You are on page 1of 42

Gas Metal Arc Welding

(GMAW)
An arc welding process
that uses an arc between a
continuous
filler
metal
electrode and the weld
pool with shielding from an
externally supplied gas and
without the application of
pressure

Introduction
GMAW is defined as arc welding using a
continuously fed consumable electrode and a
shielding gas.
Arc can be shielded by an active (Co 2) or inert (Ar,
He).
If the inert gas is used then it is termed as MIG
(Metal Inert Gas) and if shielding gas is active
gas (like CO2 , mixture of CO2 +O2 or CO2+H2) GMAW
is called as MAG (Metal Active Gas) welding.
Produces high-quality welds
Yields high productivity

Vibrations in GMAW
Vibrations depending up on type of
shielding gas used, type of metal
transfer, the type of metal welded ,and
so on.
MIG or MAG welding, fine wire welding,
spray arc welding, pulse arc welding,
CO2 welding, short-circuit arc welding
and various trade names.

Principle of Operation
The gas metal arc welding uses the heat of an arc
between a continuously fed consumable electrode
and the work to be welded.
The heat of the arc melt the surface of the base
metal and the end of the electrode.
The metal melted off the electrode is transferred
across the arc to the molten pool.
An envelope of gas fed through the nozzle provides
shielding of molten pool, the arc, and surrounding
area.

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

It was developed for welding aluminum .Used for special


metals for bearing surfaces and corrosion resistant surfaces.

PROCESS

GMAW requires only that the operator


guide the welding gun with proper position
and orientation along the area being
welded
Keeping a consistent contact tip-to-work
distance
(the
stickout
distance)
is
important,
because
a
long
stickout
distance can cause the electrode to
overheat and will also waste shielding gas.
Stickout distance varies for different
GMAW weld processes and applications.
Short-circuit transfer = -
Spray transfer =

The orientation of the gun is also important


45o for a fillet weld and
90o degrees for welding a flat surface
The travel angle or lead angle is the angle
of the torch with respect to the direction of
travel, and it should generally remain
approximately vertical.

GMAW Welds

Advantages
High operating factor
High deposition rates
High utilization of filler metal
Welding can be done in all positions
Automation is possible
No slag removal required, No slag
inclusion
High welding speeds
High weld quality
Less distortion of work piece

GMAW
PROCES
S

Heat

Vs

SMAW

Shielding

Filler
Material

Power
Source

SMAW

Electric
Arc

Inert Gas
(Flux)

Stick
Electrode

Constant
Current

GMAW

Electric
Arc

Inert Gas

Wire
Electrode

Constant
Voltage

GMAW can be used to weld the metal thickness from 0.13mm


upward can be welded .

Types of Metal Transfer


1.
2.
3.
4.

Spray Arc Transfer


Globular Transfer
Short Circuit (Short Arc)
Pulsed - Spray Arc Transfer

Methods of application
1. Semi-automatic
Welder provides manual travel and
guidance of the welding gun
2. Automatic
Machine itself controls the travel and
guidance of the welding gun

Position
1.Globular / CO2 process Larger electrode Flat &
Horizontal
2. Spray arc process - Larger electrode Flat &
Horizontal
- Smaller electrode - Vertical & Over head
3. Short circuit and Pulsed spray -

All positions

Weldable Metals & Thickness


Range
Almost all metals and alloys
CO2 process is only for steels
Almost all thicknesses
#

0.13mm onwards

JOINT DESIGN
Almost all joint designs are possible
As similar that of SMAW process
But, low groove angle (45o instead of
60o)

GMAW Equipment
Three major elements are :
1) Welding torch and accessories
2) Welding control & Wire feed motor
3) Power Source
4) Travel and guidance mechanism
GMAW equipment can be used either
manually or automatically

Welding Torch &


Accessories
The welding torch guides the wire
and shielding gas to the weld zone.
Brings welding power to the wire also
Major components/parts of the torch
are the contact tip, shielding gas
nozzle, and gas diffuser

Welding Control & Wire


Feed Motor
Welding control & Wire feed motor are
combined into one unit
Main function is to pull the wire from
the spool and feed it to the arc
Controls wire feed speed and regulates
the starting and stopping of wire feed
Wire feed speed controls Amperage

