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CONTENTS

7-1 The form of modal auxiliaries


7-2 Expressing ability: can and could
7-3 Expressing possibility: may and might Expressing permission:
7-4 Using could to express possibility
7-5 Polite questions: may I, could I, can I
7-6 Polite questions: would you, could you, will you, can you
7-7 Expressing advice: should and ought to
7-8 Expressing advice: had better
7-9 Expressing necessity: have to, have got to, must
7-10 Expressing lack of necessity: do not have to Expressing:
7-11 Making logical conclusions: must
7-12 Giving instructions: imperative sentences
7-13 Making suggestions: let's and why don't
7-14 Stating preferences: prefer, like...better, would rather
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7-1 THE FORM OF MODAL AUXILIARIES

Somebody should clean up this mess.

7-1 THE FORM OF MODAL AUXILIARIES

AUXILIARY + SIMPLE FORM OF VERB

can

(a) Inga can play the violin.

could

(b) They couldnt arrive on time.

may

(c) It may be a nice day tomorrow.

might

(d) It might be a nice day tomorrow.

7-1 THE FORM OF MODAL AUXILIARIES

AUXILIARY + SIMPLE FORM OF VERB

should

(e) Inga should go inside.

had better

(f) You had better go inside.

must

(g) He must be gentle with the cat.

will

(h) They will attend the recital.

would

(i) I would like to meet her.


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7-1 THE FORM OF MODAL AUXILIARIES

AUXILIARY + SIMPLE FORM OF VERB

can
might

could

should

may

must

had better

would
will

not followed by to
Inga can to play the violin.
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7-1 THE FORM OF MODAL AUXILIARIES

AUXILIARY + SIMPLE FORM OF VERB

can
might

could
may

should

must

had better

would
will

no final -s
Inga can plays the violin.
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7-1 THE FORM OF MODAL AUXILIARIES

AUXILIARY + SIMPLE FORM OF VERB

can
might

could

should

may

must

had better

would
will

not in past form


Inga can played the violin.
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7-1 THE FORM OF MODAL AUXILIARIES

AUXILIARY + SIMPLE FORM OF VERB

can
might

could

should

may

must

had better

would
will

not in -ing form


Inga can playing the violin.
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7-1 THE FORM OF MODAL AUXILIARIES

AUXILIARY + TO + SIMPLE FORM OF VERB

have to

(j) You have to eat something.

have got to (k) He has got to be on time.


ought to

(l) It ought to be fun.


to + simple form
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7-1 LETS PRACTICE

to

to learn how to skate.


She has ___

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7-1 LETS PRACTICE

to

learn how to skate.


She might ___

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7-1 LETS PRACTICE

to

She should ___


learn how to skate.

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7-2 EXPRESSING ABILITY: CAN AND COULD

I cant believe that!

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7-2 EXPRESSING ABILITY: CAN AND COULD

(a) Dolphins can jump very high.


(b) They can swim long distances.
(c) They can be taught fancy tricks.
can

ability in present
or future

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7-2 EXPRESSING ABILITY: CAN AND COULD

cant
(d) I cannot
can not

fix this computer.

three negative forms


of can

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7-2 EXPRESSING ABILITY: CAN AND COULD

(e) When we were in college, we could


play chess for hours.
could = past form of can

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7-2 EXPRESSING ABILITY: CAN AND COULD

(f) I couldnt play chess in graduate school.


I had to study all the time.
couldnt or could not = negative form of
could

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7-2 LETS PRACTICE

can
cant
He is always upset when he
_____
cant remember something.

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7-2 LETS PRACTICE

can
cant
A dolphin ____
cant run,
but it ____ jump.
can

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7-2 LETS PRACTICE

can
cant
You ____
can bring a horse
to water, but you ____
cant
make him drink it.
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7-3 EXPRESSING POSSIBILITY: MAY AND MIGHT


EXPRESSING PERMISSION: MAY AND CAN

Maybe Alice heard some bad news.

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7-3 EXPRESSING POSSIBILITY: MAY AND MIGHT


EXPRESSING PERMISSION: MAY AND CAN

(a) It may snow this week.


(b) It might snow this week.

may, might

same
meaning

possibility

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7-3 EXPRESSING POSSIBILITY: MAY AND MIGHT


EXPRESSING PERMISSION: MAY AND CAN

(c)
Can we
finish this by
Monday?

