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MIX DESIGN

means, determination of the

proportion

of

the

concrete

ingredients i.e. Cement, Water,

Fine Aggregate,Coarse Aggregate

which would produce concrete

possessing specified properties

such as workability, strength and

durability with maximum overall

economy.

3

I.S. Method

British Method

A.C.I. Method etc.

basic assumptions

Compressive Strength of

Concrete is governed by its

Water-Cement Ratio

Workability of Concrete is

governed by its Water Content

5

design

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Grade of Concrete

Eg: RCC-M30-A20

Slump required in mm

Eg: 25 75 mm

Degree of Site Control

Eg: Good

Type of Exposure

Eg: Moderate

Grade of Cement

Eg: OPC 43 Grade

Placing Conditions

Degree of Workability

Slump

(mm)

Very Low

See 7.1.1

Mass Concrete;

Lightly reinforced sections in Slabs,

Beams, Walls, Columns; Floors;

Hand placed Pavements;

Canal lining; Strip Footings

Low

25-75

Beams, Walls, Columns;

Slip form work; Pumped Concrete.

Medium

50-100

High

100-150

Blinding Concrete;

Shallow Sections;

Pavements using pavers

Trench

fill;

Concrete

In-Situ

Piling;

Tremie

cement;

weigh batching of all materials;

Controlled addition of water,

regular checking of all materials,

Good

aggregate grading and moisture

content;

And

periodical

checking

of

workability and strength.

Fair Site control having deviation from the

above.

8

Sl.

No.

Environment

Exposure Conditions

i)

ii)

iii)

iv)

v)

Mild

against weather or aggressive conditions,

except those situated in coastal area.

Moderate

whilst wet.

Concrete exposed to condensation and rain.

Concrete continuously under water.

Concrete in contact or buried under non-aggressive

soil/ground water.

Concrete surfaces sheltered from saturated salt air in

coastal area.

Severe

wetting and drying or occasional freezing whilst wet or

severe condensation.

Concrete completely immersed in sea water.

Concrete exposed to coastal environment.

Very Severe

severe freezing conditions whilst wet.

Concrete in contact with or buried under aggressive

sub-soil/ground water.

Extreme

Members in direct contact with liquid/solid aggressive 9

chemicals.

required for concrete mix design

1.

2.

3.

Fine Aggregate : 240 Kg.

Coarse Aggregate : 180 Kg. (20 mm)

180 Kg. (10 mm)

10

concrete ingredients.

I. CEMENT (OPC 43 Grade)

Sl.

No.

Particulars of Test

Standard consistency

(% by weight)

a) Initial

b) Final

Compressive Strength in

N/sq.mm at the age of

a) 3 days

b) 7 days

c) 28 days

Specific Gravity

Fineness in Sq.m/Kg

Result

Specifications

As per IS:8112-1976

25.6

95

210

24

35

46

30 Minimum

600 Maximum

23 Minimum

33 Minimum

43 Minimum

3.00

337

225 Minimum

11

II.

FINE AGGREGATE

1.

Sieve Analysis

Sieve Size

% Passing

As per IS:383-1970

10.0 mm

100

100

4.75 mm

100

90-100

2.36 mm

98

75-100

1.18 mm

65

55-90

600 micron

42

35-59

300 micron

8-30

150 micron

0-10

2.

Specific Gravity

2.60

3.

a) Loose

b) Rodded

:

:

1460

1580

1.00

4.

(% by weight)

3 Max

12

1.

Sieve Analysis

Sieve Size

% Passing

Specifications

As per IS:383-1970

Graded

Single Sized

40.00mm

100

100

100

20.00mm

90

95-100

85-100

10.00mm

25-55

0-20

4.75mm

0-10

0-5

2.

Specific Gravity

2.65

3.

a) Loose

b) Rodded

:

:

1467

1633

13

Sl.

No.

Particulars of Test

Result

Specifications

As per IS: 383-1970

Crushing Value in %

28

30 Maximum

For wearing surfaces

45 Maximum

For other concrete

Impact Value in %

24

30 Maximum

For wearing surfaces

45 Maximum

For other concrete

Value in %

30

30 Maximum

For wearing surfaces

50 Maximum

For other concrete

14

V.