WIRE FEEDER

WIRE CONTROL
&
WIRE FEED MOTOR

POWER SOURCE

1. Constant Speed Feeder


Used only with a constant voltage (CV)
power source
This type of feeder has a control cable
that will connect to the power source
The control cable supplies power to the
feeder and allows the capability of
remote voltage control with certain power
source/feeder combinations
The wire feed speed (WFS) is set on the
feeder and will always be constant for a

2. Voltage-Sensing Feeder
Can be used with either a constant voltage (CV) or
constant current (CC) - direct current (DC) power
source
When set to (CV), the feeder is similar to a
constant speed feeder
When set to (CC), the wire feed speed depends on
the voltage present
The feeder changes the wire feed speed as the
voltage changes
A voltage sensing feeder does not have the
capability of remote voltage control

Power Source
Almost all GMAW is done with
reverse polarity also known as DCEP
Provides a relatively consistent
voltage to the arc
Constant Voltage (CV) Power
sources

Rectifier, Inverter or Generator


Current = 20 A 750 A
Voltage = 18 V 50 V

POSITIVE
TERMINAL

NEGATIVE
TERMINAL

ELECTRODE
#
on

Electrode selection is based primarily


#

the composition of the metal


welded

the process variation being

thickness and joint design

being
used

#
conditions

the material surface

All commercially available electrodes


contain deoxidizing metals such as
silicon, manganese, titanium, and
aluminum in small
percentages to
help prevent oxygen porosity, and some
contain denitriding metals such as
titanium and zirconium to avoid nitrogen
porosity

ELECTRODE
CLASSIFICATION
E XX S - X

Electrode
min T.S (ksi)
Solid electrode wire
Chemical Composition &
Shielding

E 70 S - 2

SFA 5.18
Carbon steel filler metals for Gas shielded arc welding
Chemical composition requirements for solid electrodes and rods
AWS
Classifica
tion

Mn

Si

Cu

Ti

Zr

Al

ER70S-2

0.07 0.9-1.40

0.400.70

0.50

0.050.15

0.020.12

0.050.15

ER70S-3

0.06 0.901.40
0.15

0.450.75

0.50

ER70S-4

0.07 1.001.50
0.15

0.650.85

0.50

ER70S-5

0.07 0.901.40
0.19

0.300.60

0.50

..

0.500.90

ER70S-6

0.06 1.401.85
0.15

0.801.17

0.50

..

..

ER70S-7

0.07 1.50-

0.50-

0.50

..

..

Shielding Gases
Purpose of shielding gas is the protect the weld
area from the contaminants in the atmosphere
Gas can be Inert, Reactive, or Mixtures of both
Gas flow rate is between 25-35 CFH
Argon, Helium, and Carbon Dioxide are the
main three gases used in GMAW

FLOW METER

CFH PRESSURE
ADJUSTMENT
KNOB

CYLCINDER
PRESSURE
GAUGE

WELD PROFILES FOR DIFFERENT


SHIELDING GASES
#
Argon
alloys
#
Helium
alloys
#
CO2

95%

Non Ferrous metals &

Non Ferrous metals &

Steels

5%

75%
25%

25%
75%

QUALITY OF WELD
#
High quality welds obtained than
compared with
SMAW

No flux melting required


No / Low hydrogen process

But it depends on,

cleanliness,

procedure

Electrode wire and its


Joint cleanliness
Purity of the shielding gases
Position of welding & Welding

TIPS FOR USING THE PROCESS


#
Semi-automatic welding using shortcircuit
metal transfer is easy to learn
and apply
#
Stickout distance (or) Tip-to-Work
distance should be controlled very properly
#

Correct Nozzle-to-work distance

1 to 1.5 times inside dia of gas


nozzle

Angle of gun nozzle

Travel angle and Work angle

Work angle = 45o - Fillet


= 90o Groove

#
Travel angle may be Push angle or
Drag angle
Push angle = Pure inert gas
shielding
Drag angle = CO2 shielding
#
Equipment should be proper working
condition
#
For out of position welding, the weld pool
should
be remain as small as possible

COMPARISON BETWEEN THE


VARIATIONS

Basic components of GMAW


1. Welding Power Source
2 . Electrode wire feed control unit
3 . Welding Torch
4 . Shielding Gas
5 .cooling system (water or air)
6 .Travel mechanism for automatic
welding