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(CFD)

U7AEA29

Dr. S. Senthil Kumar

Associate Professor

Dept. of Aeronautical Engineering

Vel Tech Dr. RR & Dr. SR Technical University

Avadi, Chennai

.

Outline

What

is CFD?

Why use CFD?

Where is CFD used?

Physics

Modeling

Numerics

CFD process

Resources

What is CFD?

Historically Analytical Fluid Dynamics (AFD) and EFD

(Experimental Fluid Dynamics) was used. CFD has become

feasible due to the advent of high speed digital computers.

Computer simulation for prediction of fluid-flow phenomena.

The objective of CFD is to model the continuous fluids with

Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) and discretize PDEs into

an algebra problem (Taylor series), solve it, validate it and

achieve simulation based design.

Why

use CFD?

More cost effectively and more rapidly than with experiments

CFD solution provides high-fidelity database for interrogation of

flow field

measured by experiments

Scale simulations (e.g., full-scale ships, airplanes)

Hazards (e.g., explosions, radiation, pollution)

Physics (e.g., weather prediction, planetary boundary layer, stellar

evolution)

Where is CFD used?

Aerospace

Appliances

Automotive

Biomedical

Chemical Processing

HVAC&R

Hydraulics

Marine

Oil & Gas

Power Generation

Sports

Wing-Body Interaction

Hypersonic Launch

Vehicle

Where is CFD used?

Aerospace

Appliances

Automotive

Biomedical

Chemical Processing

HVAC&R

Hydraulics

Marine

Oil & Gas

Power Generation

Sports

refrigerator and freezer compartments helped

BOSCH-SIEMENS engineers to optimize the

location of air inlets.

7

Where is CFD used?

Aerospace

Appliances

Automotive

Biomedical

Chemical Processing

HVAC&R

Hydraulics

Marine

Oil & Gas

Power Generation

Sports

External Aerodynamics

Interior Ventilation

Undercarriage

Aerodynamics

Engine Cooling 8

Where is CFD used?

Aerospace

Appliances

Automotive

Biomedical

Chemical Processing

HVAC&R

Hydraulics

Marine

Oil & Gas

Power Generation

Sports

convection currents in the eye

following laser heating.

Where is CFD used?

Aerospace

Appliances

Automotive

Biomedical

Chemical Processing

HVAC&R

Hydraulics

Marine

Oil & Gas

Power Generation

Sports

of flow separation and residence time

effects.

Twin-screw extruder

modeling

10

Where is CFD used?

Aerospace

Appliances

Automotive

Biomedical

Chemical Processing

ventilation

HVAC&R

Hydraulics

Marine

Oil & Gas

Power Generation

Sports

Mean age of air contours indicate

location of fresh supply air

colored by concentration level fall

behind the copier and then circulate

through the room before exiting the

exhaust.

pressure quantify head loss

in ductwork

11

Where is CFD used?

Aerospace

Appliances

Automotive

Biomedical

Chemical Processing

HVAC&R

Hydraulics

Marine

Oil & Gas

Power Generation

Sports

12

Where is CFD used?

Aerospace

Appliances

Automotive

Biomedical

Chemical Processing

HVAC&R

Hydraulics

Marine

Oil & Gas

Power Generation

Sports

13

Where is CFD used?

Aerospace

Appliances

Automotive

Biomedical

Chemical Processing

HVAC&R

Hydraulics

Marine

distribution on an offshore oil rig

Analysis of multiphase

separator

Power Generation

Sports

Flow of lubricating

mud over drill bit

14

Where is CFD used?

Aerospace

Appliances

Automotive

Biomedical

Chemical Processing

HVAC&R

Hydraulics

Marine

Oil & Gas

towers

Flow in a

burner

Power Generation

Sports

Flow pattern through a water

turbine.

colored by temperature

during standard 15

operating conditions

Where is CFD used?

Aerospace

Appliances

Automotive

Biomedical

Chemical Processing

HVAC&R

Hydraulics

Marine

Oil & Gas

Power Generation

Sports

16

Physics

CFD

specific flow phenomenon

Turbulent vs. laminar (Re)

Incompressible vs. compressible (Ma)

Single- vs. multi-phase (Ca)

Thermal/density effects and energy equation (Pr, , Gr, Ec)

Free-surface flow and surface tension (Fr, We)

Chemical reactions, mass transfer

etc

17

Physics

Fluid Mechanics

Inviscid

Viscous

Laminar

Compressible

(air, acoustic)

Incompressible

(water)

Internal

(pipe,valve)

Turbulence

External

(airfoil, ship)

18

Navier-Stokes Equation

Claude-Louis Navier

D

2

v p v g

Dt

19

Modeling

Some problems are exact (e.g., laminar pipe flow)

Exact solutions only exist for some simple cases. In these cases nonlinear

terms can be dropped from the N-S equations which allow analytical solution.

