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You are on page 1of 91

March 25, 2013

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department

Florida Institute of Technology

D. R. Kirk

Next week, we will finish Chapter 5 in Anderson

For next weeks lecture: Chapter 5, Sections 5.13-5.19

Problems: 5.7, 5.11, 5.13, 5.15, 5.17, 5.19

DUE: Friday, March 29, 2013 by 5pm

Turn in hard copy of homework

Also be sure to review and be familiar with textbook examples in Chapter 5

Do as complete of a literature review as your team can

Pick an altitude and pick an engine and tell me why

5.7: Cp = -3.91

5.11: Cp = -0.183

Be careful here, if you check the Mach number it is around 0.71, so the flow is

compressible and the formula for Cp based on Bernoullis equation is not valid. To

calculate the pressure coefficient, first calculate from the equation of state and find

the temperature from the energy equation. Finally make use of the isentropic relations

and the definition of Cp given in Equation 5.27

5.13: cl = 0.97

Make use of Prandtl-Glauert rule

Use graphical technique of Section 5.9

Verify using Excel or Matlab

5.17: = 30

5.19: D = 366 lb

Remember that in steady, level flight the airplanes lift must balance its weight

You may also assume that all lift is derived from the wings (this is not really true

because the fuselage and horizontal tail also contribute to the airplane lift). Also

assume that the wings can be approximated by a thin flat plate

Remember that Equation 5.50 gives in radians

1. Pressure, p, distribution on surface

Acts normal to surface

2. Shear stress, w, (friction) on surface

Acts tangentially to surface

Pressure and shear are in units of force per unit area (N/m 2)

Net unbalance creates an aerodynamic force

No matter how complex the flow field, and no matter how complex the shape of

the body, the only way nature has of communicating an aerodynamic force to a

solid object or surface is through the pressure and shear stress distributions that

exist on the surface.

The pressure and shear stress distributions are the two hands of nature that

reach out and grab the body, exerting a force on the body the aerodynamic

force

We use subscript to indicate far upstream conditions

Angle of Attack, Angle between relative wind (V) and chord line

Total aerodynamic force, R, can be resolved into two force components

Lift, L: Component of aerodynamic force perpendicular to relative wind

Drag, D: Component of aerodynamic force parallel to relative wind

MORE DEFINITIONS

A moment (torque) is a force times a distance

Value of induced moment depends on point about which moments are taken

Moments about leading edge, M LE, or quarter-chord point, c/4, M c/4

In general MLE Mc/4

F1

F2

Lift, Drag, and Moments on a airfoil or wing change as changes

designers

Aerodynamic Center

Point about which moments essentially do not vary with

Mac=constant (independent of )

For low speed airfoils aerodynamic center is near quarter-chord

point, c/4

AOA = 2

AOA = 3

AOA = 6

AOA = 9

AOA = 12

AOA = 20

AOA = 60

AOA = 90

Angle of Attack,

A symmetric airfoil generates zero lift at zero

Angle of Attack,

A cambered airfoil generates positive lift at zero

Lift (for now)

lift at =0

At negative airfoil

will have zero lift

variation with angle of attack, a

Cambered airfoils have

positive lift when a = 0

Symmetric airfoils have

zero lift when a = 0

At high enough angle of attack,

performance of airfoil rapidly

degrades stall

What is stall?

Can we predict it?

Can we design for it?

understanding of viscous flows (all real flows have friction)

This is called dAlemberts paradox

Must include friction (viscosity, ) in theory

Flow adheres to surface because of friction between gas and solid boundary

At surface flow velocity is zero, called No-Slip Condition

Thin region of retarded flow in vicinity of surface, called a Boundary Layer

At outer edge of B.L., V

At solid boundary, V=0

The presence of friction in the flow causes a shear stress at the surface of a body,

which, in turn contributes to the aerodynamic drag of the body: skin friction drag

p.219, Section 4.20

influenced by friction and is viscous

(boundary layer flow)

Stall (separation) is a viscous phenomena

Flow away from airfoil is not influenced

by friction and is essentially inviscid

Reynolds number is ratio of two forces:

Inertial Forces

Viscous Forces

c is length scale (chord)