1.

Sieve Analysis

Sieve Size

% Passing

Specifications

As per IS:383-1970

Graded

Single Sized

12.50mm

100

100

10.00mm

85

85-100

4.75mm

19

0-20

2.36mm

0-5

2.

a) Loose

b) Rodded

:

:

1427

1587

15

Sieve

size

(mm)

IS:383-1970

Specifications

(Graded)

% Passing

20 mm

10 mm

60%+40%

50%+50%

40

100

100

100

100

100

20

95-100

90

100

94

95

10

25-55

85

40

44

4.75

0-10

19

10

16

Step II:-

Fck

fck + t * S

Fck

N/Sq.mm

fck

N/Sq.mm

low results.

1.65 for 1 in 20 accepted proportion of low

results

17

Values of

Accepted proportion

of low results

t

t

1 in 5,

20%

0.84

1 in 10,

10%

1.28

1 in 15,

6.7%

1.50

1 in 20,

5%

1.65

1in 40,

2.5%

1.86

1 in 100, 1%

2.33

18

(Table 8, IS:456-2000)

Grade of

Concrete

(N/Sq.mm)

Good Site Control

M10, M15

3.5

4.5

M20, M25

4.0

5.0

M30, M35

M,40,M45

M50

5.0

6.0

19

experience

S.

No.

Concrete

Grade

M10

0.9

M15

0.7

M20

0.55

M25

0.50

M30

0.45

M35

0.40

M40

0.35

M45

0.30

20

concrete from table2 of I.S: 10262-2009.

Maximum size of

Aggregate

(mm)

cubic metre of

concrete

(Kg)

10

208

20

186

40

165

21

per cubic metre of concrete

(Table 32, SP:23-1982)

Slump

(mm)

Maximum Size of

Aggregate

(mm)

10

20

40

30-50

205

185

160

80-100

225

200

175

150-180

240

210

185

22

Unit Volume of Total Aggregate

(Table 3, IS:10262-2009)

Volume of Coarse Aggregate per Unit

Volume of Total Aggregate

Maximum

Size of

Zone IV Zone III Zone II Zone I

Aggregate

(mm)

10

0.50

0.48

0.46

0.44

20

0.66

0.64

0.62

0.60

40

0.75

0.73

0.71

0.69

23

24

Water

Cement = ------------W/C Ratio

= 185 / 0.45 = 411 Kg.

25

aggregate by absolute volume method.

V = (W+C/Sc+(1/p) * (fa/Sfa)) * (1/1000)

and

V = (W+C/Sc+(1/(1-p)) * (ca/Sca)) * (1/1000)

- (Eq.1)

- (Eq.2)

Where

V = Absolute volume of fresh concrete = 1 m3

W = Mass of Water (Kg) per m3 of concrete

C = Mass of Cement (Kg) per m3 of

concrete

p = Percentage of fine aggregate.

fa = Mass of fine aggregate

ca = Mass of coarse aggregate

Sc = Specific gravity of cement.

Sfa = Specific gravity of fine aggregate.

Sca = Specific gravity of coarse aggregate.

26

1000 = 185 + 411/3.0 + (1/0.36) * fa /2.6)

= 185 + 137 + fa/0.936

= 322 + fa/0.936

fa

= (1000 322) * 0.936

= 678 * 0.936

= 635 Kg.

27

1000 = 185 + 411/3.0 + (1/0.64) * ca /2.65)

= 185 + 137 + ca/1.696

= 322 + ca/1.696

ca

= (1000 322) * 1.696

= 678 * 1.696

= 1150 Kg.

28

W : C : fa : ca

= 185 : 411 : 635 : 1150

= 0.45 : 1 : 1.55 : 2.80

This mix will be considered as Trial Mix No.2

29

Step VII:- Make slump trials to find out the actual weight of water

to get required slump. Make corrections to the water

content & %FA, if required.

Step VIII:- Compute 2 more trial mixes with W/C ratios as 0.40 &

0.50, taking %FA as 34% and 38% respectively.

30

Substituting the values in Eq(1), we get

1000 = 185 + 462.5/3.0 + (1/0.34) * fa /2.6)

fa

= 584 Kg.

