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DeMoivre’s Theorem

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Complex Number

A complex

number z = x + yi can be

interpreted geometrically as the point (x, y) in

the complex plane. The x-axis is the real axis

and the y-axis is the imaginary axis.

Complex Plane

Magnitude or Modulus of z

Let

magnitude or modulus of z, denoted by |z| is

defined as the distance from the origin to the

point (x, y). In other words

z x y

2

r 0 and 0 2, the complex number

z = x + yi may be written in polar form as

z = x + yi = (r cos ) + (r sin )i or

z = r (cos + i sin )

If

|z| = r

The

and Writing it in Polar Form

Plot

write an expression for z in polar form

Plot

and Convert from Polar to Rectangular

Form

z 2(cos 30 i sin 30 )

in the complex plane, and write an

expression for z in rectangular form.

o

2

4 cos i sin

2

2

Numbers

Let z1 r1 (cos 1 i sin 1 ) and z2 r2 cos 2 i sin 2

be two complex numbers. Then

z1 z2 r1r2 cos 1 2 i sin 1 2

If z2 0, then

z1 r1

cos 1 2 i sin 1 2

z2 r2

Complex Numbers in Polar Form

If

w = 5 (cos 100o + i sin 100o), find

(a) zw

(b)

z/w

(c)

w/z

DeMoivres Theorem

DeMoivres

a complex number to the power n.

If z = r (cos + i sin ) is a complex number,

then

zn = rn [(cos (n) + i sin (n)]

where n 1 is a positive integer.

Write

form a + bi.

=

= 8 (cos 60o + i sin 60o)

1

3

8

4

3

2

2

Write

First

form

r 1 1 2

2

1

tan

4

1

1

2 cos i sin

4

4

4 2

4 2

cos 5 4 i sin 5 4

5

5

cos

i sin

4

4

2

2

4 4i

2

2

5

w = r(cos 0 + i sin 0) be a complex

number and let n 2 be an integer. If w 0,

there are n distinct complex roots of w,

given by the formula

Let

0 2k

0 2k

zk r cos

i sin

n

n

n

n

n

Find

First

form

r 02 16 16

2

3

16

tan

2

0

1

3

3

16 cos

i sin

2

2

1 3

1 3

zn (16) cos i sin

4 2

4 2

3 2 k

3 2 k

2 cos

i

sin

, k 0,1, 2,3

8

4

8

4

1

4

3 k

3 k

2 cos

i sin

2

8

8

3 0

3 0

z0 2 cos

i sin

2

8

2

8

3

3

z0 2 cos

i sin

8

8

3 1

3 1

z1 2 cos

i sin

2

8

8

7

7

z1 2 cos

i sin

8

8

3 2

3 2

z2 2 cos

i sin

2

8

2

8

11

11

2 cos

i sin

8

8

3 3

3 3

z3 2 cos

i sin

2

8

2

8

15

15

2 cos

i sin

8

8

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