Reynolds number tells you when viscous forces are important and when viscosity

may be neglected

V c

Re

Inviscid (high Re)

highly viscous

(low Re)

All B.L.s transition from

laminar to turbulent

Turbulent velocity

profiles are fuller

FLOW SEPARATION

Separation then creates another form of drag called pressure drag due to separation

1. B.L. either laminar or turbulent

2. All laminar B.L. turbulent B.L.

3. Turbulent B.L. fuller than laminar B.L., more resistant to separation

Separation creates another form of drag called pressure drag due to separation

Dramatic loss of lift and increase in drag

1. Skin friction due to shear stress at wall

2. Pressure drag due to flow separation

D D friction D pressure

Total drag due to

Drag due to

=

viscous effects

skin friction

Called Profile Drag

More for turbulent

Drag due to

separation

More for laminar

Less for turbulent

Depends on case by case basis, no definitive answer!

Note messy or

turbulent flow pattern

High drag

Lower fuel efficiency

Spoiler angle

increased by + 5

Flow behavior more

closely resembles a

laminar flow

Tremendous savings

(< $10,000/yr) on

Miami-NYC route

V, , Wing Area (S), Wing Shape, , compressibility

1

L V2 Scl

2

L

L

cl

1

V2 S q S

2

cl f , M , Re

(called similarity parameters)

M, Re

M, Re

cl, cd, cm identical

Behavior of L, D, and M depend on , but also on velocity and altitude

V, , Wing Area (S), Wing Shape, , compressibility

Characterize behavior of L, D, M with coefficients (cl, cd, cm)

1

L V2 Scl

2

L

L

cl

1

V2 S q S

2

cl f1 , M , Re

1

D V2 Scd

2

D

D

cd

1

V2 S q S

2

cd f 2 , M , Re

1

V2 Sccm

2

M

L

cm

1

V2 Sc q Sc

2

cm f 3 , M , Re

M

Comment on Notation:

We use lower case, cl, cd, and cm for infinite wings (airfoils)

We use upper case, CL, CD, and CM for finite wings

Flow separation

Stall

Lift Coefficient

cl

Moment Coefficient

cm, c/4

NACA 23012 WING SECTION

Re dependence at high

Separation and Stall

Dependent on Re

cl vs.

Independent of Re

cd

cl

cd vs.

R=Re

cm,a.c.

cm,c/4

cl

NACA 1408 WING SECTION

Effective increase in camber of airfoil

Flap extended

Flap retracted

over top (suction surface) and bottom

(pressure surface)

distribution

Pressure distribution in aerodynamic literature often given as C p

So why do we care?

Distribution of Cp leads to value of cl

Easy to get pressure data in wind tunnels

Shows effect of M on cl

p p

p p

Cp

1

q

V2

2

EXAMPLE: CP CALCULATION

COMPRESSIBILITY CORRECTION:

EFFECT OF M ON CP

C p ,0

p p

1

V2

2

Cp = Cp,0 = 0.5 = const

COMPRESSIBILITY CORRECTION:

EFFECT OF M ON CP

Cp

C p ,0

1 M 2

0.5

1 M 2

Cp = Cp,0 = 0.5 = const

Effect of compressibility

(M > 0.3) is to increase

absolute magnitude of Cp as

M increases

Called: Prandtl-Glauert Rule

M

Prandtl-Glauert rule applies for 0.3 < M < 0.7

1

cl C p ,lower C p ,upper dx

c0

cl

cl , 0

1 M 2

If M0 > 0.3, use a compressibility correction for C p, and cl

Compressibility corrections gets poor above M 0 ~ 0.7

This is because shock waves may start to form over parts of airfoil

Many proposed correction methods, but a very good on is: Prandtl-Glauert Rule

Cp,0 and cl,0 are the low-speed (uncorrected) pressure and lift coefficients

This is lift coefficient from Appendix D in Anderson

Cp and cl are the actual pressure and lift coefficients at M

Cp

C p ,0

1 M

cl

cl , 0

1 M

As air expands around top surface near leading edge, velocity and M will increase

Local M > M

sonic regions even though

freestream M < 1

INCREASED DRAG!

