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Generator Principles

Generator Construction
Excitation System
Operational aspects
Generator Protections

Alternator:
An Alternator is an equipment which
converts Mechanical Energy into
Electrical Energy.

Sources of Mechanical Energy

Steam Turbines
Gas Turbines
Hydraulic Turbines
Other sources

This forms the basis for the conversion of


Mechanical Energy into Electrical Energy.
This can be presented in two forms which are
applicable to the operation of Generators.

N
R
Y
B
S

When a Rotating Magnetic Field cuts the conductors,


Voltage is induced in them.

This is applicable to the main generator

S
+
_

When a Rotating conductor cuts the Magnetic Field ,


Voltage is induced in the conductor.
This applicable to the Exciter.

A DC Voltage is applied to the Rotor and it


becomes a Magnet
When this magnet is rotated,it induces
voltage in the stator windings

STATOR
ROTOR
EXCITER
SLIP RINGS
BRUSHES
BEARINGS
COOLING SYSTEM

PROVIDED FOR EXTERNAL


EXCITATION
USED FOR ROTOR EARTH FAULT
PROTECTION

SLEEVE BEARINGS ARE USED


THEY ARE MADE OF WHITE METALS
NDE SIDE BEARING IS INSULATED TO
AVOID SHAFT CURRENT CURRENT
CIRCULATION

Stator frame
: Mild steel
Stator core
: Silicon steel laminations
Stator windings : Copper strips
End shield
: Aluminum alloy
Rotor poles
: Alloy steel
Rotor coils
: Silver alloyed copper

To take away the heat dissipated in the


stator and the rotor
Maximum loading of the machine depends
on the effectiveness of cooling system.

AIR COOLING

WATER COOLING

- For medium ratings

HYDROGEN COOLING

- For higher ratings

For low ratings

TO SUPPLY THE FIELD WINDING OF THE


GENERATOR WITH DC CURRENT AND
CONTROL IT
THIS KEEPS THE TERMINAL VOLTAGE
CONSTANT
ENSURES PROPER REACTIVE POWER
SHARING
IMPROVES STABILITY

STATOR
ROTOR

STATOR

DIODE

ROTOR

SHAFT
ROTOR

RECTIFIER

ROTOR
STATOR

STATOR
Powering
11
KV
RESIDUAL MAGNETISM
PT
AVR
Feedback

STATOR
ROTOR

STATOR

+
DIODE

STATOR
ROTOR

MAGNET

ROTOR

MAGNET

SHAFT
ROTOR

RECTIFIER

STATOR
STATOR

STATOR
11 KV

Feed back

PT

AVR
Powering

POWERING

Aux. power

Aux. power

Reference

AC - DC
CONVERTER

+
TO EXCITER
-

FIRING PULSE
GENERATOR

CONTROLLER

REFERENCE

FEEDBACK

PROCESSING

PROCESSING

Feedback

There are two identical AVRs present


The AVR will not come into line unless the
turbine reaches 85% of full speed
One of the AVR will be on line and the other
one will remain as standby.
If the main AVR fails , then the stand by AVR
will automatically come onto line
A manual excitation control provision also
exists

Parameters List:

Voltage
Frequency
Active power
Reactive power
Excitation voltage / current
Power Factor

Frequency - Real power


f
NL
FSR 3
FSR 2
FSR 1

FL

FL

Voltage - Reactive Power:


V
NL

IF 3
IF 2

FL

IF 1

FL

TURBINE REACHES FULL SPEED

CLOSE THE FIELD BREAKER

BUILD UP VOLTAGE TO 11KV

SYNCHRONISATION

INCREASE THE LOAD

ISLAND OPERATION

PARALLEL OPERATION

6 MW

GT-A

6 MW

LOADS

Real and Reactive power supplied will be the amount demanded by the Load.

FIELD
GOVERNOR
CURRENT
SETDECIDES
POINT DECIDES
THE TERMINAL
THE FREQUENCY
VOLTAGE

More load in shared condition.


Increase in Reliability.
Flexibility in Maintenance.