Substituting the values in Eq(2), we get

1000 = 185 + 462.5/3.0 + (1/0.66) * ca /2.65)

ca

= 1156 Kg.

So the mix proportion works out to be

W : C : fa : ca

= 185 : 462.5 : 584 : 1156

= 0.4 : 1 : 1.26 : 2.50

31

Substituting the values in Eq(1), we get

1000 = 185 + 370/3.0 + (1/0.38) * fa /2.6)

fa

= 683 Kg.

Substituting the values in Eq(2), we get

1000 = 185 + 370/3.0 + (1/0.62) * ca /2.65)

ca

= 1136 Kg.

So the mix proportion works out to be

W : C : fa : ca

= 185 : 370 : 683 : 1136

= 0.5 : 1 : 1.85 : 3.07

32

Step X:- Test the cubes for compressive strength at 28 days.

33

W/C

Ratio

C/W Ratio

Compressive

Strength

(Kg/Cm2)

0.40

2.50

457

0.45

2.22

420

0.50

2.00

360

34

35

36

Step XII:- From the graph, find the W/C ratio for the required

target mean compressive strength.

Step XIII:- Calculate the mix proportions corresponding to

the W/C ratio, obtained from the graph.

37

Final Mix:From the graph, for a target strength of 390 Kg/Cm2, W/C ratio = 0.47

Cement = 185 / 0.47 = 394 Kg.

Substituting the values in Eq(1), we get

1000 = 185 + 394/3.0 + (1/0.38) * fa /2.6)

fa

= 675 Kg.

Substituting the values in Eq(2), we get

1000 = 185 + 394/3.0 + (1/0.62) * ca /2.65)

ca

= 1123 Kg.

So the mix proportion works out to be

W : C : fa : ca

= 185 : 394 : 675 : 1123

= 0.47 : 1 : 1.71 : 2.85

38

Step XIV:- Check the cement content & W/C ratio against the

limiting

values

given

in

Table-5

of

I.S: 456-2000 for given type of exposure & type of Concrete.

39

ratio and Minimum Grade of Concrete for different exposures

with normal weight of aggregate of 20mm nominal maximum

size.

Plain Concrete

Sl.

No.

Exposure

Reinforced Concrete

Minimum

Cement

Content

kg/m3

Maximum

Free

Water

Cement

Ratio

Minimum

Grade of

Concrete

Minimum

Cement

Content

kg/m3

Maximum

Free

Water

Cement

Ratio

Minimum

Grade of

Concrete

i)

Mild

220

0.60

300

0.55

M20

ii)

Moderate

240

0.60

M15

300

0.50

M25

iii)

Severe

250

0.50

M20

320

0.45

M30

iv)

Very

Severe

260

0.45

M20

340

0.45

M35

v)

Extreme

280

0.40

M25

360

0.40

M40

40

& W/C ratio, For moderate, for RCC are 300Kgs. & 0.5

The Cement content = 394Kgs. > 300Kgs. Hence Ok

41

TEST REPORT

Concrete Mix RCC M30 with 20.0mm M.S.A.

Sl.

No.

Particulars

Result

N/Sq.mm

30

Type of Exposure

Good

N/Sq.mm

38.2

Mode of Compaction

Mix Partiuclars:

a.

Water-Cement Ratio

b.

Materials per cubic metre of concrete in

Kg.

i)

Water

ii)

Cement (OPC 43 Grade)

iii) Fine Aggregate

iv) Coarse Aggregate

c.

Mix Portion by weight

20.0

Moderate

25-75

Vibration

0.47

185

394

675

1123

1:1.71:2.85

42

Secondary Slides:

43

Weight of sample = 500g (approx)

Observations:

Sieve

size

Weight retained(g)

%

Cumulative

weight

retained (g)

%

Passing

IS:383-1970

Specifications

Zone =II

Trail 1

Trail2

Total

Cumulative

weight

retained (g)

