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AE1303 AERODYNAMICS -II

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ONE DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

Continuity Equation

A uA 0
t
x
for steady flow

uA 0
x

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ONE DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW


EULER EQUATION

u
u
1 p
u

t
x
x
For steady flow

uA 0
x
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ONE DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

Momentum Equation

P1 1u1 P2 2u2
2

Energy Equation

u
C pT
C pT0
2
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Oblique Shock Waves


The oblique shock waves typically occurs when a
supersonic flow is turned to itself by a wall or its
equivalent boundary condition.
All the streamlines have the same deflection angle at
the shock wave, parallel to the surface downstream.
Across the oblique shock, M decreases but p, T and
increase.

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Expansion Waves
The expansion waves typically occur when a
supersonic flow is turned away from itself by a
wall or its equivalent boundary condition.
The streamlines are smoothly curved through
the expansion fan until they are all parallel to the
wall behind the corner point.
All flow properties through an expansion wave
change smoothly and continuously. Across the
expansion wave, M increases while p, T, and
decreases.
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Source of Oblique Waves


For an object moving at a supersonic speed, the object
is always ahead of the sound wave fronts generated by
the object. This cause the sound wave fronts to
coalesce into a line disturbance, called Mach wave, at
the Mack angle relative to the direction of the beeper.
1
sin 1
M
The physical mechanism to form the oblique shock wave
is essentially the same as the Mach wave. The Mach
wave is actually an infinitely weak shock wave.
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Oblique Shock Relations


The oblique shock tilts at a wave angle with
respect to V1, the upstream velocity. Behind the
shock, the flow is deflected toward the shock by
the flow deflection angle
Let u and w denote the normal and parallel flow
velocity components relative to the oblique shock
and Mn and Mt the corresponding Mach numbers,
we have for a steady adiabatic flow with no body
forces the following relations:

1u1 2u2
2

p1 1u1 p2 2u2
2
2
u1
u2
h1
h2
2
2
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w1 w2
2

Oblique Shock Relations (contd.)


2 p2 T2
,
,
1 p1 T1

So
and Mn1 and Mn2 all satisfy
the corresponding normal shock relations,
which are all functions of M1 and ,
because

M n1 M 1 sin
M n2 M 2 sin( )
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Oblique Shock Relations (contd.)


--M relation

M 1 sin 2 1
tan 2 cot

2
M 1 ( cos 2 ) 2
2

1. For any given free stream Mach number M1, there is


a maximum beyond which the shock will be detached.
2. For any given M1 and < max, there are two s. The
larger is called the strong shock solution, where M2 is
subsonic. The lower is called the weak shock solution,
where M2 is supersonic except for a small region near
max.
3. If =0, then = /2 (normal shock) or = (Mach wave).
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Straight Oblique Shock Relations (contd.)


For a calorically perfect gas,

( 1) M
2

2
1 ( 1) M n1 2
2
n1

p2
2
2
1
( M n1 1)
p1
1
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Supersonic Flow Over Cones


The flow over a cone is inherently threedimensional. The three-dimensionality has the
relieving effect to result in a weaker shock wave
as compared to a wedge of the same half angle.
The flow between the shock and the cone is no
longer uniform; the streamlines there are curved
and the surface pressure are not constant.

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Shock Wave Reflection


Consider an incident oblique shock on a lower
wall that is reflected by the upper wall at point.
The reflection angle of the shock at the upper
wall is determined by two conditions:
(a) M2 < M1
(b) The flow downstream of the reflected shock
wave must be parallel to the upper wall.
That is, the flow is deflected downward by .

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Pressure-Deflection Diagram
The pressure-deflection diagram is a plot of the
static pressure behind an oblique shock versus
the flow deflection angle for a given upstream
condition.
For left-running waves, the flow deflection angle
is upward; it is considered as positive. For rightrunning waves, the flow deflection angle is
downward; it is considered as negative.

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Intersection of Shock Waves of


Opposite Families
Consider the intersection of left- and right-running
shocks (A and B). The two shocks intersect at E and
result in two refracted shocks C and D. Since the shock
wave strengths of A and B in general are different, there
is a slip line in the region between the two refracted
waves where
(a) the pressure is continuous but the entropy is
discontinuous at the slip line;
(b) the velocities on two sides of the slip line are in
the
same direction but of different magnitudes;

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Intersection of Shock Waves of


the Same Family
As two left running oblique shock waves A and B
intersect at C , they will form a single shock
wave CD and a reflected shock wave CE such
that there is slip line in the region between CD
and CE.

