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formulas of aerodynamics

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SPATER

Continuity Equation

A uA 0

t

x

for steady flow

uA 0

x

SPATER

EULER EQUATION

u

u

1 p

u

t

x

x

For steady flow

uA 0

x

SPATER

Momentum Equation

P1 1u1 P2 2u2

2

Energy Equation

u

C pT

C pT0

2

SPATER

The oblique shock waves typically occurs when a

supersonic flow is turned to itself by a wall or its

equivalent boundary condition.

All the streamlines have the same deflection angle at

the shock wave, parallel to the surface downstream.

Across the oblique shock, M decreases but p, T and

increase.

SPATER

Expansion Waves

The expansion waves typically occur when a

supersonic flow is turned away from itself by a

wall or its equivalent boundary condition.

The streamlines are smoothly curved through

the expansion fan until they are all parallel to the

wall behind the corner point.

All flow properties through an expansion wave

change smoothly and continuously. Across the

expansion wave, M increases while p, T, and

decreases.

SPATER

For an object moving at a supersonic speed, the object

is always ahead of the sound wave fronts generated by

the object. This cause the sound wave fronts to

coalesce into a line disturbance, called Mach wave, at

the Mack angle relative to the direction of the beeper.

1

sin 1

M

The physical mechanism to form the oblique shock wave

is essentially the same as the Mach wave. The Mach

wave is actually an infinitely weak shock wave.

SPATER

The oblique shock tilts at a wave angle with

respect to V1, the upstream velocity. Behind the

shock, the flow is deflected toward the shock by

the flow deflection angle

Let u and w denote the normal and parallel flow

velocity components relative to the oblique shock

and Mn and Mt the corresponding Mach numbers,

we have for a steady adiabatic flow with no body

forces the following relations:

1u1 2u2

2

p1 1u1 p2 2u2

2

2

u1

u2

h1

h2

2

2

SPATER

w1 w2

2

2 p2 T2

,

,

1 p1 T1

So

and Mn1 and Mn2 all satisfy

the corresponding normal shock relations,

which are all functions of M1 and ,

because

M n1 M 1 sin

M n2 M 2 sin( )

SPATER

--M relation

M 1 sin 2 1

tan 2 cot

2

M 1 ( cos 2 ) 2

2

a maximum beyond which the shock will be detached.

2. For any given M1 and < max, there are two s. The

larger is called the strong shock solution, where M2 is

subsonic. The lower is called the weak shock solution,

where M2 is supersonic except for a small region near

max.

3. If =0, then = /2 (normal shock) or = (Mach wave).

SPATER

For a calorically perfect gas,

( 1) M

2

2

1 ( 1) M n1 2

2

n1

p2

2

2

1

( M n1 1)

p1

1

SPATER

The flow over a cone is inherently threedimensional. The three-dimensionality has the

relieving effect to result in a weaker shock wave

as compared to a wedge of the same half angle.

The flow between the shock and the cone is no

longer uniform; the streamlines there are curved

and the surface pressure are not constant.

SPATER

Consider an incident oblique shock on a lower

wall that is reflected by the upper wall at point.

The reflection angle of the shock at the upper

wall is determined by two conditions:

(a) M2 < M1

(b) The flow downstream of the reflected shock

wave must be parallel to the upper wall.

That is, the flow is deflected downward by .

SPATER

Pressure-Deflection Diagram

The pressure-deflection diagram is a plot of the

static pressure behind an oblique shock versus

the flow deflection angle for a given upstream

condition.

For left-running waves, the flow deflection angle

is upward; it is considered as positive. For rightrunning waves, the flow deflection angle is

downward; it is considered as negative.

SPATER

Opposite Families

Consider the intersection of left- and right-running

shocks (A and B). The two shocks intersect at E and

result in two refracted shocks C and D. Since the shock

wave strengths of A and B in general are different, there

is a slip line in the region between the two refracted

waves where

(a) the pressure is continuous but the entropy is

discontinuous at the slip line;

(b) the velocities on two sides of the slip line are in

the

same direction but of different magnitudes;

SPATER

the Same Family

As two left running oblique shock waves A and B

intersect at C , they will form a single shock

wave CD and a reflected shock wave CE such

that there is slip line in the region between CD

and CE.