10 mm

100

100

4.75 mm

100

90-100

2.36 mm

13

17

98

75-100

1.18 mm

166

165

331

348

35

65

55-90

600 micron

118

117

235

583

58

42

35-59

300 micron

175

160

335

918

92

8-30

150 micron

36

42

78

996

100

0-10

44

IS : 383 1970

Sieve Size

% Passing for

Zone I

Zone II

Zone III

Zone IV

10.00 mm

100

100

100

100

4.75 mm

90-100

90-100

90-100

95-100

2.36 mm

60-95

75-100

85-100

95-100

1.18 mm

30-70

55-90

75-100

90-100

600 micron

15-34

35-59

60-79

80-100

5-20

8-30

12-40

15-50

0-10

0-10

0-10

0-15

300 micron

150 micron

45

2

20 mm aggregate :

a. Minimum weight of sample = 25 Kg

b. Observations :

Weight

retained

(Kg)

Cumulative

weight

retained

(Kg)

%

Cumulative

weight

retained

(Kg)

40

0.0

0.0

20

4.7

4.7

10

41.5

4.75

1.6

4.75 P

Sieve

size

IS:383-1970

Specifications

%

Passing

Graded

Single

sized

100

100

100

10

90

95-100

85-100

97

25-55

0-20

47.8

100

0-10

0-5

47.8

46.2

46

2

10 mm aggregate :

a. Minimum weight of sample = 12 Kg

b. Observations :

IS:383-1970

Specifications

Weight

retained

(Kg)

Cumulative

weight

retained

(Kg)

%

Cumulative

weight

retained

(Kg)

12.5

0.0

0.0

100

100

10

5.4

5.4

15

85

85-100

4.75

24.3

81

19

0-20

2.36

6.9

36.6

100

0-5

2.36 P

36.6

Sieve

size

29.7

%

Passing

Single

Sized

47

N = 20

N = 20

Avg = 30

Avg = 35

27,30,30,32,35,

27,33,34,29,28,

30,28,31,32,26,

34,33,25,27,29

28, 32,35,38,40,

34,35,35,36,39,

33,32,32,34,37,

32,35,38,39,36

Total = 600

Total = 700

48

and grade of concrete as given in I.S: 4562000 (Table.8)

Good

Sl.

No.

Concrete

Grade

Fair

Fck

S

1.65XS

N/mm

Fck

Kg/cm2

1.65XS

N/mm2

Kg/cm2

M10

3.5

58

15.8

161

4.5

7.4

17.4

178

M15

3.5

58

20.8

212

4.5

7.4

22.4

229

M20

4.0

6.6

26.6

271

5.0

8.3

28.3

288

M25

4.0

6.6

31.6

322

5.0

8.3

33.3

339

M30

5.0

8.3

38.3

390

6.0

9.9

39.9

407

M35

5.0

8.3

43.3

441

6.0

9.9

44.9

458

49

Trial W/C

Sl.

No.

Required Grades

50

Final Mix for RCC-M25:From the graph, for a target strength of 322 Kg/Cm2, W/C ratio = 0.57

which is > 0.5, So, limit W/C ratio to 0.5 only.

Cement = 185 / 0.5 = 370 Kg.

Substituting the values in Eq(1), we get

1000 = 185 + 370/3.0 + (1/0.38) * fa /2.6)

fa

= 683 Kg.

Substituting the values in Eq(2), we get

1000 = 185 + 370/3.0 + (1/0.62) * ca /2.65)

ca

= 1136 Kg.

So the mix proportion works out to be

W : C : fa : ca

= 185 : 370 : 683 : 1136

= 0.50 : 1 : 1.85 : 3.07

51

Specific gravity of cement (Sc)

(W2 - W1)

= ---------------------------- x 0.79

(W4 - W1) - (W3 - W2)

Where,

W1 = Weight of specific gravity bottle in g

W2 = Weight of specific gravity bottle with about half filled cement in g

W3 = Weight of specific gravity bottle with about half filled cement

& rest is filled with kerosene in g.

W4 = Weight of specific gravity bottle completely filled with kerosene in g

0.79 = Specific Gravity of Kerosene.

52

Specific Gravity of Fine Aggregate & Coarse Aggregate [ IS : 2386 (Part.3) - 1963]:

D

Specific gravity (Gs) = -------------C ( A B)

Where,

A = Weight of Pycnometer vessel containing sample & filled with distilled water in g

B = Weight of Pycnometer completely filled with distilled water only in g

C = Weight of saturated surface dry sample in g

D = Weight of oven dried sample in g

53

54

55

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