Most cases require models for flow behavior [e.g., Reynolds Averaged Navier

Stokes equations (RANS) or Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for turbulent

flow]

Initial Boundary Value Problem (IBVP), include: governing Partial

Differential Equations (PDEs), Initial Conditions (ICs) and Boundary Conditions

(BCs)

20

(Equations based on average velocity)

v

ux u y uz 0

t x

y

z

Continuity

u x

u

u

u

p

u x x u y x u z x

xx yx zx g x

x

y

z

x x

y

z

t

x - Equation of motion

21

Numerics / Discretization

Computational

Method dependent upon the model equations and

physics

Several components to formulation

Discretization and linearization

Assembly of system of algebraic equations

Solve the system and get approximate solutions

22

Finite Differences

u

i, j

ui 1, j ui , j

2u

2

x

x

i, j

Finite difference

representation

3u

x 3

x 2

i, j

Truncation error

Methods of Solution

Direct methods

Cramers Rule, Gauss elimination

LU decomposition

Iterative methods

Jacobi method, Gauss-Seidel

Method, SOR method

23

Numeric Solution

(Finite Differences)

ui 1, j

jmax

j+1

j

j-1

u

ui , j

2u

x

2

i, j

x

x 3u

x 3

2

i, j

i, j

i-1 i i+1

imax

u i,j = velocity of fluid

x

24

CFD process

Geometry

description

Specification of flow conditions and properties

Selection of models

Specification of initial and boundary conditions

Grid generation and transformation

Specification of numerical parameters

Flow solution

Post processing: Analysis, and visualization

25

Geometry description

Typical

approaches

simplifications

CAD/CAE integration

Engineering drawings

Coordinates include Cartesian

system (x,y,z), cylindrical system (r,

, z), and spherical system(r, , )

26

directly without any modeling. Grid must be fine enough to resolve

all flow scales. Applied for laminar flow and rare be used in

turbulent flow.

Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (NS) equations (RANS) is to

perform averaging of NS equations and establishing turbulent

models for the eddy viscosity. Too many averaging might damping

vortical structures in turbulent flows

Large Eddy Simulation (LES), Smagorinsky constant model and

dynamic model. Provide more instantaneous information than

RANS did. Instability in complex geometries

Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) is to use one single formulation

to combine the advantages of RANS and LES.

27

model of a physical problem.

Conservation of matter, momentum, and

energy must be satisfied throughout the

region of interest.

Fluid properties are modeled

empirically.

Simplifying assumptions are made in

order to make the problem tractable

(e.g., steady-state, incompressible,

inviscid, two-dimensional).

Provide appropriate initial and

boundary conditions for the problem.

Filling

Nozzle

Bottle

problem.

28

discretization) to develop approximations of the

governing equations of fluid mechanics in the fluid

region of interest.

Governing differential equations: algebraic.

The collection of cells is called the grid.

The set of algebraic equations are solved

numerically (on a computer) for the flow field

variables at each node or cell.

System of equations are solved simultaneously to

provide solution.

The solution is post-processed to extract quantities of

interest (e.g. lift, drag, torque, heat transfer,

separation, pressure loss, etc.).

problem.

29

Discretization

Domain is discretized into a finite set of control volumes

or cells. The discretized domain is called the grid or the mesh.

General conservation (transport) equations for mass, momentum, energy,

etc., are discretized into algebraic equations.

All equations are solved to render flow field.

dV V dA dA S dV

t V

A

A

V

unsteady

convection

Eqn.

continuity

x-mom.

y-mom.

energy

diffusion

1

u

v

h

generation

control

volume

Fluid region of

pipe flow

discretized into

finite set of

control volumes

(mesh).

30

non-conformal grid?

What degree of grid resolution is required in each region of the

domain?

How many cells are required for the problem?

Will you use adaption to add resolution?

Do you have sufficient computer memory?

tetrahedron

hexahedron

pyramid

triangle

arbitrary polyhedron

prism or wedge

quadrilateral

31

meshes can provide high-quality

solutions with fewer cells than a

comparable tri/tet mesh.

meshes show no numerical

advantage, and you can save

meshing effort by using a tri/tet

mesh.

