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Power electronic Converters for grid integrated

variable speed wind turbine

Gaurav Singh Bhandari ( M.Tech (PED) )

VIT UNIVERSITY, VELLORE


School of Electrical Engineering

Guided By
Dr. M. Kowsalya

Outline
1: Objective
2:Introduction
3:Methodology
4:Block diagram
5:Simulation results
6:References

Objective
To analyse the transient performance and grid impact analysis
capability of a gearless VSWT based on MATLAB/ SIMULINK.
To study the control performance and transient behaviour of a
gearless VSWT under varying wind speeds.

Introduction
Non-renewable energy resources are depleting, inefficient and
pollutes the environment
Future scope is on renewable energy resources such as wind, solar,
fuel cell, etc
Renewable energy taken here for this project is wind. Variable
speed wind turbine is used for modelling and analysis.
Distributed wind generation cannot be connected easily to the
electric grid without the evaluation on control performance and grid
impact

Methodology and block diagram

Fig.1: Methodology and block diagram

The wind model system consists of:


Variable speed wind turbine
AC to DC converter
Voltage source inverter
Transformer and power grid

Design of wind Speed


Wind Speed is a combination of four component(step speed, ramp speed,
Gust Speed, Noise Speed)
Vw = Vgust + Vramp + Vstep + Vnoise
Gust Speed: Vgust is represented by sudden change in speed. It is given
by:
VGust =
VCOS = (MAXG/2){1-cos2[(t/T1G) (T1G/TG)]}
TG = Gust Period in sec(16.66e-3), T1G = Gust starting time in sec(14e-3).
MAXG = Gust peak in mi/sec , t = Time in sec.

Ramp Speed:

Ramp Speed is continous varies with time.

Step Speed: (VStep) = KB (m/sec) ,where KB is a constant.


Noise Speed: VNoise = 2 (i)]1/2 Cos(it + i), t<0
Where i = (I 1/2), I = a random variable on time interval o to
2
2.
Sv(i)= (2KNF2|i|)(2[1 + (Fi/)2]4/3)
Where :
KN = Surface drag coefficient(0.004)
F= Turbulane scale(2000), = Mean wind speed at reference height.
For I =1 Sv(w1) = 0.000002076
For I =2 Sv(w2) = 0.0000003326
For I =3,Sv(w3)= 0.0000001418
For I =4,Sv(w4)= 0.00000008090
For I =5,Sv(w5)= 0.00000005325
For I =6,Sv(w6)= 0.00000003811
For I =7,Sv(w7)= 0.0000000288
For I =8,Sv(w8)= 0.0000000227
For I =9,Sv(w9)= 0.0000000184
For I =10,Sv(w10)= 0.0000000153

Noise Speed

Base Speed, Ramp Speed, Gust Speed, Noise Speed

Wind Speed(Vw )= Vgust + Vramp + Vstep + Vnoise

Wind Speed

Turbine Design
Design of wind Turbine:
Mechanical power extracted from Wind (Pm):
Pm = Cp(, )(PW), PW = 0.5AV3w
( Tip speed)= (RBlade.r/Vw)
Tm(Mechanical Torque)= (Pm/r).
Cp(, )is given by : C1(C2 C3 C42 C5)e-C6 + C7.
Value of power coefficient from C1 to C7 are as follows:
C1 = 0.5, C2 = 116/i, C3 = 0.4, C4 = 0, C5 = 5, C6 = 21/i, C7 =
0.0068.
(1/i)= (1/0.08+) (0.035/3+1)

Pm
PW
Cp(, )

Mechanical power extracted from wind(W)


Kinetic energy contained in wind
Power coefficient of Turbine

A(R2)
R

Air density(kg/m3)
Turbine swept area(m2)
Turbine Radius(m)
Tip speed ratio of the rotor blade tip speed to wind
speed
Wind Speed(m/s)
Generator Speed(Rad/s
Blade Pitch Angle(degree)

Vw
r

Data for Wind Turbine


Design:
Wind Turbine Characteristics

Value

Wind Base Speed

12.35m/s

Rating

2 MW

Air Density

0.55kg/m3

Blade radius

37.5 m

Generator Base Speed

18 rpm

Pitch angle

0 degree

Wind turbine model

Tip Speed()

