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School of Electrical Engineering

Guided By

Dr. M. Kowsalya

Outline

1: Objective

2:Introduction

3:Methodology

4:Block diagram

5:Simulation results

6:References

Objective

To analyse the transient performance and grid impact analysis

capability of a gearless VSWT based on MATLAB/ SIMULINK.

To study the control performance and transient behaviour of a

gearless VSWT under varying wind speeds.

Introduction

Non-renewable energy resources are depleting, inefficient and

pollutes the environment

Future scope is on renewable energy resources such as wind, solar,

fuel cell, etc

Renewable energy taken here for this project is wind. Variable

speed wind turbine is used for modelling and analysis.

Distributed wind generation cannot be connected easily to the

electric grid without the evaluation on control performance and grid

impact

Variable speed wind turbine

AC to DC converter

Voltage source inverter

Transformer and power grid

Wind Speed is a combination of four component(step speed, ramp speed,

Gust Speed, Noise Speed)

Vw = Vgust + Vramp + Vstep + Vnoise

Gust Speed: Vgust is represented by sudden change in speed. It is given

by:

VGust =

VCOS = (MAXG/2){1-cos2[(t/T1G) (T1G/TG)]}

TG = Gust Period in sec(16.66e-3), T1G = Gust starting time in sec(14e-3).

MAXG = Gust peak in mi/sec , t = Time in sec.

Ramp Speed:

Noise Speed: VNoise = 2 (i)]1/2 Cos(it + i), t<0

Where i = (I 1/2), I = a random variable on time interval o to

2

2.

Sv(i)= (2KNF2|i|)(2[1 + (Fi/)2]4/3)

Where :

KN = Surface drag coefficient(0.004)

F= Turbulane scale(2000), = Mean wind speed at reference height.

For I =1 Sv(w1) = 0.000002076

For I =2 Sv(w2) = 0.0000003326

For I =3,Sv(w3)= 0.0000001418

For I =4,Sv(w4)= 0.00000008090

For I =5,Sv(w5)= 0.00000005325

For I =6,Sv(w6)= 0.00000003811

For I =7,Sv(w7)= 0.0000000288

For I =8,Sv(w8)= 0.0000000227

For I =9,Sv(w9)= 0.0000000184

For I =10,Sv(w10)= 0.0000000153

Noise Speed

Wind Speed

Turbine Design

Design of wind Turbine:

Mechanical power extracted from Wind (Pm):

Pm = Cp(, )(PW), PW = 0.5AV3w

( Tip speed)= (RBlade.r/Vw)

Tm(Mechanical Torque)= (Pm/r).

Cp(, )is given by : C1(C2 C3 C42 C5)e-C6 + C7.

Value of power coefficient from C1 to C7 are as follows:

C1 = 0.5, C2 = 116/i, C3 = 0.4, C4 = 0, C5 = 5, C6 = 21/i, C7 =

0.0068.

(1/i)= (1/0.08+) (0.035/3+1)

Pm

PW

Cp(, )

Kinetic energy contained in wind

Power coefficient of Turbine

A(R2)

R

Air density(kg/m3)

Turbine swept area(m2)

Turbine Radius(m)

Tip speed ratio of the rotor blade tip speed to wind

speed

Wind Speed(m/s)

Generator Speed(Rad/s

Blade Pitch Angle(degree)

Vw

r

Design:

Wind Turbine Characteristics

Value

12.35m/s

Rating

2 MW

Air Density

0.55kg/m3

Blade radius

37.5 m

18 rpm

Pitch angle

0 degree

Tip Speed()

Cp(, ) For =

0 deg

0.5

0.035

2.5

0.10

4.0

0.13

5.84

0.2413

6.96

0.3311

7.92

0.3925

8.6

0.4307

9.59

0.46

11.75

0.488 - CP-MAX

12.35

0.4855

13.56

0.4706

15.71

0.4211

17.61

0.2942

20

0.1011

21

-0.05

22

-0.1

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

Cp

0.2

0.1

0

0

10

-0.1

-0.2

Lam da

15

20

25

Design of Induction Generator

Induction Generator:

Electromagnetic Torque:

Inside Rectifier:

current:

Inside Inverter :

Pulses:

Current (Ia,Ib,Ic):

Contd

Contd..

PID Controller designing can be done by Ziegler Nichol Method. Following Steps

are taken for designing.

At Controller, select P - Controller (set derivative and integral terms to zero).

Tune P Controller from minimum until controlled variable encounters sustain oscillations.

Take down the final P value as ultimate gain, K and find the time period for one oscillation as ultimate

time period T.

PID Values:

Controller P

P only

0.5*K

PI

0.45*K

0.833*T

PID

0.6*K

0.5*T

0.125*T

Contd:

Contd.

Contd

References

[1] : Seul-Ki Kim and Eung-Sang Kim, PSCAD/EMTDC- Based Modelling and Analysis of a Gearless Variable Speed

Wind Turbine, IEEE Trans. On Energy Conversion, Vol. 22, No. 2, June 2007.

[2] : J. G. Slootweg, S. W. H. de Haan, H. Polinder and W. L. Kling, "General Model for Representing Variable Speed

Wind, Turbines in Power System Dynamics Simulations, "IEEE Trans. On Power Systems, VOL. 18, NO. 1, February

2003.

[3] : Narayan Prasad Gupta, Preeti Gupta and Dr. Deepika Masand , Power Quality Improvement Using Hybrid Active

Power Filter for A DFIG Based Wind Energy Conversion System, Nirma University International Conference On

Engineering , Dec 2012.

[4] : Yuya Izumi, Alok Pratap, Kosuke Uchida, Akie Uehara, Tomonobu Senjyuand, and Atsushi Yona , A Control

Method for Maximum Power Point Tracking of a PMSG-Based WECS using Online Parameter Identification of Wind

Turbine, IEEE PEDS, Dec 2011.

[5] : Masaaki Sakui and Hiroshi Fujita, An Analytical Method for Calculating Harmonic Currents of a Three- phase

Diode-Bridge Rectifier with dc Filter,IEEE Trans.On Power Electronics, VOL. 9, NO. 6, November, 1994.

[6] : Byoung-Kuk Lee, Mehrdad Ehsani, A Simplified Functional Simulation Model for Three-Phase Voltage-Source

Inverter Using Switching Function Concept , IEEE Trans. On Industrial Electronics, VOL. 48, NO. 2, April 2001.

[7] : P. M. Anderson,Anjan Bose ,"STABILITY SIMULATION OF WIND TURBINE SYSTEMS,"IEEE Transactions on

Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-102, No. 12, December 1983.

[8] : Chee Mun Ong Dynamic Simulation of Electric Machinery Using MATLAB/SIMULINK West Lafayette

,Indiana , Purdue University , pp. 167 243 .

THANK

YOU

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