I dont know.
mightbebe
We may
ready by then.

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7-3 EXPRESSING POSSIBILITY: MAY AND MIGHT


EXPRESSING PERMISSION: MAY AND CAN

(d) It may not snow this week.


(e) It might not snow this week.
Negative: may not, might
not
no contractions

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7-3 EXPRESSING POSSIBILITY: MAY AND MIGHT


EXPRESSING PERMISSION: MAY AND CAN

(f) Maybe it will snow tomorrow.


COMPARE

(g) Maybe the test will be hard.

adverb

maybe
possibly
beginning of sentence
(h) The test may be hard.

verb

may be = may + the main verb be


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7-3 EXPRESSING POSSIBILITY: MAY AND MIGHT


EXPRESSING PERMISSION: MAY AND CAN

(i) Yes, you may borrow my pen.

more formal

(j) Sure, you can borrow my pen. less formal


may
permission
can often used, too

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7-3 EXPRESSING POSSIBILITY: MAY AND MIGHT


EXPRESSING PERMISSION: MAY AND CAN

(k) You may not borrow my pen.


You cant borrow my pen.
may
deny permission
can often used, too

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7-3 LETS PRACTICE

may be done with


I _______
this project tomorrow.

maybe
may be

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7-3 LETS PRACTICE

Maybe Ill be done


_______
with this project
tomorrow.

maybe
may be

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7-3 LETS PRACTICE

maybe
can
The boss told me
that we ____
can use
the new color
printer.

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7-4 USING COULD TO EXPRESS POSSIBILITY

This could be a long walk.

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7-4 USING COULD TO EXPRESS POSSIBILITY

(a)

Why isnt this


working?

I dont think its


serious. It could be
just a weak battery.
present
Could =
possibility

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7-4 USING COULD TO EXPRESS POSSIBILITY

(b)

This error could


cause problems in
the whole company.

Could = future
possibility

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7-4 LETS PRACTICE

Id like to visit a beautiful place.


We could go to Thailand.

present
future

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7-4 LETS PRACTICE

Oh, no! This could be a problem!

present
future

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7-4 LETS PRACTICE

This car doesnt run.


The battery could be dead.

?
present
future

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7-5 POLITE QUESTIONS: MAY I, COULD I, CAN I

May I help you?

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7-5 POLITE QUESTIONS: MAY I, COULD I, CAN I

POLITE QUESTION

(a) May I please take your picture?


(b) Could I please take your picture?
(c) Can I please take your picture?
POSSIBLE ANSWERS
Yes.

Of course.

Yes. Of course.

Sure.

Okay.
Certainly.

Sorry, not today.


Yes. Certainly.

Uh-huh.

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7-5 POLITE QUESTIONS: MAY I, COULD I, CAN I

POLITE QUESTION

May I take your picture, please?


Could I take your picture, please?
Can I take your picture, please?
please at end

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7-5 POLITE QUESTIONS: MAY I, COULD I, CAN I

POLITE QUESTION

May I take
please
your
take
picture?
your picture?
please
Could I take
your
take
picture?
your picture?
Can I take
please
your
take
picture?
your picture?
without please

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7-5 LETS PRACTICE

CORRECT

YES
NO

Can I please borrow your car?

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7-5 LETS PRACTICE

CORRECT

YES
NO

May I borrow your car?

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7-5 LETS PRACTICE

CORRECT

YES
NO

Could I borrow please your car?

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7-6 POLITE QUESTION: WOULD YOU, COULD YOU,


WILL YOU, CAN YOU

Would you please sit still?

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7-6 POLITE QUESTION: WOULD YOU, COULD YOU,


WILL YOU, CAN YOU

POLITE QUESTION

(a) Would you please explain that again?


(b) Could you please explain that again?
(c) Will you please explain that again?
(d) Can you please explain that again?
basically the same meaning
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7-6 POLITE QUESTION: WOULD YOU, COULD YOU,


WILL YOU, CAN YOU

POLITE QUESTION

(a) Would you please


explain that again?

POLITE ANSWERS

Yes.

Sure.

Uh-huh.

