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# Structural Analysis

CE2100
Part 1:
Dr. Anil Agarwal
Part 2:
Dr. Amirtham Rajagopal

Schedule:
Classes on Thursday 10:00 am in room 134 and Fridays 2:30 pm in room 123
Tentative exam date: Last week of February

## Tentative Grading: Constitutes 50% of the total CE2100 grade

Exam: 60%
Assignments and projects: 25%
Attendance and quizzes: 15%

Instructor Information:

## Dr. Anil Agarwal (www.iith.ac.in/~anil)

Phone: +91 40 2301 8455
Email: anil@iith.ac.in
Office: Faculty room #20
https://sites.google.com/site/anilagarwalpurdue/documents

Office hours:
Immediately after the class or through appointment

Text book:
R. C. Hibbeler, Structural Analysis, 8th ed. in SI units, ISBN: 0-13-257053-4

Reference Material:
Devdas Menon, Advanced Structural Analysis, Narosa Publishing House.

Part 1: Topics
Recap of topics covered in Engineering Mechanics
Determinacy and Stability
Determinate trusses: method of joints, method of sections
Shear and moment diagrams and sign convention
Determination of Deflections using conjugate beam method
Energy Methods:
Principle of work and energy,
Method of virtual work: beams and trusses
Castiglianos theorem: beam and trusses
Indeterminate Structures : Force method
Theorem of reciprocal displacement
Force method of analysis: beams and trusses
Influence lines:
Beams, trusses
Series of concentrated loads
Envelop of influence lines
Moment Distribution Method
Indeterminate Beams, Frames with and without sway, simple grids
SAP-2000 Example problem demo and compare results
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## Where Does Structural

Analysis Come into Picture?
1. Architect develops a concept design
2. Loads are estimated (dead wt., snow, wind, earthquake,
etc.)
3. Member sizes are assumed (aka proportioning)
4. Internal forces (axial forces, bending moments and
shear forces, etc.) are calculated
5. Stresses are calculated
Strength requirements are checked. Go back to 3 if
unconservative or too conservative

## Two major classifications:

Determinate Structures
Indeterminate Structures

## Two major classifications:

Determinate Structures:
Simpler Systems
Naturally fits: A small lack of fit in the dimensions does not introduce
stresses.
Internal forces do not depend on member stiffness values
Equilibrium equations are sufficient to calculate internal forces
Number of unknowns is equal to number of equations
Planar frames: r = 3n; Planar trusses: b + r = 2j
Given that the structure is stable

Indeterminate Structures:

n = number of frame
parts
r = number of unknown
forces

b = number of bars
r = number of reaction
forces
j = number of joints

## More complex systems

A small lack of fit in the dimensions introduces stresses.
More supports are provided than the minimum number of supports required for
structural stability
Require compatibility conditions and constitutive laws to calculate internal
forces (Which needs member stiffnesses as input information)
Number of unknown reactions is greater than the number of equations (r >3n;
b+r > 2j)
Given that the structure is stable

## Two major classifications:

Indeterminacy is also called redundancy
Planar frames: r - 3n; Planar trusses: b + r - 2j
Given that the structure is stable

## Implies that so many supports or connections

can be removed and the structure will
remain stable.
These supports or connections should have been the
source of redundancy

n = number of frame
parts
r = number of unknown
forces

b = number of bars
r = number of reaction
forces
j = number of joints

Indeterminat
e
vs.
Determinate

or
Indeterminat
e

vs.
Determinate

Indeterminat
e
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## Stability and Determinacy:

i = r - 3n (Plane frame) or i = b + r - 2j (Plane truss)

n = number of frame
parts
(Space frame?)
r = number of unknown
If i < 0, definitely instable (Sufficient but not necessary condition) forces
If i = 0, determinate if stable
If i > 0, indeterminate if stable

## Definite way of telling whether a structure is stable or

not: Stiffness matrix should be invertible (i.e.,
det[K*]0)

b = number of bars
r = number of reaction
forces
j = number of joints

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## Analysis of Determinate Trusses:

The method of Sections: Solve equilibrium for a portion of
the truss

D P

A

Example:

F
L

## Determinate: yes, because b+r-2j = 11+3-2*7 = 0

Find force in member BF:

BC

## Overall equilibrium will give support reactions:

Take section as shown:
Mz=0:

BF*L/(22)=0:

Fy=0:

Fx=0:

BF

BF = 0

EF

P
P

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## Analysis of Determinate Trusses:

The method of joints: Solve equilibrium equations at
joints

45o

P
2

P
2

## Joint (D): Joint (B):

P 2

Example:
Force in member BD =?

C P

P
2

0
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## Analysis of Determinate Trusses:

Either of these methods may not work as easily in some situations
This truss is a determinate truss: total 12 equations and 12 unknowns
Assuming tension to be +ve

Equilibrium at E:

EF cos30 - DE cos30 - 3 = 0

EF sin 30 + DE sin 30 + BE =0

Likewise, at each node, we have two equations and more than two
unknowns
Therefore, these 12 algebraic equations need to be solved
simultaneously.
There is a trick presented in the text book page 116.

## Remove a bar (AD) so that A has only two bars (unknowns).

Add an imaginary bar (EC) instead.
Solve the modified truss for the applied load P. Find force in EC (EC p).
Apply equal and opposite unit forces on A and D as if AD were in tension and
find the corresponding force in EC (ECAD).
In reality force in EC is zero. Therefore, ECP + X. ECAD = 0. X will give the load in
AD due to external load P.
Now we can solve for other members as well.

Roller
suppor

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Moment
Diagrams
Positive sign
conventions

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Examples
L

L
wL/2

wL/2
wL/
2

Vx

Mx

Vx = w L/2 w.x

wL/3

wL/6
x
wL/
6

Vx

Mx

## Vx = w L/6 w*(x/L) *(x/2) = wL/6 w x 2/ 2L

Mx = w L x/6 (wx2/2L)*(x/3) = wLx/6 wx3/6L

Mx = w L x/2 w.x2/2

Vx
Mx

## *see last page of the text book for geometric

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properties of areas