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GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Energy Resources
Renewable Energy Resources
(Solar, Wind, Bio-mass, hydal)

Non-Renewable Energy Resources


(Natural Gas, Petroleum, Coal)

General Classification of Fuels


FUELS

Conventional

Natural or Fossil

Nuclear

238

Manufactured or Synthetic

Solid

U92 ; 238U92 ; 239Pu93

Solid

Wood , Coal

Coke , Charcoals
Liquid

Liquid

Alcohols

Petroleum
Gaseous

Gaseous

Natural Gas
Coal Bed Methane(CBM)
Marsh Gas

Coal gas
Coke oven gas
Producer gas
Water gas
Hydrogen , etc.

What is Natural
Gas ?

NATURAL GAS
Definition (in normal usage) :
Natural Gas in normal usage, is considered to be
a naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbons
[C1 , C2 , C3 , C4 , C5 , C6+] and non-hydrocarbons
[CO2 , N2 , He , H2O , H2S , RSH , COS , CS2 ,
etc.] associated with petroliferous geologic
formations (rocks in earths crust).

What is Natural
Gas ?

Natural Gases as supplied by the utility gas companies,


usually

contain 80 to 95% CH4 , with C2H6 , C3H8 , N2 , etc. making up the remainder.

have heating or calorific value ranging from 900 to 1200 Btu/SCF.


have specific gravity (w.r.t. air = 1.0) varying from 0.58 to 0.79 .

Methane (CH4) ( Some properties )

Auto- or Spontaneous-ignition Temperature : 1004oF (540oC)


Flammability Limits : 5% to 15% v
Critical Pressure : 673 psia (45.8 atm)
Critical Temp.: 116.3oF (343.7 oR) OR

82.4oC

( For other properties, see literature )

(191 oK)

What is Natural
Gas ?

Generally,

1000 sft3 ( 1 MSCF ) of Natural Gas is equivalent to :

58 kg of Wood

52 kg of (indigenous) Coal
28 liters of Kerosene
0.168 barrel of Crude Oil (petroleum)
285 kwh of Electricity
0.024 tonne of Furnace Oil
21 kg of LPG

Product
Slate

Raw
Gas

Water
Helium
Nitrogen
Carbon dioxide
Hydrogen
sulphide

Water
Helium
Nitrogen
Carbon dioxide
Hydrogen
sulphide
Methane
Ethane
Propane
N-Butane
i-Butane
Pentanes +

Gas
Processi
ng

Pipeline gas
(Methane)
Ethane
Propane
n-Butane
i-Butane
Natural gasoline

Combustibles
vs
Non- combustibles

Hydrocarbons
vs
Non-hydrocarbons

Natural Gas
Constituents

Natural Gas
Constituents

Hydrocarbons

Non-hydrocarbons

Combustibles

Non-combustibles

Methane

C1

Water

HCs

H2O

Ethane

C2

H 2O

Carbon dioxide

H2S

CO2

Propane

C3

CO2

Nitrogen

N2

RSH

N2

n-Butane

n-C4

Helium

He

i-Butane

i-C4

Hydrogen sulphide

H 2S

Pentanes

C5

Mercaptans

Hexanes+

C6+

Carbon oxysulphide COS


Carbon disulphide

COS
CS2

He

RSH
CS2

History of Natural Gas

First U.S. Natural Gas Well


In 1821, William Hart dug the first natural gas well in
Fredonia, NY.

Formation

Oil and gas are found on land and under


water

Sedimentary Rock and Petroleum Traps

Exploration Production

Shipping

Refining

Oil and Gas Process

Chemical
Manufacturing

Uses

Seismic Technology
Land

Water

Seabed Seismic

Core Samples

Drilling
3/30/2010

The NEED Project: 29 Years of Energy Education

19

Drilling Process
Place the drill bit, collar and drill pipe in the hole.

Attach the kelly and turntable and begin drilling.

As drilling progresses, circulate mud through the pipe and


out of the bit to float the rock cuttings out of the hole.

Add new sections(joints) of drill pipes as the hole gets


deeper
.
Remove(trip out) the drill pipe, collar and bit when the preset depth(anywhere from a few hundred to a couple
thousand feet) is reached.

Parts of an Oil Well

Production
Christmas Tree

Horse Head Pump

SUI GAS
Composition of Raw & Purified Typical Natural Gas from Sui Gas Field
Major Constituents

Commercial Units

Raw Gas

Purified Gas

CH4

% volume

88.52

94.42

C2H6

0.89

1.05

C3H8

0.26

0.28

C4+

0.37

0.17

N2

2.46

3.89

H2S

Grains / 100 SCF

92.2

Traces

RSH

Grains / 100 SCF

3.8

Traces

CO2

% volume

7.35

0.02

Gross Heating Value

Btu / SCF

933

975

7000 grains = 1 avoirdupois pound

1 grain = 0.065 gm. ;

635 grains/100 SCF 1% by volume

GAS COMPOSITIONS OF FIELDS RELATING SNGPL NETWORK

GAS HYDRATES
Gas

Hydrate

Value of X

Methane

CH4 . XH2O

6 to 7

Ethane

C2H6 . XH2O

6 to 8

Propane

C3H8 . XH2O

7 to 18

Carbon dioxide

CO2 . XH2O

6 to 7

Natural gas

NG . XH2O

1 ft3 of liquid methane @ 260oF 630 ft3 of gaseous methane


Temperatures > 260oF can be used if the liquid state is maintained
at 325 psig and 155oF.

