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THE INTERNET

What is the Internet

The internet is a publicly available,


global network of computers
It interconnects billions of Users. For
example:
Businesses
Citizens
Governments
Academic Institutions
Research Centers
Libraries
Etc.

Provides

a Common
Communications System for
Diverse Computing and Network
Environments

Still

Rapidly Expanding

Involves

Numerous Technologies
(Not a Single Technology)

Internet History Milestones


1969
ARPANET
R&D Project

1985
NSFNET founded by
1983
DOD Mandated Adoption The National
Science Foundation
of TCP/IP

ARPANET
1974
Vinton Cerf
and Robert Kahn
Initiated TCP/IP

1983
ARPANET Split into
ARPANET and
MILNET

1993
Web Browser
Mosaic invented by
Mark Andreesen

INTERNET

1991
World Wide Web
Released by
Tim-Berners Lee
4

August 1962: First proposal for building


a computer network
Made by J. C. R. Licklider of MIT
ARPANET
Built by the Advanced Research
Projects Agency (ARPA) in the 1960s
Grew quickly during the early 1970s

NSFNet: A national network built by the


National Science Foundation (NSF)
October 24, 1995: Formal acceptance of
the term Internet
Internet service providers start offering
Internet access once provided by the
ARPANET and NSFNet

History of the Internet


Who controls the Internet?

No one it is a public, cooperative, and


independent network
Several organizations set standards
c

World Wide Web


Consortium (W3C)
Oversees research, sets
standards and guidelines
Tim Berners-Lee, director

Internet2
Internet-related research and
development project
Develops and tests advanced
Internet technologies

Terms to Be Familiar With:


Browser--Contains the basic software you
need in order to find, retrieve, view, and send
information over the Internet.
Download--To copy data from a remote
computer to a local computer.
Upload To send data from a local computer
to a remote computer.
E-mail - E-mail (electronic mail) is the
exchange of computer-stored messages by
telecommunication. E-mail can be distributed to
lists of people as well as to individuals.

Filter - Software that allows targeted sites to be blocked


from view. Example: X-Stop, AOL@School
Home Page - The beginning "page" of any site.
HTML (HyperText Markup Language) - The coding
language used to create documents for use on the World
Wide Web. There are three-letter suffixes used in coding
that help to identify the type location one is viewing
HTTP (HyperText Transport Protocol) - the set of rules
for exchanging files (text, graphic images, sound, video,
and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.
Relative to the TCP/IP suite of protocols (which are the
basis for information exchange on the Internet), HTTP is
an application protocol.
Hypertext - Generally any text that contains "links" to
other text.

Search Engine - A web server that collects data from


other web servers and puts it into a database (much like
an index), it provides links to pages that contain the
object of your search.
TCP/IP -- TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol) is the basic communication language or
protocol of the Internet. It can also be used as a
communications protocol in a private network (either an
intranet or an extranet). When you are set up with direct
access to the Internet, your computer is provided with a
copy of the TCP/IP program just as every other computer
that you may send messages to or get information from
also has a copy of TCP/IP.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator) - The


Internet address. The prefix of a URL indicates
which area of the Internet will be accessed.
URLs look differently depending on the Internet
resource you are seeking.
WWW (World Wide Web) - A technical definition
of the World Wide Web is: all the resources and
users on the Internet that are using the
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

The Internet
What are some services found on the
Internet?
Chat
5. Message board
6. Instant messaging

E-mail
Web
File transfer

1.
2.
3.

4.

(1)
(3)

(2)

(4)

(5)

(6)

How Internet Works


How we connect to Internet
and how data travels on
the Net?

How the Internet Works


How can you connect to the
Internet?
Slow-speed
Slow-speed
technology
technology
Dial-up
Dial-upaccess
access
modem
in
modem inyour
your
computer
uses
computer usesaa
standard
standardtelephone
telephoneline
line
totoconnect
connecttotothe
theInternet
Internet
Connection
Connectionmust
mustbe
beestablished
established
each
time
you
log
each time you logon.
on.
Slow
but
inexpensive
Slow but inexpensive

High-speed
High-speed
connection
connection
Digital
Digitalsubscriber
subscriberline
line(DSL),
(DSL),
cable
cabletelephone
telephoneInternet
Internet
services
services(CATV),
(CATV),cable
cablemodem
modem
provide
provideconnections
connectionsusing
using
regular
regularcopper
copperlines
lines
Connection
Connectionisisalways
alwayson
on
whenever
the
computer
whenever the computer
isisrunning
running

How the Internet Works


What are ways to access the
Internet?
1.
2.

