
alliances is the presence of institutional
trust in alliances
The failure to develop and manage
institutional trust is the principle reason
that so many supply alliances fail

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Benefits of Supply Alliances

Lower total costs.


Reduced time to market
Improved quality
Improved technology flow from suppliers
Improved continuity of supply

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Alliance Attributes
Continuous improvement
Interdependence and commitment.
Atmosphere of cooperation
Informal interpersonal connections
Internal infrastructures to enhance learning
Openness in all areas of the relationship
A living system
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Alliance Attributes Continued


A shared vision of the future
Ethics take precedence over expediency
Adaptable in the face of change
Design of experiments and supplier
certification
Win-Win negotiations
Executive level commitment
Avoid terms that could prove destructive
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Which Relationship is Appropriate?


What are the Strategic Elements of a Relationship?
Are there many relatively undifferentiated suppliers
providing what amounts to inter-changeable
commodities?
Does the potential supplier possess economic power
which it is willing to employ over its customers?
If there is recognition by both parties of the potential
benefits of an alliance, but adequate qualified human
resources are not available at one or both firms?

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Strategic Elements of a Relationship


Is one supplier head and shoulders above the
rest in terms of the value it provides; including
price, innovation, ability to adapt to changing
situations, capacity to work with your team, task
joint risks, etc?
Are some suppliers strategic to your business?
Would your company benefit greatly if the
supplier were more integrally connected with
your company?
Do your customers require high degrees of
flexibility and speed of responsiveness?
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The Suppliers Perspective


Suppliers want good customers
Several issues affect their assessment,
among them are:
Cash Flow
Openness and Approachability
Availability
Professionalism

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Situations Wherein Alliances may not be


Appropriate
Stability
Price Volatility (instability)
Demand Volatility (instability)
High Switching Likelihood with High Switching Costs

Capability
No Partnership/Alliance-Capable Supplier for the Item
No Partnership/Alliance-Capable Supplier in the
Geographic Area
Rapid Technological Change
Mismatch of Clock Speed
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Situations Wherein Alliances may not be


Appropriate (applicable)

Competition
Non-Competitive Market
Supplier Dependency Creation
Neglected Areas
Suppliers Seeking to Reduce Competition

Benefits
No leverage (control) from Partnership
No Hard Savings from Partnership

Internal Buy-In
No Internal Customer Buy-In
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The Role of Power


Power is a topic that makes people
uncomfortable
Power is at the heart of all business
relationships
Power plays a key role in two important
subclasses of buyer-supplier
relationships:
Captive Buyer: buyer is held hostage by a
supplier free to switch to another customer
Captive Supplier: makes investments in order
to secure a portion of the buyer's business,
with no assurance of sufficient business to
recoup the investment

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The Portfolio Approach


Successful supply chain management
requires the effective and efficient
management of a portfolio of relationships
Three environmental factors to consider:
(1) the product exchanged and its technology,
(2) the competitive conditions in the upstream
market, and
(3) the capabilities of the suppliers available

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New Skills and Attitudes Required


Developing and managing collaborative
and alliance relationships require supply
professionals that possess the following
skills and attitudes:
Recognize the benefits of collaboration
Ability to identify, obtain and use data
Able to work in chaos and uncertainty
Agile, flexible, and highly adaptive

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E-Commerce and the Right Type of


Relationship

"How does B2B eCommerce affect our


selection of the 'right' type of
relationship?
Selection must be a function of the
requirement, not of the Internet!
B2B eCommerce is an enabler

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E-Commerce Traps to Avoid


Trap #1: Gilding the pig
Take an archaic, cumbersome procurement
process and webbize it

Trap #2: The Magic pill


Looking for the one solution that can be used
to solve every procurement situation

Trap #3: Supplier equality


Supplier relationships range from
transactional to alliances
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INSTITUTIONAL
TRUST

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Trust
Trust is one of the key factors that
differentiates the three classes of
relationships.
The simplest definition of trust is being
confident that the other party will do what
it says it will do.
Some level of trust must be present in all
three types of relationships
The level of trust increases with
collaborative relationships and becomes
an essential characteristic with strategic
alliances
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Attributes / Elements of Institutional Trust


Developed over time
Internal trust is developed before external
trust
Based on individual and institutional
integrity
It is greater than individual trust.
Trust and relationship are viewed as
investments
Partners have access to other's strategic
plans
Relevant costs and forecasts are shared
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Attributes / Elements of Institutional Trust


When key individuals leave, fingerprints
are left behind that hold the relationships
together
Trust is visible
Informal agreements are as good as
written
Both parties are sensitive to the cultural
bridge
Relationship is adaptable in the face of
change
Both firms recognize the interdependency

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Attributes / Elements of Institutional Trust


Sharing information is a means of developing
trust
Conflict in the relationship is openly addressed
Rights, desires, and opinions are considered
Firms have mutual goals
A bank account of trust is created
Recognizes trust has different cultural meanings
Both CEO's make a personal investment
Senior managers from both firms commit
Ethical issues are freely brought up without fear
An ombudsman is assigned at both firms
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Actions to Develop and Manage Trust


An inter-firm team is appointed
Discussions conducted in an atmosphere of
respect
Inter-firm team receives guidance and training in
the implementation of practices
Listening, understanding, time, energy are
invested
Senior leaders at both firms act as champions
A communication system is developed
Actions to develop and measure trust are created
Risks and rewards are addressed openly
Negotiation is used as a trust-building
opportunity
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Actions to Develop and Manage Trust


Both firms work together on technology plans
Technical personnel from both firms visit the
other
Contractual relations are designed to enhance
trust
Contract relations focus on continuous
improvement
Team and relationship skills are developed early
Company leaders create a formal relationship
A contracting philosophy and a legal
infrastructure are designed to the relationship
Institutional trust is measured and managed

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The Alliance Options


Merchant supplies the total product.
Self-manufacture with key raw material
suppliers.
In-house plant operated by a supplier.

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