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ECE

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(DSP)

Fundamentals

Overview

What is DSP?

Converting Analog into Digital

Electronically

Computationally

Faithful Duplication

Resolution Trade-offs

What is DSP?

Converting a continuously changing

waveform (analog) into a series of discrete

levels (digital)

What is DSP?

The analog waveform is sliced into equal

segments and the waveform amplitude is

measured in the middle of each segment

The collection of measurements make up

the digital representation of the waveform

-1

-1.5

-2

17

15

13

11

0.5

0.22

0.44

0.64

0.82

0.98

1.11

1.2

1.24

1.27

1.24

1.2

1.11

0.98

0.82

0.64

0.44

0.22

1.5

19

-0.22

-0.44 21

-0.64

-0.82

23

-0.98

-1.11

25

-1.2

-1.26

27

-1.28

-1.26

29

-1.2

-1.11

31

-0.98

-0.82

33

-0.64

-0.44 35

-0.22

37

-0.5

0

0

1

What is DSP?

Electronically

called an Analog to Digital Converter

(ADC)

There is a device that converts digital to

analog that is called a Digital to Analog

Converter (DAC)

Electronically

The simplest form of

ADC uses a resistance

ladder to switch in the

appropriate number of

resistors in series to

create the desired

voltage that is

compared to the input

(unknown) voltage

SW-8

V-high

SW-7

V-7

SW-6

V-6

SW-5

Output

V-5

SW-4

V-4

SW-3

V-3

SW-2

V-2

SW-1

V-1

V-low

Electronically

The output of the

resistance ladder is

compared to the

Analog Voltage

analog voltage in a

Resistance

comparator

Ladder Voltage

When there is a match,

the digital equivalent

(switch configuration)

is captured

Comparator

Output

Higher

Equal

Lower

Computationally

The analog voltage can now be compared with the

digitally generated voltage in the comparator

Through a technique called binary search, the

digitally generated voltage is adjusted in steps

until it is equal (within tolerances) to the analog

voltage

When the two are equal, the digital value of the

voltage is the outcome

Computationally

The binary search is a mathematical technique that

uses an initial guess, the expected high, and the

expected low in a simple computation to refine a

new guess

The computation continues until the refined guess

matches the actual value (or until the maximum

number of calculations is reached)

The following sequence takes you through a

binary search computation

Binary Search

Initial conditions

Expected low 0-volts

5-volts 256-binary

0-volts 0-binary

Analog

5-volts

3.42-volts

2.5-volts

Digital

256

Unknown

(175)

128

Voltage to be converted

3.42-volts

Equates to 175 binary

0-volts

Binary Search

Binary search algorithm:

High Low

Low NewGuess

2

First Guess:

Analog

5-volts

Digital

256

3.42-volts

unknown

128

256 0

0 128

2

Guess is Low

0-volts

Binary Search

New Guess (2):

256 128

128 192

2

Guess is High

Analog

5-volts

3.42-volts

0-volts

Digital

256

192

unknown

Binary Search

New Guess (3):

192 128

128 160

2

Analog

5-volts

Digital

256

3.42-volts

unknown

160

Guess is Low

0-volts

Binary Search

New Guess (4):

192 160

160 176

2

Guess is High

Analog

5-volts

Digital

256

3.42-volts

176

unknown

0-volts

Binary Search

New Guess (5):

176 160

160 168

2

Guess is Low

Analog

5-volts

Digital

256

3.42-volts

unknown

168

0-volts

Binary Search

New Guess (6):

176 168

168 172

2

Guess is Low

(but getting close)

Analog

5-volts

Digital

256

3.42-volts

unknown

172

0-volts

Binary Search

New Guess (7):

Analog

5-volts

3.42-volts

176 172

172 174

2

Digital

256

unknown

174

Guess is Low

(but getting really,

really, close)

0-volts

Binary Search

New Guess (8):

176 174

174 175

2

Analog

5-volts

3.42-volts

Guess is Right On

0-volts

Digital

256

175!

Binary Search

The speed the binary search is

accomplished depends on:

The clock speed of the ADC

The number of bits resolution

Can be shortened by a good guess (but usually

is not worth the effort)

Faithful Duplication

convert it into digital form, lets take a look

at how it is used in DSP

Draw a simple waveform on graph paper

Scale appropriately

waveform

Create Digital Data

Faithful Duplication

Using the data, recreate the waveform on a

sheet of graph paper

Data

Faithful Duplication

note similarities and differences

Faithful Duplication

real power of DSP can be realized by

mathematical manipulation of the data

Using EXCEL spreadsheet software can

assist in manipulating the data and making

graphs quickly

Lets first do a little filtering of noise

Faithful Duplication

table of data that averages three data points

Average the point before and the point after

with the point in the middle

Enter all data in EXCEL to help with graphing

Ave before/after

150

150

100

100

50

0

-50 0

10

20

30

40

Amplitude

Amplitude

Raw

50

0

-50 0

-100

-100

-150

-150

Time

10

20

Time

30

40

Faithful Duplication

cause some interference

Using your raw digital data, create a new

table of data that replaces extreme high and

low values:

Replace values greater than 100 with 100

Replace values less than -100 with -100

eliminate extremes (100/-100)

150

150

100

100

50

0

-50 0

10

20

30

40

Amplitude

Amplitude

Raw

50

0

-50 0

-100

-100

-150

-150

Time

10

20

Time

30

40

Resolution Trade-offs

affect the faithful duplication of the

waveform

Using your raw digital data, create a new

table of data and delete every other data

point

This is the same as sampling at half the rate

every 2nd

150

150

100

100

50

0

-50 0

10

20

30

40

Amplitude

Amplitude

Raw

50

0

-50 0

-100

-100

-150

-150

Time

10

20

Time

30

40

Resolution Trade-offs

table of data and delete every second and

third data point

This is the same as sampling at one-third

the rate

every 3rd

150

150

100

100

50

0

-50 0

10

20

30

40

Amplitude

Amplitude

Raw

50

0

-50 0

-100

-100

-150

-150

Time

10

20

Time

30

40

Resolution Trade-offs

table of data and delete all but every sixth

data point

This is the same as sampling at one-sixth

the rate

every 6th

150

150

100

100

50

0

-50 0

10

20

30

40

Amplitude

Amplitude

Raw

50

0

-50 0

-100

-100

-150

-150

Time

10

20

Time

30

40

Resolution Trade-offs

table of data and delete all but every twelfth

data point

This is the same as sampling at one-twelfth

the rate

every 12th

150

150

100

100

50

0

-50 0

10

20

30

40

Amplitude

Amplitude

Raw

50

0

-50 0

-100

-100

-150

-150

Time

10

20

Time

30

40

Resolution Trade-offs

changes in sampling rate?

At what point does the waveform get too

corrupted by the reduced number of

samples?

Is there a point where more samples does

not appear to improve the quality of the

duplication?

Resolution Trade-offs

Bit

Resolution

Sample Rate

High Bit

Count

Good

Duplication

Slow

Low Bit

Count

Poor

Duplication

Fast

High Sample

Rate

Good

Duplication

Slow

Low Sample

Rate

Poor

Duplication

Fast

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