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AGROTEKNOLOGI

Lecturing Contract
Rules of attending the class
# max. 15 lately# noisy forbidden
# keep HP silent # fit dressing
Presence at least 75%
Grading:
>= 80
A
Distribution
66 79,9
56 65,9
46 55,9
<= 45,9

B
C
D
E

UTS
30%
TUGAS
20%
PRAKTIKUM 20%
UAS
30%

Attainment of Crop Ecology course


(Competency map)

Pertemuan Materi Perkuliahan

Kontrak pembelajaran
Aturan di kelas
Kehadiran
Penilaian
Peta kompetensi
Penjelasan
umum
ekologi
tanaman
Sumber pustaka
Materi praktikum

Waktu

2x50

II

Struktur dan Fungsi Ekosistem


Keanekaragaman Hayati
Rantai dan Jaring makanan

2x50

III

Struktur dan fungsi ekosistem


Daur S, Daur CO2, dan Daur

2x50

Pertemuan Materi Perkuliahan

IV

Struktur dan fungsi ekosistem


Daur N dan Daur bahan organik

Struktur dan Fungsi Ekosistem


Suksesi
Peran ekologi tanaman
Perubahan sistem pertanian

VI
VII

Tujuan Managemen
Agrroekosistem

Waktu
2x50

2x50

2x50

2x50

UJIAN TENGAH SEMESTER

VIII

Faktor lingkungan
Sumber daya dan lingkungan
Kondisi lingkungan: Iklim;
Cahaya dan Suhu

2x50

Pertemuan Materi Perkuliahan

IX

Kondisi Lingkungan
Curah Hujan
Lingkungan Tanah

XI

Faktor Sumber Daya


Cahaya, CO2, Air dan Nutrisi

XII

Interaksi lingkungan x Sumber Daya


Hasil Sumber daya
Faktor yang mempengaruhi hasil

XIII

Interaksi antar spesies di agroekosistem


Herbivora (hama)
Gulma
Patogen
Faktor fungsional keanekaragaman dalam
agroekosistem
Rotasi tanaman
Intercropping

XIV

Waktu
2x50

2x50

2x5
0
2x5
0
2x5
0

PRAKTIKUM
SISTEM BUDIDAYA TERKONTROL DAN TIDAK
TERKONTROL

Menanam di Rumah Kaca dan Lapangan


Dengan perlakuan optimum
Tanpa dan Dengan Pengendalian OPT
Control tanpa pengendalian sama sekali
Pengendalian hama saja
Pengendalian pathogen saja
Pengendalian gulma saja
Semua dikendalikan

PRAKTIKUM
FISIKA DAN KIMIA TANAH
Menanam di Polibag dengan Menggunakan
Saringan yang Berbeda dan diberi Kombinasi
Pupuk dan Pengairan yang Berbeda
Penggunaan saringan 2 dan 5 mm
Pupuk organic dan pupuk sintetis
Pupuk organic saja
Pupuk sintetis saja
Tanpa pupuk organic dan pupuk sintetis

PRAKTIKUM
CROPPING SYSTEMS
Mono dan Multi Cropping systems
Mono kultur jagung
Mono kultur kedelai
Multi cropping jagung - kedelai

SUMBER PUSTAKA
Agroecology., McGraw-Hill, New York. C. R. Carroll, J. H.
Vandermeer, and P. Rosset 1990.
Alternative Agriculture. 1989. Committee on the Role of
Alternative Farming Methods in Modern Agriculture,
Board of Agriculture, National Research Council.
National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
Climate Change and Agricultural Vulnerability. 2002.
IIASA Publications Department. Gunther Fischer
Mahendra Shah Harrij van Velthuizen
Crop Ecology: Productivity and Management In
Agricultural Systems. 1992. R. S. Loomis and D. J.
Connor. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Ecology in agriculture. 1997. Academic Press, UK.


Jackson, L.E.
Farming in Nature's Image: An Ecological Approach to
Agriculture. 1992. J. D. Soule and J. K. Piper. Island
Press, Washington D.C., Covelo CA.
Managing biodiversity in agricultural ecosystems. 2007.
Colombia University Press. D. I. Jarvis, C. Padoch, and
H. D. Cooper.
Multiple Cropping Systems. 1986. C. A. Francis, ed.
Macmillan Pub. Co., New York; Collier Macmillan,
London.
Nitrogen fixation in Tropical cropping systems. 2001.
CABI Publishing. Ken E. Giller.

