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THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

DISASTER
MANAGEMENT
POST DISASTER PHASE
MEASURES
Prepared by Asst.Prof.Engr.Rehan Masood

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

Outline
DRM Measures
Rehabilitation
Reconstruction
Development

PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

REHABILITATION

PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

Rehabilitation Definition
It is the restoration of basic social functions.
To restore buildings, or parts of towns, to their former condition or better.
Rehabilitation, that looks at more long term inputs of reinstating lost livelihoods,
introducing new economic opportunities and improving land and water management
processes so as to reduce peoples vulnerability and enhance capacities to handle
future calamities.
Recovery essentially concerns rehabilitation as well as developing the tools to mitigate
against the future impact of a disaster, and should return the community to an
improved state of post-disaster. This includes those activities that continue beyond the
emergency period to restore lifelines. Examples include providing temporary shelters,
restoring power, critical stress debriefing for emergency responders and victims, job
assistance, small business loans, and debris clearance.
Disaster rehabilitation may be considered a transitional phase between immediate
relief and recovery.
PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

Types of Rehabilitation
1. Physical rehabilitation is a very important facet of rehabilitation. It
includes reconstruction of physical infrastructure such as houses,
buildings, railways, roads, communication network, water supply,
electricity and so on. It comprises short-term and long-term strategies
towards watershed management, canal irrigation, social forestry, crop
stabilization, alternative cropping techniques, job creation, employment
generation and environmental protection. It involves rehabilitation for
agriculture, artisans, small businessmen and animal husbandry. The
physical rehabilitation and reconstruction package must also incorporate
adequate provision for subsidies, farm implements, acquisition of land
for relocation sites, adherence of land use planning, flood plain zoning,
retrofitting or strengthening of undamaged houses, and construction of
model houses.
PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

Types of Rehabilitation
2. Social rehabilitation is also an important part of disaster
rehabilitation. The vulnerable groups such as the elderly,
orphans, single women and young children would need
special social support to survive the impact of disasters.
Thus, construction of infrastructure such as community
centres, day-care centres, anganwadis or homes for women,
balwadis or crches and old age homes is a vital part of social
rehabilitation. The rehabilitation plan must have components
that do not lose sight of the fact that the victims have to
undergo the entire process of re-socialization and
adjustments in a completely unfamiliar social milieu
PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

Types of Rehabilitation
3. Psychological rehabilitation
Dealing with victims psychology is a very sensitive issue
and must be dealt with caution and concern. The
psychological trauma of losing relatives and friends, and
the scars of the shock of disaster event can take much
longer to heal than the stakeholders in disaster
management often presume. The fear of changing means
of livelihood could lead to occupational disruption and
subsequently high degree of occupational redundancy in
the victims.
PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

Rehabilitation & Community


Participation
Community participation is essential for planning the
rehabilitation phase because local people better understand
their own needs and the problems that create these needs.
Community participation at all levels of disaster
rehabilitation can go a long way in making rehabilitation
effective. The participation of the community should go
hand in hand with the assessment of unmet needs and
response capacity. No disaster rehabilitation plan can
achieve its objectives unless the disaster-affected
community participates in the formulation, implementation
and evaluation of its various components
PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

Rehabilitation Training
This type of personnel training is to ensure that skilled
personnel are available to serve the rehabilitation needs of
individuals with disabilities in the aftermath of a disaster. The
programme supports training and related activities to increase
qualified personnel trained in providing rehabilitation
programmes. The trainings are funded by donors under
bilateral or multilateral agreements. This training also may
introduce low cost housing packages- for example the one that
is recommended by Habitat for Humanity International.
However, buildings constructed out of local materials should
also be reinforced to meet hurricane force winds.
PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

Stakeholders in Rehabilitation
The role and responsibilities of all the stakeholders (planners, governmental
agencies, NGOs, international agencies, self-help groups, and community) need to
be clearly demarcated in the rehabilitation plan.
The measures pertaining to rehabilitation cannot be sustained if they are not
institutionalized. Local authorities have to be in active dialogue over priorities and
focus of rehabilitation strategies. Efforts have to be made to establish and sustain
the institutions that are involved in disaster rehabilitation such as micro-credit
societies, environmental forums, grain banks, fodder banks, seed banks, mahila
mandals, pani panchayats and so on.
There is also a need to fix accountability on each organization involved in disaster
rehabilitation. The duties of the army, paramilitary, home guards, civil defence,
police, fire services, public sector and media need to be streamlined, in order to
avoid haphazard coordination, multiliplicty of tasks, duplicity of organizations, red
tapism, delay and wastage.
PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

Media and Rehabilitation


The media can play an important role in strengthening disaster rehabilitation
and building strong communities.
As an important channel of communication, media transmit facts from disaster
site to general public. Accurate, timely and consistent information
dissemination by the media could be a useful contributor to disaster
rehabilitation exercise.
The media should try to highlight the stories of hope and courage in disaster
aftermath, instead of merely focusing on human misery and distress.
The Information, commuication and Technology revolution has opened up new
vistas for use of communication in disaster rehabilitation. Options such as
HAM Radios, Wireless and Incident Command System can be supplemented
with new technologies of Internet, Intranet, Extranet and Webblogs.

PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

Damage Assessment for


Rehabilitation
Damage assessment is a precondition for effective disaster
rehabilitation. Unless we are clear about the nature, extent and
intensity of damage in the aftermath a disaster, we can never plan out,
implement or evaluate the disaster rehabilitation plans and strategies.
Perception, assessment and mitigation of risks are some of the
dimensions of Damage Assessment. It can be done through systematic
Sample Surveys, Earth Observation Programme, Geographical
Information Systems, Aerial Photography and Remote Sensing.
Possible uses of Aerial Photography include hazard mapping,
vulnerability analysis and reconstruction planning. Feasibility study is
also an important step towards damage assessment and rehabilitation
of infrastructure.
PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

Qualities of Rehabilitation Plan


The rehabilitation plan must be clear, transparent,
structured,
objective,
accessible,
accountable and
responsive. It has to be adaptive in nature so that it can
change as per the demands of a new situation.
Flexibility norms in terms of structure, processes and
finances need to be ingrained in the plan. The key issues
pertain to assessment of damage, fixation of responsibility,
prioritization of requirements, execution of major
mitigation strategies, and most importantly monitoring,
evaluation and general review of the development process.
PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

RECONSTRUCTION

PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

Reconstruction
The full resumption of socio-economic activities plus preventive
measures.
Reconstructionfollowing relief and extending to a period of
approximately two years, aimed at rebuilding the basic physical
infrastructure and shelter to enable people to begin afresh.
Reconstruction should be viewed as an opportunity to
accelerate development work. It is an ideal time to introduce
improved
animal
husbandry
techniques,
rangeland
management, water resource development schemes and
erosion control measures.
PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

Reconstruction Phase
This stage lasts for several years following the disaster. In
this stage people have already assumed the responsibility
of recovery and work together to develop reconstruction
plans and programs. Reconstruction and rebuilding may be
going on around them but the community has already
returned to its normal routine; with some adaptation.
The above stages will assist you as a disaster officer to
understand what people in disasters go through. Why? As
a disaster officer, you will be able to make better informed
decisions, to be able to meet the emotional needs that
may arise during and after a disaster.
PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

Rehabilitation or Reconstruction
Phase
Rehabilitation or reconstruction phase: once permanent
solution is obtained, the focus shifts from relief to
development. The aim is to help the affected community
become self-reliant. The responsibility of providing assistance
is handed over to the affected community, the local
authorities,
development
agencies
and
other
nongovernmental organizations. Because humanitarian and
development technicians have different approaches to
providing assistance and the infrastructure for relief is
inadequate for development, the programs are re-oriented and
redesigned.
PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

From Reconstruction to
Rehabilitation
The reconstruction of shelter and community infrastructure, in fact, forms an important entry point for the
rehabilitation
process.
A reconstruction program is the first step towards restoring and upgrading local habitat. It introduces improved
systems of building, sets up basic building element supply, builds up the skills and management capacity of
families, local agencies and village artisans in a restricted area and sets up local information and knowledge
systems.
All
these
to
enable
"better
building".
A holistic view of "Habitat" that links the process of housing with the capacity to make and exercise informed
choices w.r.t. building construction, habitat improvement and economic betterment is the larger goal.
Re-establishing peoples lives through rehabilitation efforts involves:
Moving up the ladder from house to habitat to livelihood
Local awareness creation including training for all so that people gain control over the housing process.
Capacity Building and linking to enterprises-Livelihood support
Devising livelihood interventions in the farm and non-farm sectors based on new economic opportunities to
create economic surpluses (that can be directed to responsive housing)
Creating a basis for community access to institutional housing finance

PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

Guiding Principles for Rehabilitation


and reconstruction programmes
1. Provision of emergency relief to be operationalized by the
way of mobilizing human and material resources, ensuring
food security, constructing temporary structures and
making available all basic needs.
2. Relocation of all the displaced people, restoration of basic
and alternative means of livelihood along with communitybased infrastructure and institutions
3. Initiation of long-term development interventions, which
would lead to sustainable community based strategies for
disaster reduction (Medury and Dhameja, 2005).
PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

