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Diesel Engines

Engine Systems and


Performance

Topics
Engine power - description and
measurement
Engine thermodynamics
Cycles and efficiency

Diesel engines
Design variations
Combustion chambers
Fuel injection

Fuels

You Know How an Engine


Works
How a basic 4-stroke, compression
ignition engine works
Intake, compression, power, and
exhaust strokes
When exhaust and intake valves open
and close
When fuel is injected

How Powerful is an Engine?


Depends on where you measure it
Gross Power
Fuel equivalent - Power available if you can
capture all energy in fuel consumed

f H g
Pfe m

BTU
H g 19,000
lb

How Powerful is an Engine?


Depends on where you measure it
Net Power
Brake power - at the flywheel

Pb 2 Tb N c

How Powerful is an Engine?


Depends on where its measured
At the piston

pime DN
Pi
2

Indicated mean effective pressure - an


average

Friction power = Pi - Pb

Efficiencies
Thermodynamic efficiency for an
engine (really any thermodynamic
process) is ratio of work out to heat
W
put in:
e
Q

Also can be defined as power out


divided
by power in

Engine Efficiency
Efficiencies
Indicated thermal
Mechanical

P
em b
Pi

Brake thermal

eit

Pb
ebt
Pfe

Pi
Pfe

Example Torque, HP Curves


Cat 525 skidder
CAT 3126 engine

Rated 230 bhp at 2200 rpm

Torque and HP Curves


For the CAT 525
skidder (3126 engine)

Timberjack 460D
A John Deere
6068H engine

Intermittent 211
bhp
Continuous 189 bhp
Both at 2000 rpm

Torque and HP Curves


John Deere
6068H
engine

Torque Reserve
Percent increase in torque available
compared to that at rated speed
Torque at rated speed =
554 ft-lb
Max torque = 664 ft-lb
Torque reserve =
(664 - 554) / 554 = 20%
Rated engine
speed = 2000
rpm

Gas VS Diesel
Same (nearly) displacement, 2.5L
Diesel

Gas

Measuring Engine Power


Dynamometer
Absorption Dyno
Load Cell

Pb 2 T N

Measuring Engine Power


Chassis Dyno

Measure angular
acceleration of
spinning weight

Engine Efficiency
Efficiency is relative amount of work
we get out of an engine compared to
amount of heat energy we put in.
Thermal efficiency
Compare gas and diesel engines
Talk about fuel injection and combustion
in diesel engines

Pressure - Volume
Diagrams
Graph of pressure as a function of
cylinder volume above the piston

Bottom Dead
Center - volume
is maximum

Top Dead
Center - volume
is minimum

Cylinder Volume
Change in volume as piston goes up
and down

Volume going

TDC

Volume going

Volume

Change in Volume

BDC

TDC

BDC

Bottom Dead Center


Start of compression stroke volume above piston filled
with fuel/air mixture

Pressure

P-V Diagram - Gas Engine

TDC

BDC

Volume

Piston travels up,


fuel/air compressed
and pressure rises

Pressure

P-V Diagram - Gas Engine

TDC

BDC

Volume

P-V Diagram - Gas Engine

End of compression stroke volume in cylinder at a


minimum

Pressure

Top Dead Center

TDC

BDC

Volume

Then have an
instantaneous
introduction of heat,
which increases
pressure again

COMBUSTION

Pressure

P-V Diagram - Gas Engine

TDC

BDC

Volume

P-V Diagram - Gas Engine

Pressure

Power Stroke

TDC

BDC

Volume
Pressure forces piston down,
creating torque on crank shaft

P-V Diagram - Gas Engine

Pressure

Piston reaches
bottom dead center
again, exhaust valve
opens, burned
fuel/air expelled

TDC

BDC

Volume

Gas Engine Efficiency


Remember, efficiency is work out
divided by heat in
P-V diagram tells us both things
Pressure

Work out: area


between curves

Heat in:
temperature
change from
burning fuel

TDC

BDC

Volume

And, make a few


assumptions, can calculate
efficiency

Gas Engine Efficiency

Then efficiency can


1 be
e 1 0.4
r
shown to be:

Higher
efficiency means
higher compression ratio.

Pressure

Define compression ratio


as:

VBDC
VTDC

TDC

BDC

Volume

Diesel Engine Efficiency

Efficiency works out to


C
be:
e 1
r 0.4

Constant pressure heat


injection - happens as
piston moves down

Pressure

Same approach,
slightly different cycle:
constant pressure
heat injection

TDC

BDC

Volume

Gas vs Diesel
Which is more efficient?

1
r 0.4
C
Diesel e 1 0.4
r
Gas

e 1

C is always bigger than 1, so gas is

more efficient at the same


compression ratio

Comparison of Fords
Expedition: 4.6L SOHC
2V V8 engine
Compression ratio = 9.4:1

F-250 SD, 6.0L Power


Stroke diesel 32V V8
Compression ratio = 18:1

Diesel Combustion
A better thermodynamic model: Dual
cycle

Pressure

Constant volume and constant pressure


heat injection

TDC

BDC

Volume

Diesel Combustion
Control of a diesel engine is through
injection duration
Maximum Load

Pressure

Pressure

Low or Partial Load

TDC

BDC

Volume

TDC

BDC

Volume

Diesel Efficiency

Pressure

Pressure

A diesel is at peak efficiency at


partial load
Most Efficient: SI Engine

TDC

BDC

Volume

Low or Partial Load

TDC

BDC

Volume

Fuel Injection In CI Engines


There are three distinct phases of
fuel injection:
Delay period
Injection starts, but not combustion

Rapid combustion
Large pressure spike

Diffusion combustion

Fuel Injection In CI Engines


Cylinder Pressure
Diffusion Combustion smoke
Rapid Combustion
- knock
Delay Period

Fuel Injection In CI Engines


7% decrease in air
density per 1000m
altitude

Less air means less fuel required

Fuel injection system has


to compensate for air
density to minimize
smoke output

CI Engine Combustion
Chambers
Two types:
Indirect (divided
chamber) injection
- into a precombustion
chamber

CI Engine Combustion
Chambers
Two types:
Direct injection into cylinder

Combustion Chamber
Comparison
Indirect
Good
Excellent mixing, turbulence characteristics
Can burn lower quality fuel

Lower injection pressure


Less pronounced knock

Combustion Chamber
Comparison
Indirect
Bad
Very high temperature/pressure in injection
chamber
Higher emissions, especially NOx

Harder to start - glow plugs


Less efficient

Combustion Chamber
Comparison
Direct
Bad
Pressure rise can be
great, knock
High injection pressure,
high quality fuel

Combustion Chamber
Comparison
Direct
Good
Lower specific fuel
consumption - 20%
Lower emissions
Bigger valves, higher
volumetric efficiency

Direct Injection
Air-fuel mixing important
Controlled by:
Use of swirl-inducing designs
Intake port geometry
Piston cap geometry

Injection system design


High pressure
Many nozzle holes
Positioning

Bad: high-tech injection system


Good: Higher volumetric efficiency

Injection Systems
Control of injection amount, timing,
pressure are critical
CAT 525 engine:
Tier 1 compliant
Mechanical control of injection

TJ 460D engine
Tier 2 compliant
Electronic control of injection

Diesel Fuel Characteristics


Cetane number
Measure of relative ease to initiate
combustion
Higher number: easier to ignite

Octane number for gas: opposite


Higher number: less tendency to ignite