8 views

Uploaded by Vinod Mogadala

introduction to analog communication course

- Computer Networks OSI MODEL
- Modulation Methods
- Assignment 4
- Computer Networks
- atul_sharan resume
- Aliasing free paper
- Understanding Transmitter and Receiver Measurements
- comparator for delta sigma modulator
- Experiment 03
- DCT_1.pdf
- 1GP39_1E(1)WCDMA Signal Generator Solutions
- 10097
- PHASE_01
- gmsk
- MISO Broadcast channel
- Expt#4_Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
- Digital Communications
- Assignment of CN (LPU)
- Data Sheet optris CT 3M.pdf
- HW7

You are on page 1of 71

Introduction

Communication System

is to transform the message signal produced by the source of

information into a form suitable for transmission over the

channel.

so as to reconstruct a recognizable form of the original

message signal and to deliver it to the user destination.

transmitter and the receiver. The transmission medium may be

a cable, an optical fiber, or free space if using radio or infrared

communication.

data files.

signal from an information source to a user destination.

form suitable for transmission over the channel.

modulation, which involves varying some parameters of a

carrier wave in accordance with the message signal.

signal after propagation through the channel using a process

known as demodulation.

Modulation

Baseband

message

signal

m(t)

Modulator

c(t)

Carrier

s(t)

Passband

(modulated)

signal

Primary Communication

Resources

In a communication system, there are two primary resources

to be employed:

1. Transmitted Power: The transmitted power refers to the

average power of the transmitted signal.

2. Channel Bandwidth: The channel bandwidth is defined as the

band of frequencies allocated for the transmission of the

message signal.

resources as efficiently as possible.

1 dBm = 10 log10 (P / 10-3) where P is in Watts

1 dBmV = 20 log10 (V / 10-3) where V is in Volts

(b) signal with finite power.

Classification of Signals

1. Continuous-time and Discrete-time Signals

2. Analog and Digital signals

3. Periodic and Aperiodic signals

4. Energy and Power signals

5. Deterministic and Probabilistic signals

A signal that is specified for every value of time t is a Continuous-time

signal

A signal that is specified only at discrete values of time t is a Discretetime Signals

A signal whose amplitude can take on any value in a continuous range is

an analog signal.

A digital signal is one whose amplitude can take on only a finite number

of values.

Examples of signals: (a) analog and continuous time; (b) digital and continuous time;

(c) analog and discrete time; (d) digital and discrete time.

Communication Systems

Lathi

Copyright 2009 by Oxford

University Press, Inc.

g(t) = g(t+T) for all t

The smallest value of T that satisfies the periodicity condition is the

period of g(t).

A signal is Aperiodic if it is not periodic.

A signal with finite energy is an energy signal

A signal with finite power is a power signal.

g (t )

dt

1

g (t ) dt

T T

P lim

A signal whose description is known completely, either a

mathematical form or a graphical form, is a deterministic signal.

If a signal is known only in terms of probabilistic description

such as mean, variance and so on is a random signal.

(t ) 0, t 0

(t )dt 1

x(t ) (t ) x(0) (t )

x(t ) (t T )

x(T ) (t T )

Operations on signals

2x(t)

0.5x(t)

Y=x(t-2)

g , x g . x cos

x Length (norm) of a vector x as

x, x

g, x

x, x

1

x

g, x

To find C12

t2

f (t ). f

1

C12

(t )dt

t1

t2

t1

f 2 (t ) 2 dt

N

g , x g i xi

i 1

Inner product of two real valued signals g(t) and x(t) both

defined over the interval t1 t 2 as

t2

t1

x(t )

x(t ), x(t )

component in g(t) of the form of sint.