ISP, Regional
or National
Wireless Internet
Service Provider

Internet
How it works? (Technically)

Your computer
Modem
Dial up Program
Telephone lines/ Cables
ISP
Server (one of the main 9)it mean you are on
Internet
Your final destination
Either a website or chatting with friend

IP Addresses
Internet Relies on addressing system much
like the traditional post service for sending
and receiving information
IP (Internet Protocol) Address are numbers
assigned to identify each computer
connected to the Internet
The are four groups of numbers separated by
a period (full stop) like
IMS Network has address (172.16.21.55)

It is difficult to remember each number series


so usually text versions of these number
series are used known as Domain Name
Famous domain names are com, edu, gov

How the Internet Works


What is a domain name?

Text version of Internet protocol (IP) address

Number that uniquely identifies


each computer or device
connected to Internet

World Wide Web


The Gateway to
Information

The World Wide Web


What is the World Wide Web (WWW)?
Aworldwidecollectionofelectronicdocuments
AlsocalledtheWeb

EachelectronicdocumentiscalledaWebpage

Cancontaintext,graphics,sound,video,andbuiltinconnections

AWebsiteisacollectionofrelatedWebpages

The World Wide Web


What is a Web browser?

Program that allows you to view Web pages


Microsoft
Internet
Explorer

Netscape

Mozilla

The World Wide Web


What is a home page?

The first page that a Web site presents


Often provides connections to other Web pages

The World Wide Web


What is downloading?

The process of a computer receiving information


Depending upon connection speed, downloading can
take from a few seconds to several minutes

The World Wide Web


What is a
URL?

Unique address for a


Web page
A web server delivers the
Web page to your
computer

Thisaddress
addressisisfor
foran
an
This
Internetserver
serverthat
thatuses
uses
Internet
Thehypertext
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transferprotocol.
protocol.
The

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asthe
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as

Thissite
sitebelongs
belongsto
toaa
This
companynamed
namedGlencoe.
Glencoe.
company

Tofind
findthe
thespecific
specificWeb
Webpages
pages
To
thataccompany
accompanythis
thisbook,
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your
that
browserfollows
followsthe
theURLs
URLspath
path
browser
toaafolder
foldernamed
namednorton,
norton,then
then
to
toaasubfolder
subfoldernamed
namedonline.
online.
to

Web Addresses
Every Web Site has a unique
address called a URL
(Uniform Resource Locator)
For Example Web Site of Ford
Motors has a Web Address
(www.ford.com)

You need to enter the web


addresses correctly in your
web browser otherwise it
wont open the desired page
for you
The entered web addresses
will deliver the requested web
pages from the computer
called Web Servers

The World Wide Web


What is a hyperlink (link)?

Built-in connection to another related


Web page location

Item found elsewhere


on same Web page
Different Web page
at same Web site
Web page at a different
Web site

The World Wide Web


How can you recognize links?

Pointer changes to a small hand


when you point to
a link
A link can be text
or an image
Text links are
usually underlined
and in a different
color

The World Wide Web


What is a search
engine?

Program used to find


Web sites and Web
pages by entering
words or phrases
called search text

Also called a keyword

The World Wide Web


What is a hit?

Any Web site name that is listed as the result of a search


Step 2.
Select type of
search you want
to run

Step 1. Go to search engine


Step 3. View hits
Step 4.
Click
link to view
Web site

The World Wide Web


What is a subject directory?

Search tool with organized set of topics and subtopics

Lets you find information by clicking links rather than


entering keywords

The World Wide Web

What are the eight basic types of Web


sites?

Portal
News
Informational
Business/marketing
Educational
Entertainment
Advocacy
Personal

The World Wide Web


What is a personal Web site?

