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Digital Signal Processing (DSP) Fundamentals
Digital Signal Processing
(DSP)
Fundamentals

Signal Processing

Humans are the most advanced signal processors

speech and pattern recognition, speech synthesis,…

We encounter many types of signals in various applications

Electrical signals: voltage, current, magnetic and electric fields,… Mechanical signals: velocity, force, displacement,… Acoustic signals: sound, vibration,… Other signals: pressure, temperature,…

Most real-world signals are analog

They are continuous in time and amplitude Convert to voltage or currents using sensors and transducers

Analog circuits process these signals using

Resistors, Capacitors, Inductors, Amplifiers,…

Analog signal processing examples

Audio processing in FM radios Video processing in traditional TV sets

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Limitations of Analog Signal Processing

Accuracy limitations due to

Component tolerances Undesired nonlinearities

Limited repeatability due to

Tolerances Changes in environmental conditions

Temperature Vibration

Sensitivity to electrical noise Limited dynamic range for voltage and currents Inflexibility to changes Difficulty of implementing certain operations

Nonlinear operations Time-varying operations

Difficulty of storing information

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351M Digital Signal Processing (Spring

2005)

Copyright (C) 2005 Güner Arslan

Digital Signal Processing  Represent signals by a sequence of numbers  Sampling or analog-to-digital conversions
Digital Signal Processing
 Represent signals by a sequence of numbers
 Sampling or analog-to-digital conversions
 Perform processing on these numbers with a digital processor
 Digital signal processing
 Reconstruct analog signal from processed numbers
 Reconstruction or digital-to-analog conversion
digital
digital
signal
signal
analog
analog
A/D
DSP
D/A
signal
signal
Analog input – analog output
– Digital recording of music
Analog input – digital output
– Touch tone phone dialing
Digital input – analog output
– Text to speech
Digital input – digital output
– Compression of a file on computer
Copyright (C)
2005 Güner
Arslan
351M Digital Signal Processing (Spring 2005)
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What is DSP?  Converting a continuously changing waveform (analog) into a series of discrete levels
What is DSP?
 Converting a continuously changing
waveform (analog) into a series of discrete
levels (digital)

What is DSP?

The analog waveform is sliced into equal segments and the waveform amplitude is measured in the middle of each segment

The collection of measurements make up the digital representation of the waveform

What is DSP? 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 1 0 0.22 3
What is DSP?
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DSP is Everywhere!

Audiological equipment Hearing aids Otoacoustic systems Audiometers Aural rehabilitation programs ABRs Telecommunications Cellular phones Voice over Internet Audio CD, DVD, DAT players MP3 players Biomedical monitoring equipment Digital Television

Pros and Cons of Digital Signal Processing

Pros

Accuracy can be controlled by choosing word length Repeatable Sensitivity to electrical noise is minimal

Dynamic range can be controlled using floating point numbers Flexibility can be achieved with software implementations Non-linear and time-varying operations are easier to implement

Digital storage

is cheap

Digital information can be encrypted for security

Price/performance and reduced time-to-market

Cons

Sampling causes loss of information A/D and D/A requires mixed-signal hardware Limited speed of processors Quantization and round-off errors

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351M Digital Signal Processing (Spring

2005)

Copyright (C) 2005 Güner Arslan

Analog vs Digital

Analog

infinitely detailed continuous in time continuous in amplitude

Digital

discrete numbers discrete in time discrete in amplitude

Challenge: a digital representation that adequately maps the analog values.

Why digital?

Flexibility Programmability Reproducibility and Precision (??) Advanced Signal Processing

Multichannel compression Precise frequency shaping Feedback cancellation Noise reduction Directional processing

DSP Applications  Digital signal analysis/display  Digital recording, processing, and reproduction  Digital signal synthesis
DSP Applications
 Digital signal
analysis/display
 Digital
recording,
processing, and
reproduction
 Digital signal
synthesis
Analog-to-Digital Conversion 5 Analog 0 -5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
Analog-to-Digital Conversion
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Quantization

The sampled values are converted into bit representation

The process is called “Quantization”

The performance of a quantizer is dependent on the number of bits, also called bit resolution.