For complex valued signals, the inner product is modified into

t2

g (t ), x(t ) g (t ) x * (t )dt

t1

t2

E x x(t ) dt

2

t1

interval t1 ,t 2

g (t ) c.x(t )

e(t ) g (t ) c.x(t )

t2

E e g (t ) cx(t ) dt

t1

u v (u v)(u v ) u v 2 u * v uv *

*

t2

*

g

(

t

)

.

x

(t )dt

t1

t2

x(t ) 2 dt

t1

t2

t2

x (t ) x

1

t1

*

2

(t )dt 0

or

*

x

1 (t ) x2 (t )dt 0

t1

If signals x(t) & y(t) are orthogonal over an interval and if z(t) =

x(t) + y(t)

Ez Ex E y

Correlation

The amount of similarity between two vectors/signals are

measured by Correlation Coefficient.

The Correlation Coefficient between two vectors is given by

cos

g..x

g x

1 n 1

g (t ) x(t )dt

Eg Ex

1 n 1

Correlation Functions

The application of correlation to signal detection in a RADAR

unit.

Let the transmitted & reflected pulses be denoted by g(t) and z(t)

similarity between g(t) and z(t) then the coefficient is zero

The correlation is zero because pulses are nonoverlapping in time

The integral will yield zero even when pulses are identical but

with relative time shift.

Cross-Correlation

To avoid the difficulty we compare the received pulse z(t)

shifted by .

The modified integral is called the Cross-Correlation function

of the two complex signals.

gz ( )

g (t ) z (t )dt g (t ) z (t )dt

Auto-Correlation

gz ( )

g (t ) g (t )dt

Consider a three-dimensional Cartesian vector space described

by three mutually orthogonal vectors

g c1 x1 c 2 x 2

g c1 x1 c 2 x 2 c3 x3

ci

g , xi

xi , xi

1

xi

g , xi

Basis vectors

The vectors x1 , x 2 , x3 represent a complete set of orthogonal

vectors in three dimensional space. Any vector in this space

can be represented in terms of these three vectors. Such

vectors are known as BASIS vectors.

The choice of basis vectors is not unique. The set of basis

vectors corresponds to a particular choice of coordinate

system.

A set of vectors are orthogonal if

xm , xn

0, m n

2

xm , m n

Orthogonality of a signal set x1 (t ), x 2 (t ), x3 (t ),....x N (t ) over a time

domain is defined as

t2

0, m n

t xm (t )xn (t )dt En , m n

1

t of N mutually orthogonal set as

g (t ) c1 x1 (t ) c 2 x 2 (t ) c3 x3 (t )........... c N x N (t )

t2

Cn

g (t ).xn (t )dt

*

t1

t2

t1

x n (t ) 2 dt

e N (t ) g (t ) c1 x1 (t ) c 2 x 2 (t ) c3 x3 (t )........... c N x N (t )

If the orthogonal basis is complete, then the error signal

energy converges to zero.

t2

lim e N (t ) dt 0

t1

g (t ) c1 x1 (t ) c 2 x 2 (t ) c3 x3 (t )........... c N x N (t )

N

g (t ) c n x n

n 1

The set of exponentials e jnw t (n 0,1,2............) are orthogonal

over any interval of duration.

0

jnw0t

(e

jmw0t

T0

0, m n

) dt

T0, m n

*

exponentials as shown below

f (t ) F0 F1e

..... F1e

jw0t

jw0 t

F2 e

F 2 e

Fn

j 2 w0t

j 2 w0t

................. Fn e

......... F n e

f (t )(e

jnw0t *

jnw0t

) dt

jnw0t

(e

) dt

jnw0t

jnw0t

.........

nf.

2. The fundamental frequency is fo = 1/T corresponding to n = 1 All

other frequency components are multiples of this frequency.

3. The amplitude spectrum |Xn| of a real signal is an even function of

frequency, whereas the phase spectrum is odd.

figure.