Web page maintained by private individual


Reasons: sharing life experience with the world
or job hunting

The World Wide Web


What is multimedia?
Application integrating text with other media elements

Graphics
Animation
Audio
Video
Virtual reality

The World Wide Web


What is a thumbnail?

Small version of a larger


graphic image used to
improve Web page display
time
c

Usually click
on thumbnail to
display larger
image

The World Wide Web


What is animation?

Appearance of motion created by


displaying a series of still images
in sequence

The World Wide Web


What is audio?

Music, speech, or any other sound


Individual compressed sound files
that you download from the Web to
your computer

Common Web audio file formats are


MP3, WAV, WMA (Windows Media
Audio), MPEG, RealAudio, and
QuickTime

Once downloaded, you can play


(listen to) the contents of the files

The World Wide Web


What is streaming audio?

Transfers data in a
continuous and even flow
Enables you to listen
to the sound as it
downloads to your
computer
Radio stations use
streaming audio to
broadcast over the Web

The World Wide Web


What is video?

Consists of full-motion images with sound


played back at various speeds
MPEG (Moving Pictures Experts Group)
is popular video compression
standard

The World Wide Web


What are plugins?

Programs that
extend the
capability of
a browser
You can
download many
plug-ins at no
cost from various
Web sites

Electronic Commerce
What is e-commerce?

Short for electronic commerce


Business transaction that occurs over
the Internet
Business to consumer (B2C)
Sale of goods to general public

Consumer to consumer (C2C)


One consumer sells directly to another

Business to business (B2B)


Business providing goods and
services to other businesses

E-Commerce (Examples)
Amazon (B2C)

Other Internet Services


What is e-mail?

Short for electronic mail


The transmission of messages and files via a computer
network

Messages can consist of simple text or can contain attachments,


such as documents, graphics, or audio/video clips
Internet access providers usually provide an e-mail program
Some Web sitessuch as MSN Hotmail and Yahoo!provide
free e-mail services

One of the original services on the Internet

Things You Can Do with Email


Compose and Send: write an email and
send it to others.
Reply: reply to an email that you received.
Forward: pass on an email that you
received to others.
Attachment: You can send files with your
email such as:
pictures, music, software and documents

Other Internet Services


What is an e-mail address?

Unique name that consists of a user name and domain


name that identifies the user

Two Ways to Get Email


1. Provided by your Internet Service Provider
Monthly fee for internet connection often
includes email service.
Aliant - ...@sympatico.ca
Eastlink - @eastlink.ca

2. Free Web-Based Service Providers


Advertising on the site pays for the service.
Gmail - @gmail.com
Hotmail - @hotmail.com

Other Internet Services

What is FTP?

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is the simplest and most secure


way to exchange files over the Internet. Whether you know
it or not, you most likely use FTP all the time.

File Transfer ProtocolInternet standard that allows


you to upload and download files with other computers
on the Internet

Other Internet Services

What are newsgroups and message


boards?

Newsgroup

Online area where users discuss a particular subject

Message board

Type of discussion group

Many Web sites use


message boards
because they are
easier to use

Other Internet Services


What is a mailing list?

Group of e-mail
addresses given a single
name
When a message is sent
to the mailing list,
everyone on the list
receives the message
To add your name to a mailing list
you must subscribe to it; to
remove your name you must
unsubscribe

Other Internet Services


What is a chat?

Real-time typed conversation


that takes place on a computer

Chat room is location on


server that permits users
to discuss topics of interest

Other Internet Services


What is instant messaging (IM)?

A real-time Internet communications service that notifies you when


one or more people are online and allows you to exchange messages or
files
Step 2.

The server determines if any of your


established friends, family, or
coworkers, called buddies, are online

Step 1.
Login to the IM
server
IM Server

Step 3.
messaging Server

Step 4.
Your Instant Message travels
through a messaging server and
then to the online buddy

You send instant


messages to an
online buddy

Netiquette
What is netiquette?

Code of acceptable behaviors users should follow while


on the Internet

Golden Rule: Treat others as


you would like them to treat you.

Web Publishing
What is Web publishing?