GT-A

LOADS

GT-B

YES
ARE
THE
FREQUENCIES
SAME?
ARE
THE
VOLTAGES
SAME?
ARE
THE
PHASE
SEQUENCES
SAME?

37 MW

7 MW

GT-A

LOAD

4 MW

GT-B

LOAD
DEMAND
IS BETWEEN
CONSTANT
LOAD
HAS TO
BE SHARED
THEM

GT-A

6 MW

3 MW

GT-B

1MW 4 MW

TO SUMMARISE:
Load demand is constant
Increase in Governor set point of one Generator
increases the system frequency and Real power on
that Generator
Increase in Field current of one Generator increases
the system voltage and Reactive power on that
Generator

Voltage and Frequency are constant i.e not in our control


f

WHEN INCOMING FREQUENCY IS GREATER THAN GRID:


APTRANSCO

PAPTRANSCO

GT-A

PGT

GT-A TAKES PART OF LOAD

WHEN INCOMING FREQUENCY IS LESSER THAN GRID:


APTRANSCO

PAPTRANSCO -PGT

GT-A

P
GT-A ACTS AS LOAD

WHEN THE GOVERNOR SET POINT OF GT-A INCREASES:


APSEB

6 MW 4 MW 2 MW

GT-A

1 MW 3 MW 5 MW

Voltage and Frequency are fixed by GRID


Governor set point decides the Real Power
Field current decides the Reactive power

To prevent the equipment from severe


damages during fault conditions
To continuously track the various
parameters and isolate the equipment when
they deviate from the set value

Over current Protection


Stator Earth Fault Protection
Rotor Earth Fault Protection
Differential Protection
Unbalance Protection
Reverse power Protection
Loss of Excitation Protection
Over / Under Frequency Protection
Over / Under voltage Protection

CTS

Winding

Winding

Winding

B
O/C OCCURS

I > 540 A
NGR

RELAY

Relay operates in t sec

It monitors the overloading pattern of the generator


and trips incase of heavy loading
It follows an Inverse curve and so it trips in less time
for a higher current
The set point initiates the relay typically at 540 A
t

I >15.2 A or
20 A

Winding

Winding

Winding

CT
RELAY
Relay
operates
NGR

The star point of the Generator is earthed


through a Resistor to limit Earth fault
current
So whenever an Earth fault occurs , the fault
current flows through NGR
When the neutral current exceeds the set
value , the relay operates

This relay senses any earth fault present in the


rotor
It measures the Earth fault resistance and
operates if it falls below set value
The measurement of Earth fault resistance is
done through voltage injection principle

CTS

RELAY

CTS
Winding

Winding

Winding

I > 105 A (OR) 350 A


Relay operates

This relay is to protect the stator winding phase wise


This is the fastest relay available
Under normal condition both the CT currents are same
and the differential current is zero.
But when there exists a fault in the stator winding both
CT currents differ leading to a differential current
When this differential current is more than set value the
relay operates

Unbalance condition arises when the three


phase loads are not same
This relay operates if the percentage of
unbalance exceeds the set value
Typically 8%

To avoid reverse flow of power i.e power


into the generator
In this state Generator will act as a motor
If continues to operate , this will cause
overheating of turbine
Typically 3% ( 5% ) reverse flow

To avoid running the machine without excitation


It works on the principle, Impedance=V/I.
The terminal voltage falls if a sudden heavy load
demand or AVR failure occurs, this will cause the
current to increase and the impedance falls.
The relay is an Impedance relay and it operates
when Impedance falls below certain limit.

UNDER VOLTAGE

= 7.4 KV

OVER VOLTAGE ALARM = 12 KV

; 7.5 KV
; 11.5 KV

OVER VOLTAGE TRIP

= 12.5 KV , 12.5 KV

OVER FREQUENCY

= 51.5 Hz , 52 Hz

UNDER FREQUENCY

= 47 Hz

, 47.5 Hz

DIFFERENTIAL RELAY ACTS


STATOR EARTH FAULT OCCURS
LOSS OF EXCITATION HAPPENS
ROTOR EARTH FAULT EXISTS