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Second Lecture

Computer Hardware and


Software

INPUT DEVICES
Input devices are used to capture
data into the computer or an
information processing system
An input device is any piece of
computer hardware equipment

EXAMPLES OF INPUT DEVICES


Compact Disc (CD) - CDs store information.
The CD can then be put into another
computer, and the information can be
opened and added or used on the second
computer. Note: A CD-R or CD-RW can also
be used as an OUTPUT device.
Keyboard - The keyboard is a way to input
letters or numbers into different
applications or programs. A keyboard also

Mouse - The mouse is used to open and


close files, navigate web sites, and click on
a lot of commands (to tell the computer
what to do) when using different
applications.
Digital Camera - A digital camera can be
used to take pictures. It can be hooked up
to a computer to transfer the pictures from
the camera to the computer. Some digital
cameras hold a floppy disk, and the floppy
disk can be taken out of the camera and
put directly into the computer.

Drawing Tablet - A drawing tablet is


similar to a white board, except you
use a special pen to write on it and
it's connected to the computer.
Then the word or image you draw
can be saved on the computer.

Examples cntd

Microphone - A microphone is used to


record sound. The sound is then
saved as a sound file on the computer.
Scanner - A scanner is used to copy
pictures or other things and save
them as files on the computer.
Disk Drive - A disk drive can hold a CD
or a floppy disk. It reads the
information on the disk so that the
computer can use it.

Joystick - A joystick is used to move the cursor


from place to place, and to click on various
items in programs. A joystick is used mostly
for computer games.

Touch Screen - A touch screen is a computer


screen or other screen that you can touch with
your finger to enter information. Examples of
touch screens include a smart board, a
microwave, a dishwasher, or an ATM at a bank.
Bar Code Scanner - A bar code scanner scans a
little label that has a bar code on it. The
information is then saved on the computer. Bar
code scanners are used in libraries a lot.

The Central Processing Unit ( CPU)


Performs the actual processing of
data.
Often referred to as the brain of
the computer.
Responsible for controlling all
activities of the computer system.
Motherboard: The place where
most of the electronics including
the CPU are mounted.

The major components of the CPU


are:
1.Arithmetic Logic Unit
(Computations performed)
performs mathematical
computations on Data (additions,
subtrations, multiplication etc)
It can also perform simple logical
tests for equality and greater than
and less than between operands.

2. Control Unit

controls the fetching of instructions from the


main memory and the subsequent execution
of these instructions.

Among other tasks carried out are the control


of input and output devices and the passing
of data to the Arithmetic/Logical Unit for
computation.

Main/Primary Memory
The primary memory of CPU is the place
where computer program and data is stored
during processing.
This storage unite is often called either main
memory or primary memory.
There two types primary memory
RAM (Random Access Memory)
ROM (Read Only Memory)

RANDOM ACCESS
MEMORY(RAM)
This is the section of the memory
that is used to store data and
information currently in use and it
the memory that is immediately
accessible to the user
This type of memory enhances
the speed of the computer
The computer cannot function
without RAM

RAM
Since RAM is volatile, as soon as the
power is switched off, all the
information in the RAM is lost
Features OF RAM
It holds the data and instructions
currently in use
Information in this memory can be read,
written, and changed
It is volatile

READ ONLY MEMORY(ROM)


READ ONLY MEMORY CAN ONLY
BE ACCESSED BUT CANNOT BE
CHANGED.
ROM IS USED TO STORE
INSTRUCTIONS TO START UP THE
COMPUTER AND CANNOT BE
CHANGED BY THE USER.

Size of Memory
The computer represents all data
using just two numbers 1s and 0s.
These are called binary digits, or
bits.

A byte is a group of 8 bits.


An example of a byte could be 0 1 1
0 0 0 1 1.

Computer memory can store lots of bytes of data


the table below summarises the different
memory sizes.
Unit
Value
Also equals . . .

bit

1 or 0

byte

8 bits

Kilobyte

1024 bytes

Megabyte 1024 Kilobytes


Gigabyte

1,048,576 bytes

1024 Megabytes 1,073,741,824 bytes

Output devices
Output devices are basically used
to get Information from the
Computer.
These are devices that display or
output work done by a computer
in a meaningful or readable format

Examples of output devices


Monitor - A monitor is the screen on which
words, numbers, and graphics can be seem.
The monitor is the most common output
Compact Disk - Some compact disks can be
used to put information on. This is called
burning information to a CD.
NOTE: A CD can also be an input device.
Printer - A printer prints whatever is on the
monitor onto paper. Printers can print
words, numbers, or pictures.
Speaker - A speaker gives you sound output
from your computer. Some speakers are built
into the computer and some are separate.