DEVELOPMENT

PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

Definition
Sustainable development involves more than growth. It requires a
change in the content of growth to make it more equitable in its
impact.
The main objective of sustainable development is to prevent acts
of nature from becoming disasters. The main focus of sustainable
development is to mitigate the conflict between development and
environment to safeguard the resources for the present and future
generations.
While at first glance, this may seem unrelated to disaster
prevention, the truth is that they are intricately entwined
(Dhameja, 2001).
PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

Development and disaster


For a long time the cause and effect relationship between disasters
and social and economic development was ignored.
Development planners hoped that disasters would not occur and, if
they did, were most effectively handled by relief from donor countries
and relief organizations.
Disasters were seen in the context of emergency response-not as a
part of long term development programming.
When a disaster did occur, the response was directed to emergency
needs and cleaning up.
The growing body of knowledge on the relationships between
disasters and development indicates four basic themes.
PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

Development and disaster


The themes may be expanded as follows:
Disasters set back development programming, destroying years of
development initiatives.
Rebuilding after a disaster provides significant opportunities to initiate
development programs.
Development programs can increase a particular area's susceptibility to
disasters. A major increase in livestock development leads to overgrazing,
which contributes to desertification and increased vulnerability to famine.
Development programs can be designed to decrease susceptibility to
disasters and their negative consequences. Housing projects constructed
under building codes designed to withstand high winds result in less
destruction during the next tropical storm.

PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

A response strategy - facilitating the


creation of Sustainable Livelihoods
A effective response strategy is tounderstand the need for building materials, buildings and livelihoods and
catalyze the conversion of this need into demand.The demand for (sustainable) building technologies and
construction practices can be provided throughsustainable enterprises.
This response strategy addresses the present (immediate) need of reconstruction through local building
technology-based enterprises. Reconstruction activities, if designed to include local manpower, provide the
essential (albeit short term) jobs leading to an immediate spurt in the local economy. At the same time, building
material and skill based local enterprises ensure continuous supply of quality building materials and skills. In the
long term this is likely to result in a sustainable improvement in shelter conditions while also enlarging livelihood
options
in
the
region.
The reconstruction program at the outset provides a major advantage to the new enterprises. It forms the initial
captive market, provides critical visibility to the new technologies and improved systems of construction and also
(if systematically approached) builds up the acceptance of these new "products" in the market. A sensitive
reconstruction program will necessarily involve an accompanying process of educating the affected population on
the aspects of safer construction; thus inculcating an appreciation of the improved systems. After the initial
reconstruction phase, families would preferentially opt for these materials and techniques to extend their houses.

PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

A response strategy - facilitating the


creation of Sustainable Livelihoods
An important aspect here is that new materials and techniques should match
the paying capacity of the targeted communities. A multi pronged approach is
required here:

First, the selection of the improved technologies and construction systems should bear
in mind the long-term affordability of the affected population. This involves correct
selection of raw materials, production processes and scales of delivery. An optimum
combination of large industry based materials and village enterprise based production
with materials sourced from regional building centers.
Secondly, a parallel intervention in improving quality of life through enlarged livelihood
options and improved land, water, resource management practices resulting in
enhanced purchasing power within communities.
And, thirdly, interventions of housing and livelihood finance are required that enable
people
to
access
available
building
options.

PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

How Development May Cause


Disasters
Development projects implemented without taking into account
existing environmental hazards may increase vulnerability to
natural disasters.
For example, projects designed to increase employment
opportunities, and thus income, usually attract additional
population growth. Low-income people may then have to seek
housing in areas previously avoided, on hillsides or in
floodplains.
The cost of relief assistance after a landslide or flood can easily
outweigh the benefits to the economy of more jobs. Similarly,
development projects may lead to negative political
consequences that increase the vulnerability to civil conflict.
PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE, LAHORE

Development opportunities
afforded
by
disasters
Disaster can serve as a catalyst for introducing mitigation activities.
Disasters often create a political and economic atmosphere wherein extensive
changes can be made more rapidly than under normal circumstances.
For example, in the aftermath of a disaster, there may be major opportunities
to execute land reform programs, to improve the overall housing
stock, to create new jobs and job skills, and to expand and modernize
the economic base of the community - opportunities that would not
otherwise be possible.
Disasters can also highlight high-risk areas where action must be taken before
another disaster strikes. The realization of vulnerability can motivate policymakers and the public to participate in mitigation activities. Disasters may
also serve to highlight the fact that the country is seriously under-developed.
They can thus bring in funding and the attention of donor communities to
apply to long-term development needs (Henderson, 1990).
PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ENGR.REHAN MASOOD