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS


LNG
1 Gallon of LNG @ 263oF

weighs 3.46 lbs


has a specific gravity of 0.42
has a heating value of approximately 86,000 Btu

Heat of Vaporization of LNG at 1 atm 10 Btu/SCF


It requires 6575 Btu to vaporise 1 cu ft of liquid methane.

CHEMICALS FROM METHANE


Partial Combustion (major
source)

Carbon
Black

Nitroge
n
from
airHydroge

Pyrolysis (minor
source)

METHANE

Steam or
Oxygen
Air

Oxygen

Acetylen
e

Ammonia

H2 + CO

(Synthesis
Gas)

Urea

Hydrogen
Cyanide
Methanol

Formaldehy
de

MAJOR CHEMICALS DERIVED DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY FROM METHANE

A General Scheme

III

Customer

Gas Meter

II

( HC liquids of
45 - 65 API
Gravity)

Enhanced Oil Recovery


E.O.R.

Concept of Natural Gas System

Gas Processing

VOLUMETRIC GAS COMMERCIAL UNITS

CF

CFD

CFH
SCF

SCFD

SCFH
Hundred : 102 :
CSCFH

CSCF

CSCFD

Thousand : 103 :

MSCF

MSCFD

Million

: 106 : MMSCF

Billion

: 109 :

Trillion

: 1012:

MMSCFD

BCF
TCF

BSm3 : Billion Standard m3

TSm3 : Trillion

Standard Units of Defined Calorific Values


Barrel of Oil Equivalent (b.o.e.) : a hypothetical barrel of oil
with an average heat content of 5.8 x 106 Btu gross.
Ton of Oil Equivalent (t.o.e.) : a hypothetical ton of oil with
an average heat content of 43 x 106 Btu gross.
Metric Tonne Coal Equivalent (m.t.c.e.) : a hypothetical metric
tonne of coal with an average heat content of 27.337 x 106 Btu
gross, i.e. ( 12,400 Btu/lb x 2204.62 ).

Natural Gas Equivalents of Various Fuels


Std. Fuel Units
1 b.o.e.
1 t.o.e.
1 m.t.c.e.
1 ton fuel oil equiv.

ft3 Natural Gas


5,800
43,000
27,337
41,400

m3 Natural Gas
155.50
1152.82
732.90
1109.92

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ENERGY SCENARIO

NOTE :

TOE Ton of Oil Equivalent = Avg.Heating Value of 43 x 106 Btu gross

PAKISTAN
OIL & GAS PRODUCTION SCENARIO
REFERENCE : Press Release dated 5-3-2007

Future Plan
100 wells to be drilled per year
Success Ratio to be enhanced from 1:25 to 1:10

Present
Production

Future Production
Target

OIL bbl/day

66,000

1,00,000

GAS BCFD

3.8

5.0

Units

bbl/day barrels per day ; BCFD Billion Cubic Feet per Day
3.8 billion = 3.8 x 109 = 3 arb 80 crore ; 5.0 billion = 5 x 109 = 5 arb

GAS COMPOSITIONS OF FIELDS RELATING SNGPL NETWORK

Distribution of proved natural gas reserves


(%) in 2004

Russian Federation
Middle East

Natural gas production (billion cubic metres ), 1970-2004

3
ORIGIN OF NATURAL GAS
&
EXPLORATION/PROSPECTING
Petroleum Geology
Reservoirs
Etc.

The Milky Way


Galaxy

The SUN

150
miles/sec

The Sun

Est. Age of Universe : 14


1 eon

Crust
Upper
Mantle
Lower
Mantle

Surfac
e

Outer Core

[ 1 Eon = 1000 million years


= 109 yrs ]

Key Features related


to Earth
Average:
Orbital Speed : 67,000 mph
Rotational Speed : 1037.5
mph

Inner Core

Distance from Sun : 93


million miles
Diameter : 7926 miles
(12,756 km)
Est. Total Age : 4600 100
my
Est. Age as Solid Body : 2000
100 my

Approx. Thicknesses of
Sections
Crust : 5 - 10 km (Avg. : 7
km)

Cross-sectional view of Earths interior

( < 0.08% of Earths


radius )

Beds are also formed as the shoreline recedes.

River
Sand
Mud & Silt
Limestone
Ocean/Sea

1 Eon =1000 million


years

Geologic Time Scale

GEOLOGICAL TIME SCALE

6
5

Representation of Actual
Years in terms of Equivalent
Human Years

COAL
1 EHY = 100 million years ( my )
where
EHY

Equivalent Human Year

1 Eon = 1000 my

OIL/GAS

16

EHY
18 21
Present Day
300
my
500 my

Fossils Buried in
Rocks

Carbon-Dating
Method
C-14

G
e
o
l
o
g
i
c
a

T
i
m
e
S
p
i
r
a

History of
Earth with
Life Forms

FOSSIL
S

Porphrin molecule
Porphyrin
molecule

Porphyrin metal complex

Metal
atom/ion
e.g.
Cu Fe , Mg ,
etc.

