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You are on page 1of 17

CE2100

Part 1:

Dr. Anil Agarwal

Part 2:

Dr. Amirtham Rajagopal

Schedule:

Classes on Thursday 10:00 am in room 134 and Fridays 2:30 pm in room 123

Tentative exam date: Last week of February

Exam: 60%

Assignments and projects: 25%

Attendance and quizzes: 15%

Instructor Information:

Phone: +91 40 2301 8455

Email: anil@iith.ac.in

Office: Faculty room #20

https://sites.google.com/site/anilagarwalpurdue/documents

Office hours:

Immediately after the class or through appointment

Text book:

R. C. Hibbeler, Structural Analysis, 8th ed. in SI units, ISBN: 0-13-257053-4

Reference Material:

Devdas Menon, Advanced Structural Analysis, Narosa Publishing House.

Part 1: Topics

Recap of topics covered in Engineering Mechanics

Determinacy and Stability

Determinate trusses: method of joints, method of sections

Shear and moment diagrams and sign convention

Determination of Deflections using conjugate beam method

Energy Methods:

Principle of work and energy,

Method of virtual work: beams and trusses

Castiglianos theorem: beam and trusses

Indeterminate Structures : Force method

Theorem of reciprocal displacement

Force method of analysis: beams and trusses

Influence lines:

Beams, trusses

Series of concentrated loads

Envelop of influence lines

Moment Distribution Method

Indeterminate Beams, Frames with and without sway, simple grids

SAP-2000 Example problem demo and compare results

3

Analysis Come into Picture?

1. Architect develops a concept design

2. Loads are estimated (dead wt., snow, wind, earthquake,

etc.)

3. Member sizes are assumed (aka proportioning)

4. Internal forces (axial forces, bending moments and

shear forces, etc.) are calculated

5. Stresses are calculated

Strength requirements are checked. Go back to 3 if

unconservative or too conservative

Determinate Structures

Indeterminate Structures

Determinate Structures:

Simpler Systems

Naturally fits: A small lack of fit in the dimensions does not introduce

stresses.

Internal forces do not depend on member stiffness values

Equilibrium equations are sufficient to calculate internal forces

Number of unknowns is equal to number of equations

Planar frames: r = 3n; Planar trusses: b + r = 2j

Given that the structure is stable

Indeterminate Structures:

n = number of frame

parts

r = number of unknown

forces

b = number of bars

r = number of reaction

forces

j = number of joints

A small lack of fit in the dimensions introduces stresses.

More supports are provided than the minimum number of supports required for

structural stability

Require compatibility conditions and constitutive laws to calculate internal

forces (Which needs member stiffnesses as input information)

Number of unknown reactions is greater than the number of equations (r >3n;

b+r > 2j)

Given that the structure is stable

Indeterminacy is also called redundancy

Planar frames: r - 3n; Planar trusses: b + r - 2j

Given that the structure is stable

can be removed and the structure will

remain stable.

These supports or connections should have been the

source of redundancy

n = number of frame

parts

r = number of unknown

forces

b = number of bars

r = number of reaction

forces

j = number of joints

Indeterminat

e

vs.

Determinate

or

Indeterminat

e

vs.

Determinate

Indeterminat

e

8

i = r - 3n (Plane frame) or i = b + r - 2j (Plane truss)

n = number of frame

parts

(Space frame?)

r = number of unknown

If i < 0, definitely instable (Sufficient but not necessary condition) forces

If i = 0, determinate if stable

If i > 0, indeterminate if stable

not: Stiffness matrix should be invertible (i.e.,

det[K*]0)

b = number of bars

r = number of reaction

forces

j = number of joints

10

11

The method of Sections: Solve equilibrium for a portion of

the truss

D P

A

Example:

F

L

Find force in member BF:

BC

Take section as shown:

Mz=0:

BF*L/(22)=0:

Fy=0:

Fx=0:

BF

BF = 0

EF

P

P

12

The method of joints: Solve equilibrium equations at

joints

45o

P

2

P

2

P 2

Example:

Force in member BD =?

C P

P

2

0

13

Either of these methods may not work as easily in some situations

This truss is a determinate truss: total 12 equations and 12 unknowns

Assuming tension to be +ve

Equilibrium at E:

EF cos30 - DE cos30 - 3 = 0

EF sin 30 + DE sin 30 + BE =0

Likewise, at each node, we have two equations and more than two

unknowns

Therefore, these 12 algebraic equations need to be solved

simultaneously.

There is a trick presented in the text book page 116.

Add an imaginary bar (EC) instead.

Solve the modified truss for the applied load P. Find force in EC (EC p).

Apply equal and opposite unit forces on A and D as if AD were in tension and

find the corresponding force in EC (ECAD).

In reality force in EC is zero. Therefore, ECP + X. ECAD = 0. X will give the load in

AD due to external load P.

Now we can solve for other members as well.

Roller

suppor

14

15

Moment

Diagrams

Positive sign

conventions

16

Examples

L

L

wL/2

wL/2

wL/

2

Vx

Mx

Vx = w L/2 w.x

wL/3

wL/6

x

wL/

6

Vx

Mx

Mx = w L x/6 (wx2/2L)*(x/3) = wLx/6 wx3/6L

Mx = w L x/2 w.x2/2

Vx

Mx

17

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