Disk Drives - A disk drive is used to


record information from the computer
onto a floppy disk or CD.
Floppy Disk - A floppy disk is used to
record information on. The information
is stored on the floppy disk and can be
used later or used on another computer.
Headphones Headphones give sound
output from the computer. They are
similar to speakers, except they are
worn on the ears so only one person
can hear the output at a time.

STORAGE DEVICES
Storage devices are used to keep
or store information for later use.
Information processed by the CPU
is saved onto a storage device.
The Information can then be
retrieved later for use again
There are two types of storage
devices used in computers;

primary storage device


secondary storage device.

Secondary Storage Devices


the devices of computer that store
information such as software and
data permanently are called
secondary storage device .
there are many types of secondary
storage devices such as ,magnetic
disk,Hard disk floppy disk , CD Rom ,
magnetic tape etc

EXAMPLES OF SECONDARY STORAGE


DEVICES

Hard disks
Floppy Disks
Data Cartridges
CD-ROM
Magnetic Disks
Zip Disks
Flash Memory/Memory stick

Interface Devices
An interface device (IDF) is a
hardware component or
system of components that
allows a human being to
interact with a computer, a
telephone system, or other
electronic information system

Centralised Computer
System
In a centralised Computer system, the
central computer does all the
processing and storage of data.
The centralised computer controls all
operations and workstations are for
data input and output

Centralized data processing.


All data processing operations and
calculations are executed by the
central computer.
The different departments have
terminals, linked to the central
computer.
Centralized data. Data is stored in a
centralized data storage under the
control of the central computer.

Example of a Centralised Computer


System

Airplane ticket reservation service is a


typical example of a centralized system.

There is one central computer that serves a


lot of ticket sell desks.
It keeps up data about all flights and
vacancies.
All ticked reservation activities are
performed in the central computer, while
there are terminals only at the sell desks for
order input and printing of the results.

ADVANTAGES OF A CENTRALISED
SYSTEM
The main advantages are:
easy to manage, less personnel costs.
one computer is enough to support several
information systems in the company
Centralised management of all users,
processes, applications, backups and security
Has lower costs of ownership
Centralised file storage

Disadvantages of A centralised
system
When the Central Computer goes
down, everyone in the company
will be down as well.
There is also risk of data loss
when data is controlled at the
central position

DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
What is a distributed system?
Andrew Tannenbaum defines it as follows:
A distributed system is a collection of independent
computers that appear to its users as a single
coherent system.
A simpler definition would be as follows
A distributed system is a collection of independent
computers that are used jointly to perform a single
task or to provide a single service.

THE ADVANTAGES OF
DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
Cost. Better price/performance
Performance. By using the combined
processing and storage
capacity of many nodes, performance
levels can be reached that are out of the
scope of centralised machines

Advantages cntd.
Scalability. Resources such as
processing and storage capacity can
be increased incrementally
Reliability. By having redundant
components, the impact of hardware
and software faults on users can be
reduced

THE DISADVANTAGES OF DISTRIBUTED


SYSTEMS
New component: network. Networks
are needed to connect independent
nodes, are subject to performance
limits, and constitute another potential
point of failure
Security. It is easier to compromise
distributed systems

Disadvantages cntd.
Software complexity. Distributed
software is more complex and
harder to develop than
conventional software hence, it is
more expensive and harder to get
right
Distributed systems are hard to
build and understand

Client Server System


A computing system that is composed
of two logical parts:
a server, which provides services, and
a client, which requests them.
The two parts can run on separate
machines on a network, allowing users
to access powerful server resources
from their personal computers.

Advantages Of Client/Server
Systems

Reduction of responsibilities and cost


overhead at centre

Better local cost control of operationsand


development
Faster response time to requests for
processing
Greater access to corporate data and
knowledge otherwise maintained in a highly
protected and centralized data structure

Enable distribution of processing from


centralized to desktop computing.
Offers cooperative processing between
individuals and group departments across
organizationalboundaries, geographies
and time zones
Security
+One machine can secure entire network
+One central login.

