You are on page 1of 16

AUTOMOBILE AERODYNAMICS

GAUTAM BUDDHA UNIVERSITY


By:Manish Tomar (10/IME/029)
Himant Sirohi (10/IME/022)
Sumit Bhati (10/IME/0

CONTENTS
About
Historic Overview
Elements of Aerodynamics
Aerodynamic tools
Effect of Aerodynamics on Automobile Performance
Tools of Aerodynamics
Validation

ABOUT
Aerodynamics is study of the properties of air, when solid bodies are
moving through air. The dynamics between these two interacting surfaces
is aerodynamics.
Importance of Automobile Aerodynamics emerged from Formula races
dating back to 1915.
The soul purpose was to reduce drag during initial development in
aerodynamics, and clock faster average times in formula races.
General aspect of aerodynamics was not seen in passenger vehicles due to
low speed till around 1940-50s. As automobile industry developed, need
for aerodynamics was felt, to increasing stability at high speed and
maneuverability.
As the speed limits increased, the development in aerodynamics from F1
started trickling down to passenger Automobiles.
Nowadays there are various methods available to measure aerodynamics
of car.

HISTORIC OVERVIEW
Automobile aerodynamics were born
from initial need of drag reduction in
formula cars, first foundation was laid in
Indianapolis 500 in 1916, water drop
shaped cars came into existence.
The 1924 tropfenwagen was the most
significant design of that era.
Then aerodynamics evolved and need
for downforce was realized nad
simultaneously tire development took
place.
Second figure shows a 1965 chaparral 2c.

Wings were then widely


used in 1966 formula
races, it was introduced
with chaparral 2E.
Some solutions came in
as adjustable wings and
suction fans, to create
efficient engines. 1968
Lotus and chaparral
2J(sucker car) are few
examples.
Then came modern era
cars with reversed wing
underbody and sealing
skirts.

Chaparral 2E

1968 Lotus

Chaparral 2J

1978 Lotus

Even the old trucks were usually of non aerodynamics and box type.
When speed limit of trucks were raised, new era of trucks with hood came
in effect.
New trucks length shape and size are governed by many factors, so in
trucks COE (Cab over engine) is widely preferred in India to decrease
overall length of vehicle.

Old Freightliner pickup trucks COE type

New Freightliner Cascadia truck

Cars are where the aerodynamics play the major role, so main focus will
be on cars.
Cars are generally defined in three types:1. Hatchback
2. Notchback
3. Fastback
. These are defined on the basis of 3 or 2 quarters box design of car.
. As fuel is becoming costlier, the automobile companies need to think on
ways of making automobiles efficient and vehicle aerodynamics is a good
area.

ELELMENTS OF AERODYNAMICS
Lift (Downforce)
Drag
Weight
Thrust
Pitch Angle
Yaw Angle

Pitch angle is an extent to which angle a cars front end will move during
acceleration and deceleration.
Yaw angle is defined as relative angle between direction of motion of
vehicle to relative wind direction.

AERODYNAMIC TOOLS
Airfoils
Airfoil can be defined as a shape of wing, as seen in cross-section. In order
to describe an airfoil, we must define the following terms: The mean camber line is a line drawn midway between the upper and
lower surfaces.
The leading and trailing edge are the most forward an rearward of the mean
camber line.
The chord line is a line connecting leading an trailing edge.
The chord length is the distance from the leading to the trailing edge,
measured along the chord line.
The camber is the maximum distance between mean camber line and
chord line.
The thickness is the distance between the upper and lower surfaces.

REAR WINGS
These are used to create downforce on vehicle to keep it stabilized and helps in
taking corners at faster speeds.
These produce 30 to 35% of the total downforce on vehicle.
FRONT WING
It produces approximately 1/3rd of total downforce on vehicle.
It also has a task of efficiently guide the air towards the body and rear of the car.
The turbulent flow impacts the efficiency of the rear wing.
BARGE BOARDS
SIDE SKIRTS to seal the sidepods surfaces and direct air.
VORTEX GENERATORS
STEPPED UNDERBODIES
SCOOPS

AERODYNAMICS AND
PERFORMANCE
The aerodynamics depends on the body
shape and velocity.
The chart on right shows the trend in
maximum cornering acceleration from past
50 years.

Downforce and drag coefficient vs ground clearance for an


inverted airfoil

Lift and drag coefficients for


the rear wing of a generic
open-wheel race car. AR = 1.5,
and coefficients are based on
plan view area. AR, aspect
ratio. [Katz & Dykstra (1989),
SAE Paper 89,0600 c 1989 SAE
International.]

Lift and drag coefficient variation with front wing flap angle. Circular symbols represent
vehicle total loads and square symbols represent loads on the front wing only. [Katz &
Garcia (2002), SAE Paper 2002-01-3311 c 2002 SAE International.]