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Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves


M2 > M1. An expansion corner is a means to
increase the flow mach number.
P2/p1 <1, 2/1 <1, T2/T1 < 1. The pressure,
density, and temperature decrease through an
expansion wave.
The expansion fan is a continuous expansion
region, composed of of an infinite number of
Mach waves, bounded upstream by 1 and
downstream by 2.
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Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves (contd.)


Centered expansion fan is also called PrandtlMeyer expansion wave.
where 1 = sin-1(1/M1) and 2 = sin-1(1/M2).
Streamlines through an expansion wave are
smooth curved lines.
Since the expansion takes place through a
continuous succession of Mach waves, and ds =
0 for each wave, the expansion is isentropic.

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Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves (contd.)


For perfect gas, the Prandtl-Meyer
expansion waves are governed by

2 ( M 2 ) ( M 1 )
Knowing M1 and 2, we can find
M

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Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves (contd.)


Since the expansion is isentropic, and
hence To and Po are constant, we have
1

M 22

T1
2

1 2
T2
1
M1
2

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1 2 M
p1

1
p2
1
M 12
2

2
2

Shock-Expansion Method
-Flow Conditions Downstream of the Trailing Edge
In supersonic flow, the conditions at the trailing edge
cannot affect the flow upstream. Therefore, unlike the
subsonic flow, there is no need to impose a Kutta
condition at the trailing edge in order to determine the
airfoil lift.
However, if there is an interest to know the flow
conditions downstream of the T.E., they can be
determined by requiring the pressures downstream of
the top- and bottom-surface flows to be equal.

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Conditions Downstream of the T.E.


-An Example

For the case shown, the angle of attack is less than the wedges half
angle so we expect two oblique shocks at the trailing edge.
In order to know the flow conditions downstream of the airfoil, we
start a guess value of the deflection angle of the downstream flow
relative of the free stream.
Knowing the Mach number and static pressure immediately
upstream of each shock leads to the prediction of the static
pressures downstream of each shock.
Then through the iteration process, g is changed until the pressures
downstream of the top- and bottom-surface flow become equal.

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Total and Perturbation Velocity Potentials


Consider a slender body immersed in an inviscid,
irrotational flow where
Vx V u '
V y v'
Vz w'

We can define the (total) velocity potential and the


perturbation velocity potential as follows:

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Vx
x

Vy
y

Vz
z

u'
x

v'
y

w'
z

Velocity Potential Equation


For a steady, irrotational flow, starting from the
differential continuity equation

( V ) 0
t

we have

( V ) 0

In terms of the velocity potential (x,y,z), the above


continuity equation becomes
2
2
2

z
1 2 xx 1 2 yy 1 2 zz

a
a
a

2 x y
2 y z
2 x z

yz 0
xy
xz
a2
a2
a2

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Linearized Velocity Potential Equation


By assuming small velocity perturbations such that
u ' v' w'
,
,
1
V V V

we can prove that for the Mach number ranges


excluding
0.8 M 1.2
the transonic range:
the hypersonic range:
(1 M

2 2 2
) 2 2 2 0
x
y
z

(1 M )
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M 5

u ' v' w'

0
x y z

Linearized Pressure Coefficient


For calorically perfect gas, the pressure coefficient Cp
can be reduce to
Cp

p p
2
p

(
1)
2
1
2
V M p
2

For small velocity perturbations, we can prove that


Cp

2u '
V

Note that the linearized Cp only depends on u.

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Prandtl-Glauert Rule for Linearized Subsonic Flow


(2-D Over Thin Airfoils)
Cp
Cl
Cd
Cm
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C po
2

1 M
Cl o
1 M

Cd o
1 M

Cmo
1 M

Cp of 2-D Supersonic Flows Around Thin Wings


For supersonic flow over any 2-D slender airfoil,
Cp

2
2

M 1

where is the local surface inclination with respect to the


free stream:

dzu
u

dx
dzl
l

dx
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Cl of 2-D Supersonic Flow Over Thin Wings


For supersonic flow over any 2-D slender airfoil,

Cl

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l
q c

4
M

Cm of 2-D Supersonic Flow Over Thin Wings


For supersonic flow over any 2-D slender airfoil, the
pitching moment coefficient with respect to an arbitrary
point xo is

Cm , LE

2
2

M 1
The center of pressure for a symmetrical airfoil in
supersonic flow is predicted at the mid-chord point.

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