MCR

Thicker airfoil

Which has higher critical Mach number?

Thinner airfoil

Which is better?

Application dependent!

to chord in all cases

Ex. NACA 0012 12 %

English Sopwith Camel

Bracing wires required high drag

Higher maximum CL

Internal wing structure

Higher rates of climb

Improved maneuverability

A-10

Root: NACA 6716

TIP: NACA 6713

F-15

Root: NACA 64A(.055)5.9

TIP: NACA 64A203

Boeing 737

Root

Mid-Span

Tip

http://www.nasg.com/afdb/list-airfoil-e.phtml

c d cd , f cd , p cd , w

Profile Drag

Profile Drag

coefficient relatively

constant with M at

subsonic speeds

supersonic speeds

Dwave=0 for subsonic speeds

below Mdrag-divergence

FINITE WINGS

High AR

Aspect Ratio

b: wingspan

S: wing area

2

b

AR

S

Low AR

Low Pressure

Low Pressure

High Pre

ssure

Lower surface (underside of wing): high pressure

re

u

s

s

e

r

P

High

Wing tip vortices induce a small downward component of air velocity near

wing by dragging surrounding air with them

Downward component of velocity is called downwash, w

Chord line

Two Consequences:

1. Increase in drag, called induced drag (drag due to lift)

2. Angle of attack is effectively reduced, eff as compared with V

Cho

rd l

Relative Wind, V

ine

geometric

geometric: what you see, what you would see in a wind tunnel

Simply look at angle between incoming relative wind and chord line

This is a case of no wing-tips (infinite wing)

Cho

rd l

ine

effective

Local Rel

ative Win

d, V

effective: what the airfoil sees locally

Angle between local flow direction and chord line

Small than geometric because of downwash

The wing-tips have caused this local relative wind to be angled downward

geometric: what you see, what you would see in a wind tunnel

Simply look at angle between incoming relative wind and chord line

effective: what the airfoil sees locally

Angle between local flow direction and chord line

Small than geometric because of downwash

induced: difference between these two angles

Downwash has induced this change in angle of attack

LIFT

Relative Wind, V

Finite Wing Case

LIFT is still always perpendicular to the RELATIVE WIND

Finite Wing Case

Induced Drag, Di

direction that the airplane is flying)

Lift vector is tilted back

Component of L acts in direction parallel to incoming relative wind

results in a new type of drag

3 PHYSICAL INTERPRETATIONS

component of L acts in direction normal to incoming relative wind

2. Wing tip vortices alter surface pressure distributions in direction of

increased drag

3. Vortices contain rotational energy put into flow by propulsion system to

overcome induced drag

V

eff

Finite Wing

Infinite Wing

(Appendix D)

C L cl

C D cd

Di L sin i

Di L i

Lift vector remains perpendicular to local relative wind and is tiled back

through an angle i

Tilted lift vector contributes a drag component

Profile Drag

Profile Drag

coefficient relatively

constant with M at

subsonic speeds

D D profile Dinduced

C D cd , profile

Look up

Di

q S

Inviscid theory:

Lifting line theory

High AR

Aspect Ratio

b: wingspan

S: wing area

2

b

AR

S

b

Low AR

Lift/unit span varies elliptically along span

This special case produces a uniform downwash

CL

i

AR

Key Results:

Elliptical Lift Distribution

CL

C L2

Di L i L

q S

AR

AR

Di

C L2

q S AR

C D ,i

C L2

AR

For a wing with same airfoil shape across span and no twist, an elliptical lift

distribution is characteristic of an elliptical wing plan form

Example: Supermarine Spitfire

Key Results:

Elliptical Lift Distribution

CL

i

AR

C L2

C D ,i

AR

For all wings in general

Define a span efficiency factor, e (also called span efficiency factor)

Elliptical planforms, e = 1

The word planform means shape as view by looking down on the wing

For all other planforms, e < 1

0.85 < e < 0.99

C D ,i

2

L

eAR

Inversely related to AR

Drag due to lift

DRAG POLAR

2

L

C

C D cd

eAR

Total Drag = Profile Drag + Induced Drag

cd

1

2

L W V SC L

2

U2

Cruise at 70,000 ft

Air density highly reduced

Flies at slow speeds, low q

high angle of attack, high CL

U2 AR ~ 14.3 (WHY?)