Scope of Ecology
Ecology is primarily concerned with
those biological (and Biogeochemical)
processes that control the functioning
of populations, communities, and
ecosystems
over
large
spatial
(communities to global) and long
temporal (days-millennia) scales.

Ecosystem Properties:
Structure:
Species diversity: plants, animals, and
microbes; Community structure; Foodweb structure; Soil type: structure,
texture; Carbon and Nutrient Pools
Function:
Energy capture (primary productivity,
yield); Energy flow; Nutrient cycling;
Population regulation; Stability and
flexibility;
Disturbance
regime;
Succession.

BIODIVERSITY

What
is
Biological
Diversity
or
Biodiversity?
Biodiversity or biological diversity is defined
by the United Nations Convention on
Biological Diversity as:
"The variability among living organisms
from all sources, including, inter alia [among
other things], terrestrial, marine and other
aquatic ecosystems and the ecological
complexes of which they are part: this
includes diversity within species, between
species and of ecosystems."

Within that definition, there are 3 distinct levels


of biodiversity:
Species diversity: diversity among species
present in different ecosystems. This is the
diversity of populations of organisms and
species and the way they interact.
Genetic diversity: diversity of genes within a
species and processes such as mutations, gene
exchanges, and genome dynamics that occur
at the DNA level and generate evolution.
Ecosystem diversity: genetic, species, and
ecosystem diversity of a given region. This is
the diversity of species interactions and their
immediate environment.

Why is biodiversity important?


All species are an integral part of their ecosystem
by performing specific functions that are
often essential to their ecosystems and often to
human survival as well. Some of the functions
different species provide are to:
Capture and store energy
Produce organic material
Decompose organic material
Cycle water and nutrients
Control erosion or pests
Help regulate climate and atmospheric gases
We have an ethical responsibility to protect
biodiversity.

Why is biodiversity important?


Ecosystem diversity is important for
primary production in terms of:
Soil fertility
Plant pollination
Predator control
Waste decomposition
Removing species from ecosystems
removes those important functions.
Therefore, the greater the diversity of an
ecosystem the better it can maintain
balance and productivity and withstand
environmental stressors.

Why is biodiversity important?


Biodiversity is important economically in
terms of:
Food resources: agriculture, livestock, fish
and seafood
Biomedical research: coral reefs are home to
thousands of species that may be developed
into pharmaceuticals to maintain human
health and to treat and cure disease
Industry:
textiles,
building
materials,
cosmetics, etc.
Tourism and recreation: Beaches, forests,
parks, ecotourism

Why is biodiversity important?


Biodiversity has an intrinsic value
because all species:
Provide value beyond their economic,
scientific, and ecological contributions
Are part of our cultural and spiritual
heritage
Are valuable simply for their beauty
and individuality
Have a right to exist on this planet

Why is biodiversity important?


Biodiversity is important to science
because it helps us understand how
life evolved and continues to evolve. It
also provides an understanding on
how ecosystems work and how we can
help maintain them for our own
benefit.

FOOD CHAIN AND FOOD WEB

Names and word definitions of food chain


Producers. Organisms, such as plants,
that produce their own food are called
autotrophs. The autotrophs, as mentioned
before, convert inorganic compounds into
organic compounds. They are called
producers because all of the species of the
ecosystem depend on them.
Consumers. All the organisms that can not
make their own food (and need producers)
are called heterotrophs. In an ecosystem
heterotrophs are called consumers because
they depend on others. They obtain food by
eating other organisms.

Consumers i.e. :
Herbivores are those that eat only plants or plant
products.
Carnivores, on the other hand, are those that eat
only other animals.
Omnivores are the last type and eat both plants
(acting a primary consumers) and meat (acting as
secondary or tertiary consumers).
Trophic level. The last word that is worth
mentioning in this section is trophic level, which
corresponds to the different levels or steps in the
food chain. In other words, the producers, the
consumers, and the decomposers are the main
trophic levels.