The Fourier transform for the non periodic signal g(t) is given by

the integral

G( f ) g(t)e j 2ft dt

g(t) G( f )e j 2ft df

g(t)

G( f ) Fg(t)

G( f)

g(t) F 1G( f )

Rectangular Pulse

Exponential Pulse

Example: (Linearity)

g(t) e a tu(t) ,

a0

eatu(t) eatu(t)

Distortionless Transmission

shapes within a multiplicative constant

distortionless.

y (t ) kx(t t d )

FT

Y ( w) X ( w) H ( w)

H ( w) ke jwtd

H ( w) k

h ( w) jwt d

d h ( w)

t d ( w)

dw

Y ( w) kX ( w)e jwt d

response for distortionless transmission.

Ideal filters allow distortionless transmission of a certain band of

frequencies and suppress all the remaining frequencies.

If the i/p is a signal x(t) band limited B Hz, the o/p is x(t) delayed by

H ( f ) rect ( f / 2 B)e

j 2ft d

td

a) Ideal low-pass filter frequency response and (b) its impulse response.

One practical approach to filter design is to cut the tail of h(t) for t < 0.

The resulting causal impulse response is

h (t ) h(t )u (t )

Linear Distortion

of either the magnitude or phase or both.

transfer function H(f). Find the o/p y(t).

(1 k cos Tf )e j 2ft d f B

H( f )

0

y (t ) g (t t d )

k

g (t t d T ) g (t t d T )

2

For nonlinear channel the input and output are related by

some nonlinear equation as

y (t ) a o a1 x(t ) a 2 x 2 (t ) a3 x 3 (t ) ................... a k x K (t ) .........

x k (t )is kB Hz.

Hence the o/p spectrum spreads well beyond the input spectrum

and it contains new frequencies which are not there in the i/p

signal.

The i/p x(t) and the o/p y(t) of a nonlinear channel related as

y (t ) x(t ) 0.000158 x 2 (t ) Find the o/p signal y(t) and its spectrum

Y(f), x(t) = 2000sinc(2000*pi*t)

(a) desired (input) signal spectrum

(b) spectrum of the unwanted signal (distortion) in the

received signal

Multipath transmission

A multipath transmission occurs when a transmitted signal

arrives at the receiver by two or more paths of different delays.

Let us consider the case of only two paths, 1) one with unity

gain and delay t d 2) gain with and delay t t d

H ( f ) e j 2ft d * e j 2f (td t )

sin 2ft

H ( f ) 1 2 cos 2ft exp ( j 2ft d tan

)

1 cos 2ft

Fading Channels

The time variations of the channel properties arise because of

semi periodic and random changes in the propagation

characteristics of the medium.

Hence the effective channel transfer function varies semi

periodically and randomly , causing random attenuation of the

signal. This phenomenon is known is FADING.

- Computer Networks OSI MODELUploaded bynpllana
- Modulation MethodsUploaded byShaktipada Mohanty
- Assignment 4Uploaded bySonal Harsh
- Computer NetworksUploaded byJennifer Monh
- atul_sharan resumeUploaded byAtul Sharan
- Aliasing free paperUploaded byFathima Sabi
- Understanding Transmitter and Receiver MeasurementsUploaded byjawadzaheer
- comparator for delta sigma modulatorUploaded byDeepti Sethi
- Experiment 03Uploaded byANTBLE
- DCT_1.pdfUploaded byMuhammad Shahroz Afzal
- 1GP39_1E(1)WCDMA Signal Generator SolutionsUploaded bysieugacon
- 10097Uploaded byNaushad Alam
- PHASE_01Uploaded byJesus Mayo
- gmskUploaded byHuỳnh Công Vị
- MISO Broadcast channelUploaded byantonmam
- Expt#4_Quadrature Phase Shift KeyingUploaded byElaiza M. Pontrias
- Digital CommunicationsUploaded byCherryl Almojuela
- Assignment of CN (LPU)Uploaded byNimish Mittal
- Data Sheet optris CT 3M.pdfUploaded byVEbrey Seven
- HW7Uploaded byRebecca Chaney
- Digital Signal ProcessingUploaded byRalph Libunao
- Supply of PLCC Panel With Dual 19 Inch Rack of ETL 41 TYPE CUploaded byArbab Aslam
- MahindraUploaded byLakshmi Pujari
- Ofdm Example TipsUploaded byDeepak Salian
- Poster ISIMM A3Uploaded byzhee_pirate
- Lab3 Pulse ShapingUploaded bysunilsheelavant
- Modified ProjectUploaded byLakshmi Kala
- GATE SYLLABUSUploaded byZafar Siddiqui
- MCQ COMSEUploaded bySnehashis Lenka
- reviewpptUploaded byBrightworld Projects

