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Lecture ID: ET- IDA-113/114

Tutorial-5

Theory of Secret-Key Ciphers, Block Ciphers

20.05.2012 , v07

Prof. W. Adi

Page : 1

Shannon security theorem: Perfect Security condition is

H (Z) K

nu

r

r

Unicity Distance nu

H (Z) H (X)

Where r is the

clear text redundancy

N H(X )

N

N Bits

Clear text

L

H(X)

N H ( X)

r

N

Bits padding

and

nu

r

r

After PTP:

L N

Random pattern

New unicity distance:

K

r

n u L

N

N

nu

Page : 2

Problem 5-1:

The following two mapping functions, F and transposition are to be used

as a round operation in a block cipher.

L

n

( )2

|*|n

Ki

of the product are taken

squaring

Transposition

1.

2.

3.

Compute the cipher text Y = R1, L1 for an input R=9, L=11 using two rounds

with the keys K1=2, K2=3. Take n=4 bits.

Decipher the cryptogram Y

Page : 3

Solution 5-1:

L

1. Involution proof

for function F

|*|n

( )2

+

L + R.K2 + R.K2

=

L

IDA: Institute of Computer and Network Engineering

take as a result only the

first n LSB bits of the

product

L+ R.K2

( )2

Input

|*|n

R

Same as input !

F*F=1

F=F-1

=> F is an Involution

Cellular & Wireless Networks

Page : 4

Solution 5-1:

11

2. Encryption

9 )decimal

(1011 1001)binary

n=4 bits

4

36

( )2

|*|4

take only the the

first 4 LSB bits of the

product

1001

15

9

135

( )2

|*|4

7

1001 +0111=1110

1111

Cryptogram Y = 1111

1111

Technical University of Braunschweig

1110

1110

Cellular & Wireless Networks

Page : 5

Solution 5-1:

1111

1110

14

15

Cryptogram Y = 1111

1110

3. Decryption

n=4 bits

9

135

( )2

|*|4

take only the the

first 4 LSB bits of the

product

1111

9

4

36

( )2

|*|4

4

1111 + 0100 = 1011 = 11

Technical University of Braunschweig

Clear Text = 11

Cellular & Wireless Networks

9

Page : 6

Problem 5-2:

A cipher encrypting an information block of 250 bits. The entropy of the

information source is 150 bits. The key length of the cipher is 64 bits.

How many cryptogram (cipher text) bits are at least necessary for an

attacker to observe, in order to be theoretically capable to break the cipher.

Solution 5-2:

The minimum number of cipher text bits necessary to enable theoretically

breaking the cipher is the unicity distance nu

Where:

nu

K

r

The Information redundancy is :

N

nu = K/r = 64/0.4 = 160 bits

Technical University of Braunschweig

Page : 7

Problem 5-3:

A cipher having a key length of 80 bits is encrypting a clear text information block of length 800 bits

having an information entropy of 300 bits.

1.

2.

Find the new unicity distance if a random pattern of 1000 bits is appended to the information

block.

How much Is the change in the new channel data rate

3.

Solution 5-3:

1. The unicity distance can be found by substituting in the formula:

N H(X )

N

= 800-300/800 = 0.625,

nu

K

r

n u L N nu

N

nu

K

r

, r is to be computed.

3. 800 useful data bits and 1000 non-useful random bits are appended to enhance security

however, these additional random bits include no transmitted information.

percentage of useful data is = 800 / (800 + 1000) = 44% thus the channel data rate is reduced

by 100% -44% = 56%

Technical University of Braunschweig

Page : 8

Problem 5-4:

A cipher is to be designed with a unicity distance of 2500 bits.

1.

Compute the key length required for the cipher if the encrypted clear text block length is 1000

bits and clear text entropy is 500 bits.

Find the required data compression to reduce the key length by 20% without reducing the system

security (unicity distance).

The unicity distance is to be increased to 3000 bits, how many random bits are to be padded to

the information block to achieve the new unicity distance

2.

3.

Solution 5-4:

1. The key length can be found by substituting in the relation:

Where: nu=2500

and

N H(X )

N

= 1000-500/1000 = 0.5,

K

nu

r

nu

K

r

K = 1250 bits

2. To reduce the key length by 20%= 1250 x 0.2 = 250 bits to become 1000 bits, and still keep the

unicity distance unchanged =2500, the new redundancy is r = K/n u= 1000/2500 = 0.4 to find the

new data length, substitute in the redundancy formula

r

3.

N H (X )

N

n u L

N

nu

N

3000 = [(L + 833)/833] 2500 => L=167 random bits are to be appended to 833

Page : 9

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