FOOD WEB

The concept of food chain looks very simple,


but in reality it is more complex.
How many different animals eat grass?
How many different foods does the hawk
eat?
One doesn't find simple independent food
chains in an ecosystem, but many
interdependent and complex food chains
that look more like a web and are therefore
called food webs.
A food web that shows the energy
transformations in an ecosystem looks like

One way to calculate the energy transfer is


by measuring or sizing the energy at one
trophic level and then at the next.
Calorie is a unit of measure used for energy
The energy transfer from one trophic level to
the next is about 10%. For example, if
there are 10,000 calories at one level, only
1,000 are transferred to the next.
This 10% energy and material transfer rule
can be illustrate with an ecological
pyramid

SIKLUS BIOGEOKIMIAWI
MINGGU III

SIKLUS BIOGEOKIMIAWI
Siklus biogeokimia atau siklus organik anorganik
adalah siklus unsur atau senyawa kimia yang
mengalir dari komponen abiotik ke biotik dan
kembali lagi ke komponen abiotik.
Siklus unsur-unsur tersebut tidak hanya melalui
organisme, tetapi juga melibatkan reaksi reaksi
kimia dalam lingkungan abiotik sehingga disebut
siklus biogeokimia.
Siklus-siklus tersebut antara lain: siklus air,
siklus oksigen, siklus karbon, siklus nitrogen,
dan siklus sulfur.

Biogeokimia ialah suatu pertukaran atau


terjadinya perubahan yang berlansung terus
menerus antara komponen abiotik dengan
komponen biotik.
Fungsi dari daur biogeokimia yaitu untuk
menjaga kelangsungan hidup di bumi, sebab
materi hasil dari daur biogeokimia ini dapat
digunakan oleh semua komponen yang ada di
bumi seperti abiotik dan biotik.

BIOGEOKIMIA

Succession
Komunitas yang terdiri dari berbagai populasi
bersifat dinamis dalam interaksinya yang berarti
dalam
ekosistem
mengalami
perubahan
sepanjang masa. Perkembangan ekosistem
menuju kedewasaan dan keseimbangan dikenal
sebagai suksesi ekologis atau suksesi.
Suksesi terjadi sebagai akibat dari modifikasi
lingkungan
fisik
dalam
komunitas
atau
ekosistem. Proses suksesi berakhir dengan
sebuah komunitas atau ekosistem klimaks atau
telah tercapai keadaan seimbang (homeostatis).

Succession
A directional, cumulative change in the
species that occupy a given area, through
time.
Primary vs secondary
Autogenic vs allogenic
Progressive vs retrogressive
Cyclic vs directional

Primary succession
the establishment of plants on land not
previously vegetated (volcanic explosion)
Secondary succession
The invasion of land that has been
previously vegetated (fire, logging or
cultivation)

Autogenic succession
both the environment and the community
change and this metamorphosis is due to
the activities of the organism themselves
(environmental stress
adapted)
Allogenic succession
Due to major environmental change
beyond the control of the indigenous
organisms
(Env. Change
Changes the pattern of
vegetation)

Progressive succession
lead process that the communities with
greater and greater complexity and
biomass
Retrogressive succession
Lead process that the community toward
simpler (fewer species)

Cyclic succession
very local scale
climax community

new colonies

Directional succession
Characterized by an accumulation of
changes that leads to community-wide
changes

CROP ECOLOGY
EKOLOGI:
ilmu
yang
mempelajari
hubungan timbal balik antara faktor
biotik dan abiotik.
Scope: Distribution and Abundance
EKOLOGI TANAMAN: pengembangan dari
ekologi
dalam
lingkup
tanaman
(budidaya pertanian).

Peranan Ekologi Tanaman/pertanian


Peranan Informative: memberikan informasi
ilmiah mengenai lingkungan hidup tanaman
yang diperlukan untuk meningkatkan dan
mengembangkan teknik budidaya tanaman
yang lebih baik
Peranan Explanative: memberikan penjelasan
ilmiah tentang gejala pertumbuhan dan hasil
tanaman yang berkaitan dengan faktor
lingkungan.
Peranan Inovative: menemukan prinsip atau
teori baru yang berkaitan dengan timbal balik
antara lingkungan tanaman.

Peranan Ekologi Tanaman/pertanian


Peranan Predictive: meramalkan pertumbuhan
dan hasil tanaman pada waktu yang akan
datang mendasarkan pada analisis terhadap
sifat tanaman dan data lingkungan.
Peranan Applicative: memberikan landasan
ilmiah bagi tindakan budidaya tanaman yang
berkaitan dengak lingkungan hidup.