32

Specific regions can be meshed with

different cell types.

Both efficiency and accuracy are

enhanced relative to a hexahedral or

tetrahedral mesh alone.

tet mesh

hex mesh

wedge mesh

Hybrid mesh for an

IC engine valve port

33

34

Select appropriate physical models.

Turbulence, combustion, multiphase, etc.

Define material properties.

Fluid.

Solid.

Mixture.

Prescribe operating conditions.

Prescribe boundary conditions at all boundary zones.

Provide an initial solution.

Set up solver controls.

Set up convergence monitors.

35

For

steady/unsteady flow

iteration numbers needed to get the converged solution.

Robust codes should start most problems from very crude IC, .

But more reasonable guess can speed up the convergence.

Boundary

conditions

(constant pressure, velocity convective, buffer zone,

zero-gradient), and non-reflecting (compressible flows,

such as acoustics), etc.

36

of iterations are usually required to reach a converged solution.

Convergence is reached when:

Changes in solution variables from one iteration to the next are

negligible.

Residuals provide a mechanism to help monitor this trend.

Overall property conservation is achieved.

The accuracy of a converged solution is dependent upon:

Appropriateness and accuracy of the physical models.

Grid resolution and independence.

Problem setup.

37

solution

Typical

time

history of

residuals

The closer the

flow field to the

converged

solution, the

smaller the speed

of the residuals

decreasing.

not change after more iterations

38

Post-processing

Calculation of derived variables

Vorticity

Wall shear stress

Calculation of integral parameters: forces, moments

Visualization (usually with commercial software)

Simple X-Y plots

Simple 2D contours

3D contour carpet plots

Vector plots and streamlines (streamlines are the lines

whose tangent direction is the same as the velocity vectors)

Animations (dozens of sample pictures in a series of time

were shown continuously)

39

What is the overall flow pattern?

Is there separation?

Where do shocks, shear layers, etc. form?

Are key flow features being resolved?

Are physical models and boundary conditions appropriate?

Numerical reporting tools can be used to calculate quantitative

results, e.g:

Lift, drag, and torque.

Average heat transfer coefficients.

Surface-averaged quantities.

40

dinosaur

41

on a dinosaur

42

43

Advantages of CFD

Using physical experiments and tests to get essential engineering data for

design can be expensive.

CFD simulations are relatively inexpensive, and costs are likely to decrease

as computers become more powerful.

Speed.

CFD simulations can be executed in a short period of time.

Quick turnaround means engineering data can be introduced early in the

design process.

Ability to simulate real conditions.

Many flow and heat transfer processes can not be (easily) tested, e.g.

hypersonic flow.

CFD provides the ability to theoretically simulate any physical condition.

44

Limitations of CFD

Physical models.

CFD solutions rely upon physical models of real world processes (e.g.

turbulence, compressibility, chemistry, multiphase flow, etc.).

The CFD solutions can only be as accurate as the physical models on

which they are based.

Numerical errors.

Solving equations on a computer invariably introduces numerical errors.

Round-off error: due to finite word size available on the computer.

Round-off errors will always exist (though they can be small in most

cases).

Truncation error: due to approximations in the numerical models.

Truncation errors will go to zero as the grid is refined. Mesh refinement is

one way to deal with truncation error.

45

Boundary conditions.

As with physical models, the accuracy of the CFD solution

is only as good as the initial/boundary conditions provided

to the numerical model.

Example: flow in a duct with sudden expansion. If flow is

supplied to domain by a pipe, you should use a fullydeveloped profile for velocity rather than assume uniform

conditions.

Computational

Domain

Computational

Domain

Uniform Inlet

Profile

Profile

poor

better

46

CFD software was built upon physics, modeling, numerics.

Two types of available software

Commercial (e.g., FLUENT, CFX, Star-CD)

Research (e.g., CFDSHIP-IOWA, U2RANS)

More information on CFD can be got on the following website:

CFD Online: http://www.cfd-online.com/

CFD software

FLUENT: http://www.fluent.com/

CFDRC: http://www.cfdrc.com/

Computational Dynamics: http://www.cd.co.uk/

CFX/AEA: http://www.software.aeat.com/cfx/

Grid generation software

Gridgen: http://www.pointwise.com

GridPro: http://www.gridpro.com/

Hypermesh

Visualization software

Tecplot: http://www.amtec.com/

Fieldview: http://www.ilight.com/

47

THANK YOU

48

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