SPATER

M2 > M1. An expansion corner is a means to

increase the flow mach number.

P2/p1 <1, 2/1 <1, T2/T1 < 1. The pressure,

density, and temperature decrease through an

expansion wave.

The expansion fan is a continuous expansion

region, composed of of an infinite number of

Mach waves, bounded upstream by 1 and

downstream by 2.

SPATER

Centered expansion fan is also called PrandtlMeyer expansion wave.

where 1 = sin-1(1/M1) and 2 = sin-1(1/M2).

Streamlines through an expansion wave are

smooth curved lines.

Since the expansion takes place through a

continuous succession of Mach waves, and ds =

0 for each wave, the expansion is isentropic.

SPATER

For perfect gas, the Prandtl-Meyer

expansion waves are governed by

2 ( M 2 ) ( M 1 )

Knowing M1 and 2, we can find

M

SPATER

Since the expansion is isentropic, and

hence To and Po are constant, we have

1

M 22

T1

2

1 2

T2

1

M1

2

SPATER

1 2 M

p1

1

p2

1

M 12

2

2

2

Shock-Expansion Method

-Flow Conditions Downstream of the Trailing Edge

In supersonic flow, the conditions at the trailing edge

cannot affect the flow upstream. Therefore, unlike the

subsonic flow, there is no need to impose a Kutta

condition at the trailing edge in order to determine the

airfoil lift.

However, if there is an interest to know the flow

conditions downstream of the T.E., they can be

determined by requiring the pressures downstream of

the top- and bottom-surface flows to be equal.

SPATER

-An Example

For the case shown, the angle of attack is less than the wedges half

angle so we expect two oblique shocks at the trailing edge.

In order to know the flow conditions downstream of the airfoil, we

start a guess value of the deflection angle of the downstream flow

relative of the free stream.

Knowing the Mach number and static pressure immediately

upstream of each shock leads to the prediction of the static

pressures downstream of each shock.

Then through the iteration process, g is changed until the pressures

downstream of the top- and bottom-surface flow become equal.

SPATER

Consider a slender body immersed in an inviscid,

irrotational flow where

Vx V u '

V y v'

Vz w'

perturbation velocity potential as follows:

SPATER

Vx

x

Vy

y

Vz

z

u'

x

v'

y

w'

z

For a steady, irrotational flow, starting from the

differential continuity equation

( V ) 0

t

we have

( V ) 0

continuity equation becomes

2

2

2

z

1 2 xx 1 2 yy 1 2 zz

a

a

a

2 x y

2 y z

2 x z

yz 0

xy

xz

a2

a2

a2

SPATER

By assuming small velocity perturbations such that

u ' v' w'

,

,

1

V V V

excluding

0.8 M 1.2

the transonic range:

the hypersonic range:

(1 M

2 2 2

) 2 2 2 0

x

y

z

(1 M )

SPATER

M 5

0

x y z

For calorically perfect gas, the pressure coefficient Cp

can be reduce to

Cp

p p

2

p

(

1)

2

1

2

V M p

2

Cp

2u '

V

SPATER

(2-D Over Thin Airfoils)

Cp

Cl

Cd

Cm

SPATER

C po

2

1 M

Cl o

1 M

Cd o

1 M

Cmo

1 M

For supersonic flow over any 2-D slender airfoil,

Cp

2

2

M 1

free stream:

dzu

u

dx

dzl

l

dx

SPATER

For supersonic flow over any 2-D slender airfoil,

Cl

SPATER

l

q c

4

M

For supersonic flow over any 2-D slender airfoil, the

pitching moment coefficient with respect to an arbitrary

point xo is

Cm , LE

2

2

M 1

The center of pressure for a symmetrical airfoil in

supersonic flow is predicted at the mid-chord point.

SPATER

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