Changes in Agriculture in a given


period
1. Higher Yields
2. Higher annual variability (lower stability) in
yield (due to genetic uniformity of crops?)
3. Lower Crop Diversity (increased monoculture,
less rotation, less intercropping, etc.)
4. Higher Applications of Fertilizers
5. Higher Applications of Pesticides (incl.
Insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, etc.)
6. Improved Seeds (higher harvest index)
7. More Energy Intensive
8. Increased Soil Erosion

Changes in Agriculture in a given


period
9. Decreased Soil Fertility (loss of organic
matter, nutrient depletion)
10. Increased Nitrate Leaching
11. Less Effective Pest Control
12. Less Labor Intensive
13. More Subsidized
14. Less Profitable
15. Higher Risks
16. Fewer and Larger Farms (Greater inequity
in land ownership)

Goals of Agro-ecosystem
Management
Provide an adequate income to the
farmer
Maintain the resource base on
which future production depends
Produce enough food to meet the
demands (of the farm family, local
community, region or nation, or
globe)

Provide an adequate income to the farmer


"Agriculture" in the broad sense includes 3 or 4
linked enterprises:
Input suppliers (seeds, chemicals, machinery)
Producers (farmers/growers)
Processors (flour mills, oilseed extraction plants,
coffee roasters, etc.)
Marketers
When production exceeds demand, crop prices are
low-often lower than the costs of production.
Many countries of the world have policies that
provide subsidies to growers to maintain farm
income during periods of low crop prices.
(Subsidies may also be designed to promote
exports.)

Maintain the resource base on which future


production depends

Maintaining
the
resource
base
(soils,
biodiversity) is the core of most definitions of
sustainability.
Definitions of Sustainablity by The American
Society
of
Agronomy:
"A
sustainable
agriculture is one that, over the long term, (i)
enhances environmental quality and the
resource base on which agriculture depends,
(ii) provides for human fiber and food needs,
(iii) is economically viable, and (iv) enhances
the quality of life for farmers and society as a
whole."

Produce enough food to meet the demands


We will discuss Food Demand through an analysis of World
Food Production (FAO Data)
Questions:
What are the trends in crop yields?
What are the global patterns in food production?
How much food will be needed to feed the world at any
point in the near future?
Need to consider:
Population
Arable Land
Yields (Productivity, expressed as biomass per unit land
per unit time, usually kg ha-1 y-1)
These lead to estimates of:
Production = Land x Yield
Per Capita Food Availability = Production population

Strategies for meeting future food


demand
L. T. Evans (1998), "Feeding the 10 Billion":
increase the area of land under cultivation
increase in yield per hectare per crop [will have to
be the main route]
increase in the number of crops per hectare per
year [requires irrigation, fertilizer, short-season
varieties]
displacement of lower yielding crops by higher
yielding ones [reduced diversity could have
ecological costs]
reduction of post-harvest losses
reduced use of crops as feed for animals

The crop's environment can be


broken down as follows:
Environmental conditions which control
resource uptake; these may be either
Abiotic (e.g., weather, certain soil
characteristics)
Biotic (e.g., weeds, pests, pathogens,
soil organisms)
Consumable resources (CO2, light,
water, nutrients)

Environmental conditions refer to the things,


both abiotic and biotic, that influence the
rates and efficiencies at which plants
capture (or lose) supplies of these
resources.
Resources refer to the things plants consume
in their growth and reproduction, and

Resources
It is axiomatic that crop plants must consume
resources to grow and produce a harvestable
yield.
In most agro-ecosystems, crop productivity is
limited by the availability of one or more
required resources, most often nutrients,
water, and light.
The amount of yield achieved by a crop is a
function of both the level of limiting resources
available to the crop, and the efficiency with
which it uses these resources.

Environmental factors
I. CLIMATE
Important features of climate include:
light
temperature
humidity
precipitation
Wind
Climate includes both:
Resources [light, precipitation (actually, soil
water is the resource)]
Conditions (e.g., temperature, day length,
humidity, wind)

Environmental factors
II. SOILS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

SOIL CONSTITUENTS
MINERAL (INORGANIC) FRACTION
SOIL ORGANIC MATTER
SOIL STRUCTURE
SOIL TYPES
SOIL ORGANISMS
SOIL pH

Environmental factors
III.

RESOURCES
Light
Carbon dioxide
Water
Nutrient

CLIMATE
I.

LIGHT (Solar Radiation)


The seasonal distribution of light is
controlled by latitude. [How does
the light environment of tropical
latitudes differ from that of
temperate and boreal latitudes?]
Plants (including many crops) show
photoperiodic responses to day
length, particularly in their
phenology.

CLIMATE
I.

LIGHT (Solar Radiation)


Phenology has been defined as "the
sequence of development events
during the plant's life cycle as it is
determined by environmental
conditions" (Hall, 2001); these
include flowering, bolting, tuber
formation, etc.
"Long day" (LD) plants; "short-day"
(SD) plants; and "day neutral" (DN).