7
1

Photographs : Outcrops of Sedimentary74


Rocks

Types of Rock Fold

Anticline
Fold

7
6

Rock
Folds

Surface
Impervious Caprock

Oil

Gas

Limestone

Water

ANTICLINE : Structural

SHEET
STRATIGRAPIC
SALT DOME : Structural

LITHOLOGICAL
SCREENED :
Stratigraphic

FAULT :
Structural

Main Types of TRAPS with Oil & Gas


Surfac
Surfac
Deposits
e
e

Limestone

R
Anticline

Sheet
Stratigraphic

A
Surfac
e

Surfac
e

P
Lithological
Screened
Oil

Salt Dome
Ga
s

Wat
er

Clay
s

Limesto
ne

S
Salt

8
0

Structural Traps
Simple
Anticline

Faulted
Anticline

Stratigraphic Traps
Shoe-string Sand
type

Reef Deposit type

8
2

Salt Dome / Salt Plug


type

Unconformity Trap

Stages of Migration of

Interconnected Traps

Water, Oil & Gas from Traps

Distribution of Gravity
over a buried Anticline

Gravity : 1.7
2.2
2.4
2.6
3.1

Gas-cap Drive Reservoir

Combination Water & Gas-cap Drives Reservoir

Water-Drive Reservoir

Hunt for OIL /


GEOLOGICAL
GAS PROSPECTING & EXPLORATION
METHODS

Seepage
gives
Direct Indication

Geologist
conducts
Geological Survey

GEOPHYSICAL

Gravimetric

Seismic

Electrical

1. Type of Rock
2. Age of Rock
3. History of
Rock

GEOCHEMICAL

Magnetic

Soil Testing

Chemical

Microbial

Recording Truck

Battery

SU (Station Unit)

CSU (Control Station Unit)

Stock of Cables
at the site

Receiver Cable

Few Definitions
Formation
A separate layer of rock or group of intermingled beds.
Field
An area consisting of a single reservoir or multiple reservoirs all grouped on, or related
to, the same individual geological structural feature or stratigraphic condition. The field
name refers to the surface area, although it may refer to both the surface and the
underground productive formations.

Reservoir
A porous, permeable sedimentary rock containing commercial quantities of oil and gas.
Discovery Well
The first oil or gas well drilled in a new field. The discovery well is the well that is drilled
to reveal the actual presence of a petroleum-bearing reservoir, Subsequent wells are
development wells.

Wildcat well
A well drilled in an area where no current oil or gas production exists. Also called a rank
wildcat.
Exploratory well
A hole drilled:
a) to find and produce oil or gas in an area previously considered
area;

unproductive

b) to find a new reservoir in a known field, i.e., one previously producing oil and gas
from another reservoir, or
c) to extend the limit of a known oil or gas reservoir.

Development well
A well drilled within the proved area of an oil or gas reservoir to the depth of a
stratigraphic horizon known to be productive; a well drilled in a proven field for the
purpose of completing the desired spacing pattern of production.

Gas Well

Any well:
(A) which produces natural gas not associated or blended with crude
petroleum oil at the time of production;
(B) which produces more than 100,000 cubic feet of natural gas for each
barrel of crude petroleum oil from the same producing horizon; or
(C) which produces natural gas from a formation or producing horizon
productive of gas only encountered in a wellbore through which crude
petroleum oil also is produced through the inside of another string of casing
or tubing. A well which produces hydrocarbon liquids, a part of which is
formed by a condensation from a gas phase and a part of which is crude
petroleum oil, shall be classified as a gas well unless there is produced one
barrel or more of crude petroleum oil per 100,000 cubic feet of natural gas;
and that the term "crude petroleum oil" shall not be construed to mean any
liquid hydrocarbon mixture or portion thereof which is not in the liquid phase
in the reservoir, removed from the reservoir in such liquid phase, and
obtained at the surface as such.
Oil Well
Any well which produces one barrel or more crude petroleum oil to each 100,000 cubic
feet of natural gas.

TYPES OF TRAPS

Structural Traps
The traps formed by deformation of the earths
crust by either folding or faulting.

Stratigraphic Traps
The traps formed by changes in lithology,
generally a disappearance of the containing bed
or porosity zone.
These types of traps are more difficult to locate
at depth with remote sensing.

Note :

The part of the trap that is actually occupied by the oil and
gas is called the petroleum RESERVOIR.

Tectonics :

Study of earths large-scale structural features.

Next . . . .

Natural Gas Flowpath


from the Well
to Customers Burner

III

Customer

Gas Meter

II

( HC liquids of
45 - 65 API
Gravity)

Concept of Natural Gas System

Low-Temperature Extraction ( LTX ) System