Scalability
+Easy to add new resources

Offers more friendly interfaces for end


users especially knowledge workers and
customers.

Greater involvement of end users in IT


implementation

Centralised Resources
+All data stored in one location
+Easier to backup files and data
+Easier to find files and data
Efficient
+Software optimised for multiple users
+Hardware optimised for multiple users

Disadvantages of Client Server

+If the server goes down, it


takes part or the whole network
with it.
+It is more expensive to install.
+Needs to be maintained by staff
with high IT skills.

COMPUTER SOFTWARE

Computer Software
The term Computer Software refers
to a set of instructions given to the
computer to perform a specific task.
The set of instructions is called a
computer program.
The user needs to understand some
software concepts to be able to
interact with the computer

Categories of Software
There are two types of Software:
SYSTEMS SOFTWARE
APPLICATIONS SOFTWARE

Computer Components
(Software)
System Software
Programs that control the operations of
the computer and its devices
Example is the Operating Systems e.g.
Microsoft XP
Application Software
Specific programs that are used to
perform specific tasks
Examples are Microsoft Word, Microsoft
PowerPoint etc

SYSTEMS SOFTWARE

SYSTEM SOFTWARE OVERVIEW

System software consists of


programs that manage and support a
computer system and its information
processing activities.

System Management Programs


Programs that manage the hardware, software,
and data resources of the computer system
during its execution of the various information
processing jobs of users. They include:
Operating Systems
Network Management Programs
Database Management Systems
System Utilities

System Development Programs


Programs that help users develop information
system programs andprepare user programs
for processing. Major development programs
include:
Programming Language Translators and Editors
Programming Tools
CASE (Computer-Aided Software Engineering)
Packages

OPERATING SYSTEMS
The most important system software package
for any computer is its operating system. An
operating system is an integrated system of
programs that:
Manages the operations of the CPU
Controls the input/output and storage resources
and activities of the computer system
Provides various support services as the
computer executes the application programs of
users.

Primary purpose of the operating


system is:
Maximize the productivity of a computer system
by operating it in the most efficient manner.
Minimize the amount of human intervention
required during processing.
Helps your application programs perform
common operations such as accessing a network,
entering data, saving and retrieving files and
printing or displaying output.

Operating System Functions

The User Interface


The user interface is the part of the
operating system that allows the end user
to communicate with the operating system
so they can load programs, access files,
and accomplishes other tasks. Three main
types of user interfaces are:
Command Driven
Menu Driven
Graphical User Interface (GUI)

Trend
Moving Away From:
The entry of brief end user commands,
and choices from menus of options
Moving Towards:
Easy-to-use graphical user interface
(GUI), which uses icons, bars, buttons,
boxes, and otherimages relying on
pointing devices, like the electronic
mouse or trackball to make selections
that help you get things done.

What is a graphical user interface


(GUI)?
Allows you to
interact with
the software
using graphics
and icons
Controls how
you enter data
and how the
screen displays
information

Resource Management
An operating system uses a variety of
resource management programs to
manage the hardware and networking
resources of the computer system,
including its:

CPU
Memory
Secondary Storage Devices
Telecommunications processors
Input/Output Peripherals

Memory management programs:


Keep track of where data and
programs are stored.
May also subdivide memory into a
number of sections and swap parts of
programs and data between main
memory and magnetic disks or other
secondary storage devices.

File Management
File management programs of an operating
system:
Control the creation, deletion, and access
of files of data and programs.
Keep track of the physical location of files
on magnetic disks and other secondary
storage devices, such that each application
program is running independently at the
same time.

Task Management
Task management programs of an
operating system:
Manage the accomplishment of the
computing tasks of end users.
Allocate CPU time to tasks and
interrupt tasks being executed to
substitute other tasks.
May involve a multitaskingcapability
where tasks of several programs can
process at the same time.

Popular Operating Systems

MS-DOS
Windows 95/200/Vista/XP/7/8
Linux
Unix

APPLICATION
SOFTWARE

Application Software
What is application software?