CLIMATE
II. TEMPERATURE
The seasonal and diurnal variation in
temperature increase with latitude
Temperature also decreases with
increasing altitude
The rate of temperature change with
altitude is called the lapse rate and is
about 1 0C 100 m-1 for dry air and
about 0.6 0C 100 m-1 for wet air.

CLIMATE
II. TEMPERATURE
Most plant processes have an optimum
temperature.
Respiration increases with increasing
temperature.
Plant development is mostly controlled by
temperature. Plants sense environmental
temperature in terms of degree days --the
cumulative number of the degrees above a base
or threshold temperature.
Crop plants exposed to higher than normal
temperatures develop at a more rapid rate (for
example, flower earlier), which could decrease
yield.

CLIMATE
III. PRECIPITATION
GO TO ANOTHER SLIDE :
RAINFALL N CROPPING SYSTEMS IN
INDONESIA?

SOILS
I. SOIL CONSTITUENTS
Atmosphere
Water
Mineral (inorganic) materials
Soil organic matter (SOM)
Soil organisms
The atmosphere below ground in the
soil difference substantially from that
aboveground. The soil atmosphere is
higher in CO2 and lower in O2

SOILS
Soil provide an important environment for
plants/crops due to:
1. Plants need anchorage, so that there
should be adequate soil layer.
2. Plants need water, so that soil should
hold adequate water and supply.
3. Plants need oxygen for respiration, so
that soil should be able to provide it
without any interruption.
4. Plant roots release CO2 during
respiration, and soil should be able to
regulate the movement of this gas
without allowing it to build up to toxic
levels

SOILS

5. Plants need nutrients from soils, which are


absorbed by roots, so that soils should
have some characteristics to supply and
retain nutrients.
6. Plants add a lot of dead material (OM) and
the soil should have able break them to
some form so that they will not interfere
with plants and their root systems.
7. Some plants through root exudates add to
soil toxic chemicals (allelo-chemicals) and
soil should be able to decompose them to
avoid root damage.

SOILS
8. During heavy rainy periods, large
volumes of water are added with a
very high intensities and the soil
should be able to handle these
volumes without severe soil losses
9. There are toxic gases released when
animal and root systems grow in
soils and soil should be able to either
release these gases to atmosphere or
convert to non-toxic form by other
reaction

SOILS
10.When both plant and animals live in
soil, it should be able to maintain
suitable temperatures required by
those living beings

SOILS
Therefore
Soils is suitable for everything at
anytime
It is required to treat the soil with the
right knowledge of it in order to
receive benefits the mankind wants
soil always have many associations and
interactions among these factors
(physical, chemical, physico-chemical
and biological factors)

Physical factors
Soil texture
Particle size distribution (clay, silt and
sand)
In general
Coarse sand
0.25 2.0 mm
Find sand
0.05 0.2 mm
Silt
0.002 0.05 mm
Clay
< 0.002 mm

Physical factors
Bulk density and porosity
Both factors related to:
1. Capacity for gas exchange
2. Root growth and penetration
3. Drainage and retain water
4. Infiltration and percolation

Physical factors
Soil structure
Composition of pores and soil
aggregates
Pores consist of :
Micro pores (capillary water retained)
Macro pores (gas exchange and
drainage)
Crumb structure best for agriculture
50 % each of micro and macro pores.

Physical factors
Soil water content
Saturated condition
Field capacity
Permanent wilting point
Soil temperature
Increase root growth and activities
Increase microbial population
Increase organic matter decomposition
Increase seed germination

Chemical factors
Nutrient contents in soil
Gas content
Chemical reactions

Physico-chemical factors
(good for agriculture)
pH (6 7)
CEC (Cation exchange capacity) (> 40 mg/100
g soil)
EC (electrical conductivity) = water quality
parameter (0.4 0.7 m mhos/cm)

Biological factors
Micro and macro both fauna and flora
Important activities:
Mineralization of organic matter
Nitrogen fixation in legumes
Micorrhyza promoting P absorption
Enzymes activities and nutrient
transformation in soils
Improve porosity by earthworm
(tunneling)
Improve root absorption activities