Cp(, ) For =
0 deg

0.5

0.035

2.5

0.10

4.0

0.13

5.84

0.2413

6.96

0.3311

7.92

0.3925

8.6

0.4307

9.59

0.46

11.75

0.488 - CP-MAX

12.35

0.4855

13.56

0.4706

15.71

0.4211

17.61

0.2942

20

0.1011

21

-0.05

22

-0.1

(Cp - Lamda Characteristcs for Pitch Angle - 0 Degree)


0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

Cp

0.2

0.1

0
0

10

-0.1

-0.2
Lam da

15

20

25

Kinetic Energy of Wind, Mechanical power, Mechanical Torque:

Design of Induction Generator


Design of Induction Generator

Relationship between abc and arbitrary qdo

Induction Generator Data:

Induction Generator:

Inside Three Phase:

Inside abc2qds Block:

Inside Q Axis Block:

Inside D axis Block:

Inside Rotor Block:

Inside Zero sequence Compontent Block :

Inside qds2abc Block:

Three Phase input Voltage, D Q Axis Voltage, Output Voltage :

Output Current , Rotor Speed ,


Electromagnetic Torque:

Design of three phase rectifier:

Inside Rectifier:

Rectified Voltage and


current:

Design of Three phase inverter:

Inside Inverter :

Inside SPWM and Voltage Block:

Carrier and reference (A, B, C) Wave and Generation of


Pulses:

Inverter Phase Voltage(Van,Vbn,Vcn) and Load


Current (Ia,Ib,Ic):

THD (Total Harmonic Distortion):

Closed Loop Control

Contd

Contd..

Design of PID Controller


PID Controller designing can be done by Ziegler Nichol Method. Following Steps
are taken for designing.
At Controller, select P - Controller (set derivative and integral terms to zero).
Tune P Controller from minimum until controlled variable encounters sustain oscillations.
Take down the final P value as ultimate gain, K and find the time period for one oscillation as ultimate
time period T.

PID Values:
Controller P

P only

0.5*K

PI

0.45*K

0.833*T

PID

0.6*K

0.5*T

0.125*T

Here K=0.1, T=0.018. So for PI Controller K p=0.045, K i = (0.833*0.018)=0.014994

Contd:

Active Power and Reactive power without Controller

Contd.

Active and Reactive Power with Controller

Pitch Angle Controller

Speed below base speed:

Contd

Speed above base speed:

References
[1] : Seul-Ki Kim and Eung-Sang Kim, PSCAD/EMTDC- Based Modelling and Analysis of a Gearless Variable Speed
Wind Turbine, IEEE Trans. On Energy Conversion, Vol. 22, No. 2, June 2007.
[2] : J. G. Slootweg, S. W. H. de Haan, H. Polinder and W. L. Kling, "General Model for Representing Variable Speed
Wind, Turbines in Power System Dynamics Simulations, "IEEE Trans. On Power Systems, VOL. 18, NO. 1, February
2003.
[3] : Narayan Prasad Gupta, Preeti Gupta and Dr. Deepika Masand , Power Quality Improvement Using Hybrid Active
Power Filter for A DFIG Based Wind Energy Conversion System, Nirma University International Conference On
Engineering , Dec 2012.
[4] : Yuya Izumi, Alok Pratap, Kosuke Uchida, Akie Uehara, Tomonobu Senjyuand, and Atsushi Yona , A Control
Method for Maximum Power Point Tracking of a PMSG-Based WECS using Online Parameter Identification of Wind
Turbine, IEEE PEDS, Dec 2011.
[5] : Masaaki Sakui and Hiroshi Fujita, An Analytical Method for Calculating Harmonic Currents of a Three- phase
Diode-Bridge Rectifier with dc Filter,IEEE Trans.On Power Electronics, VOL. 9, NO. 6, November, 1994.
[6] : Byoung-Kuk Lee, Mehrdad Ehsani, A Simplified Functional Simulation Model for Three-Phase Voltage-Source
Inverter Using Switching Function Concept , IEEE Trans. On Industrial Electronics, VOL. 48, NO. 2, April 2001.
[7] : P. M. Anderson,Anjan Bose ,"STABILITY SIMULATION OF WIND TURBINE SYSTEMS,"IEEE Transactions on
Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-102, No. 12, December 1983.
[8] : Chee Mun Ong Dynamic Simulation of Electric Machinery Using MATLAB/SIMULINK West Lafayette
,Indiana , Purdue University , pp. 167 243 .

THANK
YOU