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Hydro Dynamic Forces (Downpull)

on
Vertical Lift Gates

BY
VIKASH GAHLYAN

L&T Construction Infrastructure


Heavy Civil & Transportation - EDRC

INTRODUCTION
Definition
Gates are the hydraulic control equipments used to control the flow of water.
Necessity
In case of large hydraulic structures like barrage, dam, or power station, it becomes
necessary to control the flow of water. In these situations the use of gates becomes
necessary.

VERTICAL LIFT GATE

Those gates which are rectangular in shape and are supported by guides
in which gates move vertically in their own plane.
Method of movement:

Sliding types.

Fixed wheel gates.

MAIN COMPONENT OF GATE

Skin Plate
Vertical Stiffener
Horizontal Girder
End Girder
Seal Assembly
Embedded parts
Guide roller

Vertical Lift Gate


Roller assembly
Roller Track

MAIN APPLICATION OF GATE

Flood protection works


Equipment Protection(Turbines)
Level control in reservoirs
Cleaning of reservoirs
Equipment Maintenance
Closure of river diversion
Intake works for hydroelectric plants
Irrigation
Navigation-Lock gates

LOADING ON GATES

Hydrostatic load

Hydro-dynamic forces

In case of gates located in conduits increase in head due to sub


atmospheric pressure

Earth quake forces

Silt load wherever applicable

Ice load wherever applicable

WHY WE CALCULATE HYDRO DYNAMIC FORCE?

To economize the gate and hoist cost.

To ensure proper operation and safety.

To select hoist capacity.

Dimensions of hoisting configurations.

Hence accurate prediction of the force is essential.


Failure of several dams attributed to fault in design or operation of high head gates.
Causes of failure:

Cavitation damage & erosion caused by high velocity of flow.

Vibrations.

Hydro-dynamic forces.

WHAT IS DOWNPULL?

The
gates
are
subjected
to
considerable static pressure on the
top of the gate
Hydro-dynamic effect of water flowing
past the bottom of the gate is
substantial.
Unbalanced vertical hydro dynamic
forces
Downward force on the top of the gate
Upward force on the bottom of the
gate

DOWNPULL CALCULATION
D = Kd Ab g H
where
Kd = Down pull coefficient.
Ab = Horizontal area of gate bottom.
g = Specific weight of water.
H = Total u/s head.

Kd = K t - K b
Kt = Down pull coefficient for the forces acting on the top gate surface.
Kb = Uplift coefficient for the forces acting on the bottom of gate.

FACTORS CONSIDERED FOR MODEL STUDY


It is in general not possible to extend the results of one particular study to
another with different geometry because results are sensitive to

Gate seal.

Gate shaft.

Gate slot configuration.

Gate bottom geometry.

VERTICAL LIFT GATE INSTALLATION

GEOMETRICAL FACTORS FOR TYPICAL VERTICAL


LIFT GATE

PARAMETERS FOR MODEL STUDY


1. Gate Opening

y/y0 varies from 0 to 1


where
y = gate opening
y0 = gate height
Variation in down pull coefficients kb, kt, and kd for
Sloping bottom gates with = 450
Flat bottom gates with lip e/d = 0.45
Flat bottom gates with lip e/d = 0.6

Typical Variation of Kb & Kt with y/y0

Typical Variation of Kd with y/y0

2. GATE THICKNESS

Thickness d of main horizontal member is determined by structural and economic


consideration.

Thickness d is selected to limit the deflection of the gate normally to 1/800 of span
and to avoid stress concentration at the wheels.

Therefore d/y0 is independent of hydraulic considerations.

INFLUENCE OF d/y0 & VARIATION OF Kb WITH y/y0

INFLUENCE OF d/y0 & VARIATION OF Kd WITH y/y0

3. WALL AND SLOT EFFECTS

Gate slots of vertical lift gates are relatively large as they accommodate
wheel assemblies and wheel tracks, in addition to gate guides.

Large slots cause slowing of velocity of flow and consequent rise in the
pressures at gate bottom.