RESOURCES
Light
Quantity
Full Sunlight: 200-500 Wm-2 or 1000-2000
mol m-2 s-1 (W = J s-1)
Cloudy sky: 20-90 Wm-2 or 100-400 mol
m-2 s-1
Seasonality: The highest monthly (i.e.,
growing season) maximum light levels are at
higher latitudes.
Crop yields in the tropics (compared to
temperate zones) are ultimately limited by:
incident radiation
cloudiness-compare wet season and dry
season yields

RESOURCES
Growth and Yield are ultimately related to light
interception.
At the leaf level: There is a minimum amount
of light required for a positive net
photosynthesis to occur, called the light
compensation point.
At the canopy level: Some leaves in a canopy
will be shaded by other leaves, some below,
and
perhaps
some
below
the
light
compensation point.
Rates of canopy photosynthesis are usually
proportional to LAI

RESOURCES
At the crop level: Crop growth (and
yield) is generally a function of leafarea duration (LAD), the area under a
curve of LAI vs. time.
LAD is proportional to the total
amount of light energy absorbed
during the crop's growing season,
and thus to yield.

RESOURCES
CO2

The direct (physiological) effects of this


increase in atmospheric CO2 are:
increased rates of photosynthesis, especially
in C3 plants, resulting in higher crop yields.
increased water-use efficiency.
higher C:N ratios in plant biomass.
Higher CO2 concentrations induce partial
closing of the stomates, which increases the
resistance to the flow of water vapor,
reducing transpiration and thus increasing
water-use efficiency.

RESOURCES
Higher leaf temperatures (caused by
stomatal closure) associated with
increased [CO2] can lead to increased
leaf turnover rate (higher leaf
temperatures and more rapid leaf
aging),
Decreased specific leaf area, reducing
the CO2-fertilization effect.

RESOURCES
Soil Water
Field capacity is the amount of water
held in a saturated soil after all excess
water has drained off; the water
potential at field capacity is -0.1 to
-0.2 MPa.
Permanent wilting point is the point at
which a (particular) plant can no
longer absorb water from the soil, for
most plants in most soils the water
potential at the permanent wilting
point is about -1.5 MPa.

RESOURCES
Available water is the amount of water
between field capacity and permanent
wilting point.
Soil water content is influenced by both soil
texture and soil organic matter (SOM).
Fine-textured soils have a higher total pore
volume, and hence can hold more water.
Clay particles hold water more tightly. SOM
functions similar to clay particles in
affecting soil water-holding capacity and
soil water potential.

RESOURCES
Nutrition
Macronutrients, those required in rather
high amounts by plants, are nitrogen (N),
phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium
(Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S).
Most fertilizers contain N, P, and/or K.
Micronutrients are elements that are also
essential for growth but are required in
lower amounts; these include iron (Fe),
copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), boron (Bo),
molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn),
cobalt (Co), and chlorine (Cl).

Nutrient cycling
Refers to the processes that transfer nutrients
to and from plants and the various soil
(and atmospheric) pools.
These pools can be characterized as:
active, inorganic forms and microbial
biomass-very rapid turnover;
slow, new crop residues and coarse
particulate organic matter; and
Passive, fine particulate organic matter
and humic substances-very slow turnover.

Interactions between Resources and


Environmental Factors
Crop yield is a function of resource use. In general,
resource-use efficiencies are the products of
resource uptake (capture) and resource
utilization (biomass or yield produced per unit
of resource captured) (Janssen, 1998).
That is the relationship between yield (Y) and
resource supply (S) involves resource uptake (U):
Y/S = U/S (resource uptake) Y/U (resource
utilization efficiency)
Y/U is the physiological RUE, whereas U/S is the
ecological RUE.

Factors that influence crop yield are of


several types and include:
Resources not under grower control: light, CO2,
water (precipitation), nutrients released by
mineralization.
Environmental conditions, not under grower
control: temperature, wind, seasonality,
topography, length of growing season, relative
humidity; soil type, soil depth, SOM, soil pH;
pest, weed and pathogen populations (in part).
Resources under grower control: nutrients (from
fertilizer), water (from irrigation).

Factors that influence crop yield are of


several types and include:
Environmental conditions under partial
grower control: pest, weed, and pathogen
populations; SOM; soil structure; soil pH.
Crop varieties.
Management: land preparation, choice of
cropping system; choice of cultivars; date of
planting; plant population; timing of
nutrient input; timing of pest, weed and
pathogen
control;
date
of
harvest;
management of residues.
Infrastructural or institutional factors: access
to credit, suitable varieties, extension
services, inputs, markets.

