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THE CONCEPT

THE MAGRA HIGH-RATE THICKENER


WAS DEVELOPED TO FULFILL THE ROLE OF A
THICKENER, REACTOR AND CLARIFIER
THE ADVANTAGES
MOST AFFORDABLE & VERSATILE HIGH-RATE
THICKENER ON THE MARKET
BEST PERFORMANCE PER UNIT AREA AND
SMALLEST FOOTPRINT OF ANY THICKENER
THICKENING COMBINED WITH CLARIFICATION
NO MOVING PARTS
MINIMAL MAINTENANCE AND LOWEST
OPERATING COST OF ALL THICKENERS
QUICK RESPONSE AND LITTLE RESIDENCE
TIME WITH ZERO LOCK-UP
PATENT PROTECTED

PASTE WITHOUT PAIN


MAGRA HIGH PERFORANCE
CLARIFICATION
THICKENER/REACTOR/CLARIFIER

REACTOR
THICKENING

THE DESIGN

1. CYLINDRICAL CONICAL TANK TO MAINTAIN


HIGH-RATE THICKENING, PURE OVERFLOW
CLARITY AND HIGH UNDERFLOW DENSITY
2. FEED PIPE CULMINATING IN BULLHORNS
FOR REDUCED DISCHARGE VELOCITY
3. SLOPED HEIGHT ADJUSTABLE OVERFLOW
LAUNDER PROVIDES SELF CLEANING

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4. MIXING CHAMBER DESIGNED FOR NON


DESRUCTIVE,THOROUGH SLURRY AND
FLOCCULANT MIXING
5. CENTRAL DEWATERING PIPE & COLLECTOR
CONE FOR INTERNAL DILUTION CYCLE

6. CONICAL BAFFLE TO SUSPEND FLOC BED


AND PROVIDE AN INCLINED SURFACE FOR
CONSOLIDATION
7 CONSOLIDATION CONE FOR EFFICIENT
AND RAPID DEWATERING
8. DRAW OFF BOX DESIGNED FOR SUSTAINED
UNDERFLOW WITHDRAWAL AND EASE OF
MAINTENANCE

HOW IT COMES TOGETHER LOW DENSITY FEED


A suspension of solid particles in the carrier liquid at low
density enters the mixing chamber and mixes with the
flocculant. The mixing chamber extends down to the
free settling zone. The downward velocity of the
suspension suddenly decreases passing from the
mixing chamber (small diameter) to the thickener tank
(larger diameter).
The sudden decrease in the downward velocity allows the
large particles to settle out.
The small particles are carried upward and accelerate
through the annular throat creating turbulence and
collisions. The settling velocity of the fines particles
increases as the particles grow larger. The upward flow
velocity above the throat decreases until the top of the
conical baffle is reached. When the settling velocity of
the particles exceeds the upward velocity, the particles
start to drop downwards and on its downward path
collisions occur with upward moving particles. This
causes agglomeration and the particles finally become
large and heavy enough to drop back through the
annular throat into the free settling zone. The fines
particles form a floc bed which act as a filter and a
clarified zone is formed above the floc bed. Clarified
liquid overflows into the overflow launder.
The fines particles dropping down from the floc bed mixes
with the feed exiting from the mixing chamber diverted
by the collector cone. Coagulation of fines now takes
place and fewer fines are carried upward through the
throat. This increases the capacity of the Magra
Thickener far beyond any other known unit.

FLOW DIAGRAM FOR


LOW DENSITY FEED

The passage of solids particles exiting the mixing


chamber and annular throat are intercepted
by the inclined surfaces of the consolidation
cone. Consolidation takes place and the
particles slide or roll down the inclined
surfaces. Liquid separating the solids is
displaced and collects below the collector
cone. Some liquid returns to the free settling
zone resulting in continuous dilution of the
free settling zone leading to faster settling of
solids particles.
Liquid collected under the collector cone move up
the dewatering pipe. Upward movement of the
liquid in the dewatering pipe is caused by the
difference in pressure at position 1 (liquid
pressure) and position 2 (pressure due to
liquid zone above floc bed plus floc bed
density and feed density). The liquid in the
dewatering pipe contains unspent flocculant
which overflows into the mixing chamber and
thereby acts to dilute and flocculate the feed.
A continuous internal dilution cycle is
created. Dilution further reduces flocculant
consumption and settling rate is increased.
Density increases with consolidation and
compaction due to the inter-granular contact
pressure between the particles. The depth of
the compaction zone can be used to control
the underflow density. With an increase in
height, the residence time increases and
together with the additional pressure being
exerted on the compaction zone allows for
liquid to escape from the compaction zone
thereby further increasing the density.

FLOW DIAGRAM FOR


LOW DENSITY FEED

HIGH DENSITY FEED UP TO 55% SOLIDS!!


UNDERFLOW DENSITY UP TO 73%
SOLIDS
A suspension of solids particles in the carrier
liquid at high density enters the mixing
chamber and mixes with the flocculant.
Because of the high density of the
suspension there will be a level displacement
in the mixing chamber. The top edge of the
mixing chamber is modified to include Vnotches similar in shape to the overflow
launder V-notches. A portion of the overflow
is diverted into the mixing chamber.
A second internal dilution cycle is now created
with an increase in the upward flow velocity.
Much less dewatering is required at high feed
density compared with low feed density to
obtain the same underflow density. Increasing
the up flow velocity to the previous low
density condition will not affect the operation
or the overflow clarity.
The thickener again operates like a low feed
density unit. Flocculant consumption is at the
same level as a low feed density unit.
The Magra High-Rate Thickener is self regulatory
and both the internal dewatering cycles
adjust automatically to accommodate feed
conditions and provide for reliable operation.

FLOW DIAGRAM FOR


HIGH FEED DENSITY