C L2

C D cd

eAR

F-15

Flies at high speed (and lower

altitudes), so high q low

angle of attack, low CL

F-15 AR ~ 3 (WHY?)

EXAMPLE: U2 SPYPLANE

2

L

C

C D cd

eAR

Cruise at 70,000 ft

Out of USSR missile range

Air density, , highly

reduced

In steady-level flight, L = W

1

2

L W V SC L

2

As reduced, CL must

increase (angle of attack must

increase)

AR CD

U2 AR ~ 14.3

U2 stall speed at altitude is only ten knots (18 km/h) less than its maximum speed

2

L

C

C D cd

eAR

Flies at high speed at low

angle of attack low CL

Induced drag < Profile Drag

Low AR, Low S

1

2

L W V SC L

2

U2 CRASH DETAILS

http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/dl/U2Incident/u2documents.html

NASA issued a very detailed press release noting that an aircraft had gone missing north

of Turkey

I must tell you a secret. When I made my first report I deliberately did not say that the pilot

was alive and well and now just look how many silly things [the Americans] have said.

NASA U2

RECONNAISANCE AIRCRAFT

Wingspan: 79.8 m

AR: 7.53

GTOW: 560 T

Wing Loading: GTOW/b2: 87.94

Wingspan: 68.5 m

AR: 7.98

GTOW: 440 T

Wing Loading: GTOW/b2: 93.77

AIRPORT ACCOMODATIONS

http://www.askcaptainlim.com/blog/index.php?catid=19

Now, to go back on your question on why the Airbus A380 did not follow the

Airbus A330/340 winglet design but rather more or less imitate the old design

wingtip fences of the Airbus A320. Basically winglets help to reduce induced

drag and improve performance (also increases aspect ratio slightly). However, the

Airbus A380 has very large wing area due to the large wingspan that gives it a

high aspect ratio. So, it need not have to worry about aspect ratio but needs only

to tackle the induced drag problem. Therefore, it does not require the winglets, but

merely wingtip fences similar to those of the Airbus A320.

Consider Boeing 777 does not have winglets

Aspect ratio can be over 40

All out attempt to reduce induced drag

What we learned from the '24 regarding boundary layer control led us to believe

that we could move the trip line back onto the control surfaces and still be

"practical".

Infinite Wing

Finite Wing

measure is the geometric angle of attack

angle of attack

The angle you see = the angle the

infinite wing sees

angle of attack

The angle you see the angle the

finite wing sees

geom eff i

geom= eff + i

geom eff i

Infinite Wing

Finite Wing

than corresponding curve for an infinite wing

with same airfoil cross-section

Figure (a) shows infinite wing, i = 0, so

plot is CL vs. geom or eff and slope is a0

Figure (b) shows finite wing, i 0

Plot CL vs. what we see, geom, (or what

would be easy to measure in a wind

tunnel), not what wing sees, eff

Finite wing lift slope = = dCL/d

2. At CL = 0, i = 0, so L=0 same for infinite or

finite wings

cl

Infinite wing:

AR=

Infinite wing:

AR=10

cl=1.0

Infinite wing:

AR=5

geom

cl

Infinite wing:

AR=

Infinite wing:

AR=10

cl=1.0

Infinite wing:

AR=5

geom

Zero-lift angle of attack independent of AR

Properties of a finite wing differ in two major respects from infinite wings:

1. Addition of induced drag

2. Lift curve for a finite wing has smaller slope than corresponding lift curve for

infinite wing with same airfoil cross section

SUMMARY

Airplane on take-off or landing, induced drag major component

Significant at cruise (15-25% of total drag)

Desire high AR to reduce induced drag

Compromise between structures and aerodynamics

AR important tool as designer (more control than span efficiency, e)

For an elliptic lift distribution, chord must vary elliptically along span

Wing planform is elliptical

Elliptical lift distribution gives good approximation for arbitrary finite wing

through use of span efficiency factor, e

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