INFLUENCE OF SIDE WALL AND SLOT ON GATE


BOTTOM

4. SHAFT HEIGHT

Vertical lift gate installations have tall gate shaft extending above maximum
reservoir water level.

Model studies are frequently carried out with bonnet covers to avoid
construction of tall gate shaft in laboratory.

Down pull forces estimated under such conditions will be erroneous.

A relatively narrow water passage between gate top and bonnet cover can
create sufficient head and lower the measured piezometric pressures on gate
top.

5. LIP EXTENSION

For flat bottom gates with lip extensions,


the down pull on the gate at any gate opening decreases with increase in e/d
ratio
e = Lip extension below the bottom beam
d = Depth of the gate
Lip length should not exceed 0.5 d.

GATE BOTTOM GEOMETRY

r
e

e*
y

VARIATION OF HYDRAULIC DOWNPULL WITH LIP


LENGTH

EXPERIMENT RESULTS

Lip length should not exceed 0.5 d.

450 bottom slope is often satisfactory.

Lip extension to be 0.4 to 0.6 times depth of bottom horizontal beam.

The up thrust on the bottom of the gate may exceed its submerged weight.

Net uplift forces may prevent closure of the gate.

Such uplift forces are to be taken in the design.

6. BOTTOM CURVATURE
Vertical lift gates area usually manufactured using wide flange beams or
built up plate girders. However, gates with curvature on the upstream
bottom edge are not uncommon.
Figure shows influence of r/d on the down pull coefficient kd for gates with
e/d = 0.3
e/d = 0.45
Where r = radius of curvature

INFLUENCE OF r/d ON DOWN PULL

7. SKIN PLATE AND TOP SEAL


Bottom seal of vertical lift gates flat rubber
Top seal music note or double stem
d1 = sum of thickness of skin plate and top seal assembly to ensure self closure of
vertical lift gates under gravity,

increasing d1/d ratio can be helpful in producing adequate down pull to overcome
frictional forces which are maximum at small gate openings.

This can be accomplished by shifting the bottom seal of the gate upstream with
respect to the top seal.

8. GATE CLEARANCE

Influence of a/b on water levels in open type gate shafts is shown.

Increase in a/b values increases gate shaft water levels.

With higher value of a/b down pull will be reduced.

INFLUENCE OF a/b ON GATE SHAFT WATER LEVELS

9. SHAFT RECESS

In emergency gate installations, a recess is provided in the downstream wall of


gate shaft above top seal seat to reduce down pull.

Also sometimes it is provided in tunnel type installations. Reduction of down pull,


is often not desirable at small gate openings when the frictional forces on the gate
are at maximum values.

Hence, recess should be discontinued at gate openings less than about 20% and
at openings greater than about 80% of conduit height.

CONCLUSION
Down pull on high head vertical lift gate is influenced by

Operating head

Gate opening

Gate bottom geometry

Clearances between the gate and u/s side of the gate and between the top seal
and downstream skin plate of the gate

Thickness of the skin plate and top seal assembly

Thickness of gate

Radius of curvature on the u/s bottom portion of the gate

Depth and height of the recess on the d/s face of the gate shaft.

REFERENCES

Design of Hydraulic Gates by Paulo C.F. Erbisti.

Hydraulic Gates and Valves by Jack Lewin.


Sagar BTA (1977), Downpull in high-head gate installation.
Hydraulic studies of pressure distribution around vertical lift gates, Indian Journal
of Science and Technology,Vol. 5 No. 3 (Mar 2012) ISSN: 0974- 6846.
Prediction Downpull foeces on tunnel gate with different gate lip geometry, Journal
of Kerbala University, Vol. 8 No.4 Scientific 2010.
Hydraulic and gravity forces Hydraulic design criteria , Corps of engineers, U.S.
Army.
New High Head Leaf Gate Form with Smooth Upstream Face Depth and height of
the recess on the d/s face of the gate shaft. Faculty of Civil Engineering and
Architecture, Aleksandra Medvedeva 14, Nis, Serbia Vienna University of
Technology, Karlsplatz 4/222, Vienna, Austria.

THANK YOU