Interactions Among Species in


Agroecosystems
This part of the course considers some of
the other organisms, in addition to crops
and soil organisms, that occur in
agroecosystems, particular herbivores
(mostly insects) and their predators, and
competitors (weeds). Pathogens are
discussed only briefly.

Herbivores
Why don't insects (and other herbivores)
consume all available plant biomass? That is,
Why is the world green?-most likely answers are
plant defenses that limit which herbivores can
feed on which plants, and predators that keep
herbivore populations in check.
Groups of herbivores:
Vertebrates-birds, mammals
Invertebrates-insects,
arachnids
(mites),
mollusks (snails, slugs). Of these groups insects
cause the greatest crop losses in most
agroecosystems.

Herbivores
Plant Strategies to cope with herbivory:
Escape-short life cycle
Tolerance--Compensation for tissue loss
Defense--protection of tissues
Ecological problems associated with insecticide
use:
1. Insecticide resistance
2. Pest Resurgence
3. Secondary Pest Outbreaks

Integrated Pest Management (IPM).

Competitors (Weeds)
Characteristics of Weeds
High seed production, competitiveness, low
attractiveness, seed longevity, seed dormancy,
rapid emergence.
Most weeds evolved from early successional
species; many are crop relatives

Competition/Niche Theory
Two species can occupy the same habitat and not
compete if:
The species use different resources. This is often
true for animals, but seldom true for plants.
Resources are sufficient for both. For example,
plants in the desert seldom compete for light.
The species obtain their resources from different
parts of the habitat. I.e., the species have a
somewhat different niche with respect to resource
acquisition.
Many plant ecologists (e.g., David Tilman)
maintain that plant species specialize with
respect to their ability to capture different
resources. This is probably not true, however, for
crops and weeds.

Competitors (Weeds)
Weeds reduce crop yield by reducing the
supply of resources through competition.
Plants use common resources--Light, C02,
Water, Nutrients.
Plants obtain resources from resource
depletion zones, which depend on root and
shoot architecture, and on resource
mobility.
Intensity of competition depends on the
degree of overlap of resource depletion zones.

Pathogens
Diseases reduce ecological resource use
efficiency by reducing resource uptake by
various mechanisms: obstructing vascular
tissues, damaging roots, restricting root
growth, or removing leaf area.
Plants possess morphological and chemical
defenses against pathogens:
Morphological-- cuticle
Chemical-- both constitutive and inducible
(inducible defenses against pathogens are
called phytoalexins)
These defenses most effective for aboveground
pathogens.

The Functional Role of Diversity in


Agroecosystems
Diversification is the Key to sustainability,
according to most agroecologists.
Diversity in cropping systems:
Monoculture:
Continuous
Crop Rotation-short rotations vs. long
rotations
Polyculture:
Intercropping
Agroforestry
Home-garden systems

Diversity has been defined as:


Richness-number of species
Equitability-number and relative abundance
Connectance or complexity-usually as foodweb complexity
Ecosystem function is usually defined in terms:
energy capture (i.e., productivity-yield
inagriculture)
nutrient cycling
population regulation (including food web
structure)
stability

Crop Rotation
Prior to development of agrichemicals,
rotations were the standard practice to
control pests and diseases and maintain
soil fertility.
Development of pesticides and herbicides
made continuous monoculture possible.
Thus continuous monoculture is a relatively
recent agricultural practice.

Crop Rotation
Short rotations vs Long (Extended) Rotations:
Short rotation:
Usually just 2 years
Objective is typically pest control
Corn-soybean is the commonest crop system in
the US-both crops have a high demand
Long (extended) rotations:
3 years or longer
Objectives are pest control, maintain soil
organic matter, reduce agrichemical inputs
Usually includes hay, pasture, or "green
manure" to improve soil fertility.

Crop Rotation
Rotation Effect!
This term refers generally to the higher yields
of most crops when grown in rotation, and
more specifically to the yield increases that
cannot be compensated for by input
substitutions.
Most crops produce higher yields in rotation
than in continuous cultivation, usually 1015% higher in maize (Singer & Cox, 1998).

Intercropping
Intercropping involves growing two crops in the same field
at the same time. The following are different ways of
intercropping, in order of increasing degree of association
between crop components:
Relay-intercropping-planting a second crop before
harvesting the first crop.
Strip-intercropping-growing 2 or more crops in alternating
strips. Smith & Carter (1997) found that maize grown in a
strip intercrop with alfalfa produced yields 6% higher in
40-ft wide strips, 11% higher in 20-ft wide strips, and
17% higher in 10-ft wide strips. May be due to extra light
in border rows of maize.
Between-row intercropping -growing 2 or more crops in
alternating rows.
Within-row intercropping -growing 2 or more crops in the
same rows.
Between-row and within-row intercrops may be either
additive or replacement designs.

