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LINKING THEORIES TO

PRACTICE
-READING-

AIMS

Aims of teaching reading


To help pupils develop independence
in reading
To allow appropriate responses to
text
To help pupils develop appropriate
reading speed
To help pupils progress in silent
reading skills
To enable pupils develop appropriate
reading attitudes and strategies

TYPES
OF
READING

Intensive Reading

analytical reading - involves close reading of the text to


understand meaning in greater detail.
involves learners reading in detail with specific learning aims
and tasks.
involves reading with care and concentration to extract
specific meaning of information from the text.

Extensive Reading

Extensive reading is reading for general knowledge and


pleasure.

There is no pressure for detailed understanding or comprehension of the text.

Through extensive reading, the reading habit can be


nurtured.
*Teachers play important roles in ensuring the success of
extensive reading programmes in schools.(NILAM)

READING PROCESS

Bottom-up reading
model
process of decoding a series of
written symbols into aural sounds.
Meaning is then derived from the
blending of sounds.
Example reading activity : phonics

(Cambroune,
1979)

Top-down reading model


reverse of the bottom-up model
Readers use their background
knowledge to make predictions as
they read the text
Example reading activities:
predicting consequences of an event
in a story

STAGES
OF
READING

Stage 1 Reading Readiness


aim:
to motivate learners to read in
English
to promote the students ability to
recognise letters
Activity: practice drawing the
alphabet on various surfaces
( sandplay)
Piaget: sensorimotor (preoperational

Stage 2 : Early reading


Aim :
To stimulate curiosity and motivation
To develop language and
comprehension skills
To develop word recognition skills
Activity
Sight word approach (cognitive)

Stage 3 Developmental
reading
Aims
: to develop silent reading skill
To familiarize students with sentence
structure(passive, active) and patterns
Activities
Predicting outcomes, guessing word
meanings using contexts (Howard
Gardner,)

PRINCIPLES
FOR
TEACHING READING

The texts and tasks should be accessible to the


students.
Tasks should be clearly given in advance.
Tasks should be designed to encourage reading
for the main meaning rather than test the
students understanding of trivial details.
Tasks should help develop students reading
skills and strategies rather than test their
reading comprehension.
Teachers should help the students to read on
their own, so that they eventually become
independent readers.