- Unit-4 ACSUploaded byVinod Mogadala
- Surface ClutterUploaded byVinod Mogadala
- CMC QNA UNIT IIIUploaded bySachin Chimmalgi
- HyperbolicUploaded byVinod Mogadala
- Stick Diagram and LayoutUploaded byVinod Mogadala
- Rf Short NotesUploaded byVinod Mogadala
- Fcmc Exp1 Vinod Kumar Mogadala Jan 13 2012Uploaded byVinod Mogadala
- Bct Midii SolutionsUploaded byVinod Mogadala
- vinodbellmanfoldprog3Uploaded byVinod Mogadala
- UNIT-IIUploaded byVinod Mogadala
- Fm ReportUploaded byVinod Mogadala
- VINODDIJKSTRA prog2Uploaded byVinod Mogadala

- nano coban ferritUploaded byViệt Hấp
- lesson1tamingoftheshrewUploaded byapi-248810691
- questionaire ..Uploaded byNirajan Pandey
- 2013 Essay - Kampshof, LiamUploaded bymurrali_raj2002
- Molecular DockingUploaded byAnand Maurya
- Uncovering the Exchange 2007 Edge Transport ServerUploaded byJiten Kumar
- Report Mission to Kazakhstan, April 2018Uploaded byKatarzyna Chimiak
- Assessing Water Quality in WaterUploaded byKhalid M Mohammed
- New Microsoft Office Word DocumentUploaded byMani Kandan
- Of the Delicacy of Taste and PassionUploaded byAthar Khan
- Van Dien Asset Management BrochureUploaded byaldonohue
- Step by Step Watercolor of WaterfallUploaded byTaza Motata
- Memoirs, Illustrating the History of Jacobinism by Abbe Augustin Barruel (1799)Uploaded byFreedomFighter32
- [eBook] Edward Rolf Tufte - The Visual Display of Quantitative Information (1983)Uploaded byvscbd
- RD-700NX System Update ProcedureUploaded byLucasTeixeira
- 9808049Uploaded byJohn
- networkdesign.pdfUploaded bygirmas
- SPSS, SAS, And Mplus Macros and Code - Andrew F. Hayes, Ph.DUploaded byArunGandhi
- Bioenergetic, krebs cycle, bio-ox 2011 YS.pptUploaded byafnanfadiya
- Minor-Operations-Consent-Form-GP-v1-0-250116 (6).docUploaded byrockkk45
- [Gert D. Billing] the Quantum Classical Theory(BookFi)Uploaded byAnonymous 6Piy7nKPa
- Kennett Comparative So PolicyUploaded bybeck827
- fm questUploaded bymechanicalsrivasans
- DoD Robot Autonomy, 2012Uploaded byGraham Templeton
- Food Standard for Dairy ProcessingUploaded byBrilly Cahyo Krisetyadi
- Performance of Radial Piston Type Reciprocating Expander for CO2 Refrigeration CycleUploaded byAnuar Mohamad
- Challenge RatingUploaded byGnomeMadeIon
- Physics AssignmentUploaded byRana Ahmed
- AlgoSec Firewall Analyzer DatasheetUploaded byGaston Acevedo
- Wisdom Outline Phil PerplexityUploaded byjuan