Intercropping Concepts.
Additive vs. replacement intercrops. In an additive
intercrop both species are planted at the same density as
in their respective monoculture; in a replacement
intercrop a row of one crop "replaces" a row of the second
crop in forming the intercrop. Additive intercrops double
the density, and therefore may use resources more
completely.
Duration refers to the temporal overlap of the intercrop
components:
Differing duration-usually combines a short season crop
and a long season crop. Intercrops of differing duration
are usually additive.
Similar duration-competition more intense because both
components are using resources at the same time.
Intercrops of similar duration tend to be replacement
types.

Intercropping Concepts.
Dominant vs. subordinate components.
Typically, one crop component of the
intercrop is more competitive and hence
dominates the mixture in terms of growth
and yield.
Dominance may be due to:
Rapid initial growth
Height
Photosynthetic pathway (C4 crops tend to
be dominant when grown with C3 crops)
Legumes are usually subordinate

Measuring Intercrop Performance


The performance of intercrops relative to
monocultures of the component crops is usually
measured as Land-equivalent ratios (LER) or relative
yield totals (RYT):
Relative Yield (RY) = Yield in intercrop/Yield in
monoculture
LER = RYT = Y(i)/Y(m) = RY(1) + RY(2) + RY(3) + ....
When LER or RYT > 1, the intercrop is said to show
overyielding. That is, the intercrops are more
productive than the monocultures of the components
crops.
The RYs of dominant components are often close to
1.0; efforts to increase intercrop performance often
center on increasing the RY of the subordinate
component.

Global Change and Agriculture


Global warming
Evidence of global warming:
Temperature records-most of the increase
has been in night temperature
Retreat of glaciers; decreased snow and ice
cover
Measurable rise in sea level
Increased heat content of oceans
Increased plant growth (Myneni et al. 1997)

Global Change and Agriculture


The latter include:
Increased values of NDVI (normalized difference
vegetation index) detected by remote sensing
Increased biomass deposition in European forests
Increased recent tree-ring growth in Mongolia
Upward migration of plants on European mountain
tops
The increase in plant growth is likely due to longer
growing seasons; high latitude winter temperatures
increased up to 4 C in the winter.
Nicholls (1997) attributes 30-50% of the increased
wheat yield in Australia since 1952 to decreased
frequency of frost.

Global Change and Agriculture


Presumed causes of global warming:
Greenhouse gases-CO2, CH4, N20 (nitrous
oxide), CFCs (chloroflurocarbons)
Land-use changes.
Deforestation
Increased fire frequency
That greenhouse gases have caused global
warming as not been "proved", there are still
valid disagreements.

Global Change and Agriculture


Robinson et al. (1998, unpublished
paper privately distributed) dispute
that any global warming has occurred
in response to increased CO2. It is
accurate to say that there is currently
a strong concensus among scientists
that
changes
in
atmospheric
chemistry are affecting climate in
predictable and understandable ways.

Global Change and Agriculture


Effects of [CO2] on Plant Growth
Gross
photosynthesis
increases
and
photorespiration decreases.
Stomatal resistance increases (stomates close
partially in response to increased [CO2]),
transpiration therefore decreases, and water-use
efficiency increases (since stomatal closure
affects transpiration rates more than CO2 uptake
rates).
C3 vs C4 plants: Growth of C3 plants would be
enhanced more than that of C4 plants

Global Change and Agriculture


Interactions need to be considered:
[CO2] and other resources. For example, if
N is limiting, increased [CO2] may not
increase crop growth.
[CO2] and environmental influences
(especially temperature).

Global Change and Agriculture


Affects of Global Change on Agriculture
The overwhelming evidence from (short term)
experiments
with
increased
[CO2]
(either
greenhouse or FACE-free atmosphere carbon
dioxide enrichment-studies) is that biomass
and/or seed production increases with increasing
[CO2].
These studies are almost always done with (1) no
temperature increase, and (2) optimum levels of
other resources, especially N and water.
[One interesting conclusion we might draw is that
much of the crop yields experienced in the past 50
years must be due to increased [CO2] and not just
breeding and improved management, as usually
assumed.]

Example of case

CROP ECOLOGY