(b) Could you please


Yes. Of course.
explain that again?
(c) Will you please
Certainly. Okay.
explain that again?
(d) Can you please
Of course. Id be glad to.
explain that again?
Im sorry. I dont have time.
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7-6 POLITE QUESTION: WOULD YOU, COULD YOU,


WILL YOU, CAN YOU

POLITE QUESTION

(a) Would you please


explain that again?
(b) Could you please
explain that again?
(c) Will you please
explain that again?
(d) Can you please
explain that again?

INCORRECT:

May you please


explain that again.

can is less formal

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7-6 LETS PRACTICE

CORRECT

YES
NO

Could you wash my car yesterday?

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7-6 LETS PRACTICE

CORRECT

YES
NO

Will you wash my car, please?

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7-6 LETS PRACTICE

CORRECT

YES
NO

May you please wash my car?

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7-7 EXPRESSING ADVICE: SHOULD AND OUGHT TO

They should go home


and get some rest.

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7-7 EXPRESSING ADVICE: SHOULD AND OUGHT TO

should
(a) I have a headache. I
take a nap.
ought to
(b) INCORRECT: I should to take a nap.
(c) INCORRECT: I ought taking a nap.
should + simple form of verb
ought + to + simple form of verb
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7-7 EXPRESSING ADVICE: SHOULD AND OUGHT TO

(d) You need to study. You should not go out.


You need to study. You shouldnt go out.
NEGATIVE: should + not = shouldnt

Ought to

not usually used in negative

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7-7 EXPRESSING ADVICE: SHOULD AND OUGHT TO

I dont understand
the assignment.
What should I do?

(e)

QUESTION: should + subject + main verb

Ought to

not usually used in questions


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7-7 EXPRESSING ADVICE: SHOULD AND OUGHT TO

(f)

You should
come in to
see me.

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7-7 EXPRESSING ADVICE: SHOULD AND OUGHT TO

(f)

You ought to
come in to
see me.

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7-7 EXPRESSING ADVICE: SHOULD AND OUGHT TO

(g)

Maybe you
should come
in to see me.

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7-7 EXPRESSING ADVICE: SHOULD AND OUGHT TO

(g) Maybe you ought to come in to see me.

maybe + should, ought to

softens advice

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7-7 LETS PRACTICE

should

I need a book
about geology.

You should go
to the library.

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7-7 LETS PRACTICE

ought to

I need a book
about geology.

You ought to go
to the library.

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7-7 LETS PRACTICE

maybe, should

I need a book
about geology.

Maybe you should go


to the library.

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7-8 EXPRESSING ADVICE: HAD BETTER

They had better go home


and get some rest.

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7-8 EXPRESSING ADVICE: HAD BETTER

should
(a) I have a headache. I ought to take a nap.
had better
should
ought to
had better

same
meaning

good idea, good advice


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7-8 EXPRESSING ADVICE: HAD BETTER

(b) Hed better be careful. His pan is on fire!


Had better usually = warning

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7-8 LETS PRACTICE

Youd better quit watching


TV all day.
Possible bad results?
eat too much
catch a cold
hurt your eyes
not study enough
not exercise enough
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7-8 LETS PRACTICE

Hed better not walk there.


Possible bad results?
fall
get hurt
get the flu
be embarrassed
fail a test
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7-8 LETS PRACTICE

Hed better stay awake in school.


Possible bad results?
miss something
get hurt
get in trouble
fail a test
get the flu
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7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO,


HAVE GOT TO, MUST

This man has to wear ear protection.

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7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO,


HAVE GOT TO, MUST

(a) I want to become a doctor.


have to
I have got to go to medical school.
must
have to
have got to
had better

same
meaning

something is necessary
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7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO,


HAVE GOT TO, MUST

(b)

I need to hurry.
I have to go to
soccer practice.

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7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO,


HAVE GOT TO, MUST

(c) Its late. Weve got to go home.

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7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO,


HAVE GOT TO, MUST

(d) Everyone must wear a seatbelt


on an airplane.

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7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO,


HAVE GOT TO, MUST

(b) I have to go to soccer practice.


(c) Weve got to go home.
(d) Everyone must wear a seatbelt
on an airplane.
have to
have got to
must

common
informal conversation
written instructions
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7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO,


HAVE GOT TO, MUST

(e) Do you have to wear seatbelts in your car?