Programs that perform specific tasks for users

Types of Application
Software

Proprietary
Designed to solve a unique and specific
problem
In-house
Development of application software using
the companys resources
Contract
Developed for a particular company
Off-the-shelf
An existing software program that can be
used without considerable changes
expected

Application
software

Proprietary
software

In-house
developed

Off-the-shelf
software

Customized
package

Contract

In-house
customized

Contract
customization

Standard
package

Application Software
How is software distributed?
Packaged software
Custom software
Shareware,
distributed free for
trial period
Freeware, copyrighted
software provided at
no cost
Public-domain
software, freeware
with no copyright
restrictions

Business Software

Software that assists people in becoming more effective and efficient

Business Software
What is word processing software?

Allows users to create and manipulate text and graphics


documents

What is voice recognition?

The computers capability of distinguishing spoken words

What is spreadsheet software?

A spreadsheet is an interactive computer application program


for organization, analysis and storage of data in tabular form.

What is database software?

A Database is a software tool that allows multiple users to store,


access, and process data into useful information.

Business Software
What is presentation graphic software?

Used to create visual aids for presentations.


A presentation is sometimes called a slide show e.g. Ms Power
point.

What is note taking software?

Enables users to enter typed text, handwritten comments,


drawings, or sketches anywhere on the page

What is PDA software?

Allows PDA users to create documents, take notes, manage


budgets, view photographs, and more

Business Software
What is a software suite?
AAcollection
collectionof
ofindividual
individual
applications
applicationssold
soldas
as
aasingle
singlepackage
package

Two
Twomajor
majoradvantages:
advantages:
lower cost

ease of use

SOFTWARE SUITES
These are a combination of the most
widely used application packages that
come bundled together.
They include suites such as
Microsoft Office,
Lotus SmartSuite,
Corel WordPerfect Office,
Suns Star Office.

Advantages of software suites:


These software tools can be used to
increase your productivity,
collaborate with your colleagues, and
access intranets, extranets, and the
Internet.
Suites integrate software packages
for web browsing, word processing,
spreadsheets, presentation graphics,
database management, personal
information management, and more.

Suites cost a lot less than the total


cost of buying their individual
packages separately.
All programs use a similargraphical
user interface which gives them the
same look and feel, and make them
easier to learn and use.
Suites also share common tools, such
as spell checkers and help wizards to
increase their efficiency.

Programs are designed to work


together seamlessly and import each
others files or transfer data between
applications
They are easy to install and deploy
Software is available immediately

Disadvantages of software suites:


Critics argue that most end users never
use many software suite features.
Suites take up a lot of disk space and may
require significant amounts of memory.
Suites may compromise on the speed,
power, and flexibility of some of their
functions to achieve integration.
Integrated packages
May not meet the requirements of the
users

Business Software
What is project management software?

Allows you to plan, schedule, track, and analyze


the events, resources, and costs of a project

What is accounting software?

Helps companies record and report their financial


transactions

Graphics and Multimedia


Software
What are
some
popular
graphics
and
multimedia
software
products?

Graphics and Multimedia


Software

What is computer-aided design


(CAD)?
Software that allows you to create engineering,
architectural, and scientific designs

Graphics and Multimedia


Software

What is desktop publishing software?

Enables you to design and produce sophisticated


documents that contain text, graphics,
and brilliant colors

Graphics and Multimedia


Software

What is paint/image editing software?

Used to create and


modify graphical
images
Sometimes called
illustration
software

Graphics and Multimedia Software


What is video and audio editing
software?
Video editing software allows you to modify a

segment of a video, called a clip


Audio editing software allows you to modify
audio clips

Graphics and Multimedia Software


What is Web page authoring software?

Allows users of all skill levels to create Web pages

Some application software programs include Web page authoring


programs

video
audio

graphical
images
animation

organize
manage
maintain

Web pages
and/or
Web sites

Software for Home, Personal, and


Educational Use
What software products are
available for home, personal,
and educational use?

Application Software for


Communications
What software facilitates
communication?
Web
browsers

E-mail

FTP

Chat rooms

Newsgroups

Video
conferencing

Instant
messaging

Applications on the Web


What is Web-based
training (WBT)?

Self-directed, self-paced
instruction on a topic
on the Web

Distance learning (DL) is


the delivery of education
at one location while the
learning takes place at
other locations