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Methods for Testing

Transformer Differential
Relays Applied to DeltaGrounded Wye Transformers
Using Single-Phase
Test
Tom Ernst
GE Digital Energy
Currents
Craig Talbot
Minnesota Power

Texas A&M Relay Conference 2015

Agenda
Introduction
Traditional 3-phase testing method
Traditional 1-phase testing method
Alternate 1-phase testing method
Application examples

Introduction:
3-Phase testing can be challenging
Straight forward magnitude & phase
angles
Requires 6 high-current test set channels

1-phase testing
Requires only 2 high-current test set
channels
Requires non-obvious multipliers
Does not simulate real-world loading on
Delta-wye transformers

There is always a way to do this

Introduction:
Alternate 1-phase testing method
Requires only 2 high-current test set
channels
Simulates real-world 1-phase loading
conditions
No phase shifts
No non-obvious multipliers
Suitable for commission testing: tests the
transformer installation not the relay
settings

Traditional 3-phase testing:


Slope characteristic tests
Requires simultaneous injection of test
currents into a minimum of 2 relay
windings
Some test sets do not include 6 highcurrent channels

Magnitude relationship of the currents


based on the transformer 3-phase
voltage ratio

Traditional 3-phase testing:


Slope characteristic tests
Phase shift between test currents can
be challenging for delta grd wye
transformers
Function of the transformer internal and
external connections: phases A, B & C
might not be on bushings 1, 2 & 3
Requires thorough understanding of 3phase power
Same transformer can be 30 lag or 30
lead

Traditional 3-phase testing:


Typical
delta - grd
wye
transformer
and
associated
3-phase
test
currents
(30 lag)

Traditional 3-phase testing:


Typical
delta - grd
wye
transformer
with rolled
phasing
and
associated
3-phase
test
currents

Traditional 3-phase testing:


3-Phase
testing
connection
s for a 30
lag
transforme
r

Traditional 1-phase testing:


Slope characteristic tests
Checks the functionality of each phase
Only requires 2 current channels
May require multipliers and phase
shifts that are not obvious (Delta Grd
Wye transformers)

Traditional 1-phase testing:

1-Phase
testing
connection
s

Some
alternate
ideas are
better than
others

Alternate 1-phase testing:


Slope characteristic tests
Connections are related to the
transformer internal and external 3line diagrams
Very affective for commissioning

Simulates real-world load and short


circuit conditions
No non-obvious multipliers
No non-obvious phase shifts

Alternate 1-phase testing:


Differentially
balanced 1phase
throughcurrent for a
delta - grd
wye transf
(30 lag)

Alternate 1-phase testing:


Differentially
balanced 1phase test
connections
for a delta grd wye
transf (30
lag)

Alternate 1-phase testing:


Differentially
balanced 1phase
throughcurrent for a
delta - grd
wye transf
(30 lead)

Alternate 1-phase testing:


Differentially
balanced 1phase test
connections
for a delta grd wye
transf (30
lead)

Alternate 1-phase testing:


Slope characteristic tests
Test currents calculated based on
N1/N2 turns-ratio not voltage ratio
3 multiplier inherent
No 0-seq filtering multiplier required
Currents always 180 apart

Test results clearly indicate if


differential phase shift is set correctly

Alternate 1-phase testing:

Differentially balanced through-current


condition with correct phase shift setting

Alternate 1-phase testing:

Differentially balanced through-current


condition with incorrect phase shift

Alternate 1-phase testing:

Slope verification with angle of winding 2


rolled until relay trips. S = 0.13/0.50 =

Alternate 1-phase testing:


Test connections for a 2 winding 30
degree lag delta-wye connection
transformer
Test
ID
A
B
C

Winding 1
Winding 2 (wye)
(delta)
connections
connections
In on A & out on C A
In on B & out on A B
In on C & out on B C

Alternate 1-phase testing:


Test connections for a 2 winding 30
degree lead delta-wye connection
transformer
Test
ID
A
B
C

Winding 1
Winding 2 (wye)
(delta)
connections
connections
In on A & out on B A
In on B & out on C B
In on C & out on A C

Wake up.
This is the
interesting
part

Application Example 1: 30
Lag
Transformer
nameplate

Application Example 1: 30
Lag
3-line
installation
diagram
-differentially
balanced 1phase load

Application Example 1: 30
Lag

Test definitions

Application Example 2: 30
Lead

Transformer

Application Example 2: 30
Lead
3-line
installation
diagram
-differentially
balanced 1phase load

Application Example 2: 30
Lead

Test definitions

Incorrect Operation Analysis


Transformer differential tripped on
external feeder fault
Caused by wrong angle setting
Alternate method not used
No load available at time of construction
for in-service checks

Using the alternate method might


have prevented the trip

Incorrect Operation Example

Waveform Capture

Conclusion:
Traditional 3-phase testing method can
be challenging
Traditional 1-phase testing method
does not simulate real-world loading
Alternate 1-phase testing method
simulates real-world and tests the
settings against the installation

Thank You
Questions?