(f) Did they all have to come?

Questions

have to
have got to
must

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7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO,


HAVE GOT TO, MUST

(e) Do you have to wear seatbelts in your car?


(f) Did they all have to come?

Questions

have to
have got to
must

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7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO,


HAVE GOT TO, MUST

(e) Do you have to wear seatbelts in your car?


(f) Did they all have to come?

Questions

have to
have got to
must

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7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO,


HAVE GOT TO, MUST

(g) We had to clean up the mess.


have to
have got to
must

Past form:
had to

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7-9 EXPRESSING NECESSITY: HAVE TO,


HAVE GOT TO, MUST

PRONUNCIATION

(h) I have to (hafta) call my mom.


(i) Jason has to (hasta) work tomorrow.
(j) Ive got to (gotta) cook dinner tonight.
/hft/ or /hftu/
/hst/ or /hstu/
/gad/ or /gt/
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7-9 LETS PRACTICE

CORRECT

YES
NO

Do I must wash all the dishes?

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7-9 LETS PRACTICE

CORRECT

YES
NO

Do I have to wash all the dishes?

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7-9 LETS PRACTICE

CORRECT

YES
NO

Do I have got to wash all the dishes?

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7-10
EXPRESSING LACK OF NECESSITY: DO NOT HAVE TO
EXPRESSING PROHIBITION: MUST NOT

You mustnt talk on the phone


while you are driving.

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7-10
EXPRESSING LACK OF NECESSITY: DO NOT HAVE TO
EXPRESSING PROHIBITION: MUST NOT

(a) I mowed the yard yesterday.


I dont have to mow it this weekend.
not necessary

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7-10
EXPRESSING LACK OF NECESSITY: DO NOT HAVE TO
EXPRESSING PROHIBITION: MUST NOT

(b) Alesha is on vacation.


She doesnt have to go to work today.
not necessary

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7-10
EXPRESSING LACK OF NECESSITY: DO NOT HAVE TO
EXPRESSING PROHIBITION: MUST NOT

(c) You must not swim here.


(d) You must not swim in this water.
Prohibition
(Do Not Do This!)

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7-10
EXPRESSING LACK OF NECESSITY: DO NOT HAVE TO
EXPRESSING PROHIBITION: MUST NOT

(e) You mustnt throw trash in the garden.


must + not = mustnt

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7-10 LETS PRACTICE

We cleaned the house this morning.


We _________________________
dont have to clean the house now.

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7-10 LETS PRACTICE

I cooked dinner this morning.


I ______________________
dont have to cook dinner tonight.

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7-10 LETS PRACTICE

Swimming is prohibited.
must not / mustnt swim here.
You _______________

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7-11 MAKING LOGICAL CONCLUSIONS: MUST

Mary and Artie are smiling.


They must be happy.

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7-11 MAKING LOGICAL CONCLUSIONS: MUST

(a) That woman is


very funny.

She must
be a
comedian.

best guess

must

OR

logical
conclusion
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7-11 MAKING LOGICAL CONCLUSIONS: MUST

COMPARE
LOGICAL CONCLUSION

(b) My friends went skydiving.


They must be brave.
NECESSITY

(c) To become a scientist,


you must go to college.

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7-11 MAKING LOGICAL CONCLUSIONS: MUST

COMPARE
NEGATIVE LOGICAL CONCLUSION

(d) Jed smokes.


He must not know that smoking is harmful.
PROHIBITION

(e) We need money for the future.


We must not spend it all now.

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7-11 LETS PRACTICE

necessity
prohibition
logical conclusion
negative logical conclusion
Jenny swims everyday.
She must love to swim.

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7-11 LETS PRACTICE

necessity
prohibition
logical conclusion
negative logical conclusion
Smoking is not allowed.
You must not smoke.

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7-11 LETS PRACTICE

necessity
prohibition
logical conclusion
negative logical conclusion
If you want to graduate,
you must stay in school.

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7-12 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE


SENTENCES

Listen to me!

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7-12 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE


SENTENCES

COMMAND

(a)

Sit down! You


are in trouble.

Yes,
Mom.

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7-12 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE


SENTENCES

REQUEST

(b)

Sit down,
please. I want
to talk to you.

Okay,
Mom.

