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DeMoivres Theorem

The Complex Plane

Complex Number
A complex

number z = x + yi can be
interpreted geometrically as the point (x, y) in
the complex plane. The x-axis is the real axis
and the y-axis is the imaginary axis.

Complex Plane

Magnitude or Modulus of z
Let

z = x + yi be a complex number. The


magnitude or modulus of z, denoted by |z| is
defined as the distance from the origin to the
point (x, y). In other words

z x y
2

Polar Form of a Complex Number


r 0 and 0 2, the complex number
z = x + yi may be written in polar form as
z = x + yi = (r cos ) + (r sin )i or
z = r (cos + i sin )
If

angle is called the argument of z.


|z| = r
The

Plotting a Point in the Complex Plane


and Writing it in Polar Form
Plot

the point corresponding to z = 4 4i and


write an expression for z in polar form

Plot

the point 2 3i and write it in polar form.

Express the argument in degrees.

Plot the Point in the Complex Plane


and Convert from Polar to Rectangular
Form

Plot the point corresponding to


z 2(cos 30 i sin 30 )
in the complex plane, and write an
expression for z in rectangular form.
o

Write Numbers in Rectangular Form


2

(cos 120o + i sin 120o)

4 cos i sin
2
2

Multiplying and Dividing Complex


Numbers
Let z1 r1 (cos 1 i sin 1 ) and z2 r2 cos 2 i sin 2
be two complex numbers. Then
z1 z2 r1r2 cos 1 2 i sin 1 2
If z2 0, then
z1 r1
cos 1 2 i sin 1 2
z2 r2

Finding Products and Quotients of


Complex Numbers in Polar Form
If

z = 3 (cos 20o + i sin 20o) and


w = 5 (cos 100o + i sin 100o), find
(a) zw
(b)

z/w

(c)

w/z

DeMoivres Theorem
DeMoivres

Theorem is a formula for raising


a complex number to the power n.
If z = r (cos + i sin ) is a complex number,
then
zn = rn [(cos (n) + i sin (n)]
where n 1 is a positive integer.

Using DeMoivres Theorem


Write

[2(cos 20o + i sin 20o)]3 in the standard


form a + bi.

Using DeMoivres Theorem


=

23 [(cos (3 x 20o) + i sin (3 x 20o)]


= 8 (cos 60o + i sin 60o)

1
3
8

4
3

2
2

Using DeMoivres Theorem


Write
First

(1 + i)5 in standard form a + bi

we have to change to (1 + i) to polar

form

r 1 1 2
2

1
tan
4
1
1

Using DeMoivres Theorem


2 cos i sin
4
4

4 2

4 2


cos 5 4 i sin 5 4

5
5
cos
i sin
4
4
2
2


4 4i

2
2
5

Finding Complex Roots


w = r(cos 0 + i sin 0) be a complex
number and let n 2 be an integer. If w 0,
there are n distinct complex roots of w,
given by the formula

Let

0 2k
0 2k
zk r cos

i sin

n
n
n
n

where k 0,1, 2,. . . , n 1.


n

Finding Complex Roots


Find

the complex fourth roots of -16i

First

we have to change the number to polar

form
r 02 16 16
2

3
16
tan

2
0
1

Finding Complex Roots


3
3
16 cos
i sin
2
2

1 3
1 3
zn (16) cos i sin

4 2
4 2

3 2 k

3 2 k
2 cos

i
sin

, k 0,1, 2,3
8
4
8
4

1
4

3 k
3 k
2 cos
i sin

2
8
8

Finding Complex Roots


3 0
3 0
z0 2 cos


i sin
2
8
2
8

3
3

z0 2 cos
i sin
8
8

3 1
3 1
z1 2 cos
i sin

2
8
8

7
7

z1 2 cos
i sin
8
8

Finding Complex Roots


3 2
3 2
z2 2 cos


i sin
2
8
2
8

11
11

2 cos
i sin

8
8

3 3
3 3
z3 2 cos


i sin
2
8
2
8

15
15

2 cos
i sin

8
8