Development and maintenance of Web pages


Step 2.
Step 1.
Plan the
Web site

Analyze and
design the
Web site

Step 3.
Create the
Web site

Step 5.
Maintain
the Web site

Step 4.
Deploy the
Web site

Advantages of the Internet

The Internet provides many


facilities to the people. These
include
1. Sharing Information
2. Collection of Information
3. News
4. Searching Jobs
5. Advertisement

6. Communication
7. Entertainment
8. Online Education
9. Online Results

10. Online Airlines and Railway


Schedules
11. Online Medical Advice

Disadvantages

Although Internet has many advantages but it also has


some disadvantages. The main disadvantages are:

1. Viruses
nothing but a program which disrupts the normal
functioning of your system.

2. Security Problems
3. Pornography This is perhaps the biggest

threat related to childrens healthy mental life. A


very serious issue concerning the Internet.

4. Filtration of Information

5. Accuracy of Information
6. Wastage of time
7. Spamming refers to receiving unwanted
e-mails in bulk, which provide no purpose
and needlessly obstruct the entire system.

INTRANET
An Intranet is like a private Internet
that only your employees can
access. Over an Intranet employees
can:
Communicate via e-mail
Share files, online forms, and
applications

Share databases, schedules, and


calendar resources
Receive company-wide
broadcasts
Place orders locally or remotely

An Intranet improves the flow of


information within an organization
by streamlining internal
communications and information
sharing

Advantages of Intranets
Implementation benefits
Fast, easy, low-cost to implement
Based on open standards
Connectivity with other systems
Many tools available
Scalable

Usability benefits
Easy to learn and use
Multimedia
Single interface to information
resources and services

Organizational benefits
Access to internal and external
information
Improves communication
Increases collaboration and
coordination
Supports links with customers and
partners
Can capture and share knowledge

Disadvantages of Intranets
Management concerns

Management fears loss of control


Hidden or unknown complexity and
costs
Potential for chaos

Security concerns
Unauthorized access
Abuse of access
Denial of service

Productivity concerns
Overabundance of information
Information overload lowers
productivity
Users set up own web pages

What Is an Extranet?
An Extranet is a secure,
private network that extends
company applications over the
Internet. Only selected
customers, suppliers, and
partners can access these
Extranet applications.

Extranets can provide a competitive


advantage for small businesses by
extending the use of key company
applications to customers and
suppliers and by enabling them to
engage in e-commerce.
Access to company information like
forms, product documentation, and
training schedulesby selected
outside parties

Online catalogs with


customer-specific pricing
levels
Online order entry, order
status, and shipping schedule
look-up

Online support and customer


service
New product and service
announcements via web pages
Secure e-mail exchange with
customers, vendors, and business
partners
In addition, an Extranet's robust
security prevents unwanted
intrusions.

Advantages
1. Extranets can improve organization
productivity by automating processes that
were previously done manually (eg: reordering
of inventory from suppliers). Automation can
also reduce the margin of error of these
processes.
2. Extranets allow organization or project
information to be viewed at times convenient
for business partners, customers, employees,
suppliers and other stake-holders. This cuts
down on meeting times and is an advantage
when doing business with partners in different
time zones.

3. Information on an extranet can be

updated, edited and changed instantly.


All authorised users therefore have
immediate access to the most up-todate information.

4. Extranets can improve relationships


with key customers, providing them
with accurate and updated information.

Disadvantages
1. Extranets can be expensive to

implement and maintain within an


organisation (eg: hardware, software,
employee training costs) - if hosted
internally instead of via an ASP.
2. Security of extranets can be a big
concern when dealing with valuable
information. System access needs to
be carefully controlled to avoid
sensitive information falling into the
wrong hands.

3. Extranets can reduce personal


contact (face-to-face meetings)
with customers and business
partners. This could cause a lack
of connections made between
people and a company, which
hurts the business when it comes
to loyalty of its business partners
and customers

References
Gary Shelly, Thomas Cashman, & Misty
Vermaat (2004). Discovering
Computers 2004: A Gateway to
Information. (Complete Edition).
Chapter 1 & 2
Lary Long & Nanacy Long (2003).
Computers: Information Technology
in Perspective. (Eleventh Edition).
Chapter 2