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7-12 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE


SENTENCES

DIRECTIONS

(c) Emma: So, where should I turn?


Adam: In two miles, turn right.
Then drive five miles to the
hotel on the left.

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7-12 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE


SENTENCES

COMMAND
REQUEST
DIRECTIONS

(a) Sit down!


(b) Sit down, please.
(c) Turn right. Then drive five miles.

give commands
make polite requests
give directions

imperative
sentences

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7-12 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE


SENTENCES

(d) Slow down!

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7-12 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE


SENTENCES

(d) Slow down!


(e) Please slow down!

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7-12 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE


SENTENCES

(d)
Slow down!
(f) Come
on!
(e) Please slow down!
(f) Come on!

subject of sentence = you (unspoken)


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7-12 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE


SENTENCES

(g) Dont worry. I wont fall.

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7-12 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE


SENTENCES

(g) Dont worry. I wont fall.


(h) Please dont drive so fast.

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7-12 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS: IMPERATIVE


SENTENCES

(g) Dont worry. I wont fall.


(h) Please dont drive so fast.
(i) Dont do that again.

Dont + simple form of a verb

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7-12 LETS PRACTICE

command
request
directions

Please dont worry about me.

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7-12 LETS PRACTICE

command
request
directions

To use chopsticks, keep one finger over


the other, and use your thumb to direct the
movement.

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7-12 LETS PRACTICE

command
request
directions

Dont swing so high!

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7-13 MAKING SUGGESTIONS: LETS AND WHY DONT

Lets try this approach.

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7-13 MAKING SUGGESTIONS: LETS AND WHY DONT

(b)
(a)

Letsdont
buy this
Why
we
one.this
It looks
buy
one? It
looksgood.
good.

Thats okay
with me.

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7-13 MAKING SUGGESTIONS: LETS AND WHY DONT

(a) Lets buy this one.


(b) Why dont we buy this one?

same
meaning

suggestions about activities

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7-13 MAKING SUGGESTIONS: LETS AND WHY DONT

(c)

I dont know
which classes
to take.

Why dont
you ask your
advisor?

friendly suggestion
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7-13 LETS PRACTICE

Lets
We have a big test tomorrow.
Lets study together.
___________

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7-13 LETS PRACTICE

Why dont we
We have a big test tomorrow.
Why dont we study together?
________________

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7-13 Lets Practice

I dont
understand
this report.

Why dont you


________________
Why dont you look
at this line?

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7-14
STATING PREFERENCES: PREFER, LIKEBETTER,
WOULD RATHER

I would rather have a


motorcycle than a car.

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7-14
STATING PREFERENCES: PREFER, LIKEBETTER,
WOULD RATHER

(a) I prefer motorcycles to cars.


prefer + noun + to + noun
(b) I prefer riding on a motorcycle to riding
in a car.
prefer + -ing verb + to + -ing verb

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7-14
STATING PREFERENCES: PREFER, LIKEBETTER,
WOULD RATHER

(c) I like motorcycles better than cars.


like + noun + better than + noun
(d) I like riding a motorcycle better than driving
in a car.
like + -ing verb + better than + -ing verb

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7-14
STATING PREFERENCES: PREFER, LIKEBETTER,
WOULD RATHER

(e) Ray would rather have a cat than a dog.


(f) INCORRECT: Ray would rather has a cat.
(g) Id rather buy dinner than cook it.
(h) INCORRECT:
Id rather buy dinner than to cook it.
Id rather buy dinner than cooking it.
Would rather

simple form of verb


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7-14
STATING PREFERENCES: PREFER, LIKEBETTER,
WOULD RATHER

(i) Id/Youd/Shed/Hed/Wed/Theyd rather


have a motorcycle.
Contraction of would = d.
l

(j) Would you rather have a car or a motorcycle?


would rather

or

polite situations / offers a choice


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7-14 LETS PRACTICE

than
to
I like to play badminton better ____
than tennis.

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7-14 LETS PRACTICE

than
to
I prefer badminton ___
to tennis.

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7-14 LETS PRACTICE

than
to
I would rather play badminton ____
than tennis.

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PHOTO CREDITS

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education and


its licensors. All rights reserved.
Images used under license from:
Shutterstock, Inc.
Clipart, Inc.

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