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KPSA:

MENGGUNAKAN
PERHUBUNGAN RUANG DAN
MASA

SCE 3106 PISMP SEM 3


oleh
Rohaya Mee

APA?
Kebolehan

SCE3106_RM2011

memperihalkan atau
menunjukkan lokasi, arah, bentuk dan
saiz sesuatu objek dan perubahannya
mengikut masa

CONTOH
Penyemaian

SCE3106_RM2011

biji kacang.
Murid diarahkan mengukur ketinggian
anak benih kacang setiap hari selama 1
minggu.

KEPENTINGAN
Menyedarkan

SCE3106_RM2011

kita bahawa setiap


perubahan itu adalah mengikut masa
Membantu kita menyusun peristiwaperistiwa mengikut koronologinya.

AKTIVITI

Week 9 Making A Sun Clock


SCE3106_RM2011

SPACE TIME RELATIONSHIPS

Indicator:

To describe a location and time


To describe the changes of direction, shape and size of
an object in a period of time
To describe the relationships between the distance that
has been covered in a period of time.
To arrange events chronologically
To determine the magnitude of changes that occurred
based on the rate of changing
To determine the location of an object in space and to
describe its location
To describe the shape of an object when it is seen from a
location or a point of different frame of reference.

SCE3106_RM2011

KPSB :
MENTAFSIR
MAKLUMAT
SCE 3106 PISMP SEM 3
oleh
Rohaya Mee

SCE3106_RM2011

Read the following


data. Construct a visual
EXERCISE
1

representation that you think will communicate the


information best.

Our sun has a surface temperature of about 5538C. The


innermost planet is Mercury. It has a surface
temperature of about 327C. The next planet, Venus, has
a surface temperature of about 482C. Our home planet
Earth is next. Its surface temperature is about 14C.
Mars is the fourth planet and its surface temperature is
about -23C. Jupiter comes after Mars. Jupiter has a
surface temperature of about -151C. Saturn is next with
a surface temperature of about -184C. Uranus is after
Saturn. Its surface temperature is about -207C. Next is
Neptune whose surface temperature is about -223C.
Pluto is the outermost planet. It is so far away from the
sun that its surface temperature has not been measured
but it is estimated to be about -230C.
8

SAMPLE VISUAL REPRESENTATION

SCE3106_RM2011

Planets Position from


Sun

Surface Temperature (C)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Which is better? Why?

The first step in interpreting data is to decide


what data you want to gather. This comes from
the hypothesis you devise.
It is important to organize data for easy
interpretation. Data tables and charts are
usually used. Graphs are created from data
tables to get a visual image of the observations
which simplifies interpretation and drawing
conclusions.

SCE3106_RM2011

INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION

10

Two types of graph:


Bar

graph for descriptive/discrete data (data from


variables that will be counted)

SCE3106_RM2011

INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION

Eg. Brands of paper towels, types of wood, gender, days of the


week, etc

Line

graph for continous data (data from variables


investigated over time)
Eg. Volume of water, height of ladders, units of clock time,
mass of fruit etc.

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You should be able to:


Construct a table of data
Construct a graph
Interpreting a graph (relationship between
variables)

SCE3106_RM2011

PRESENTATION OBJECTIVES

12

COMMON CONVENTIONS:
1.
The MANIPULATED VARIABLE is recorded
in the LEFT column, the RESPONDING
VARIABLE is recorded in the RIGHT column.
2.
When repeated trials are conducted, the RV
column is divided into smaller
column.DERIVED QUANTITY is recorded in
one or more columns to the right of the RV
column.
3.
UNITS are included in the column heading.
4.
The levels of the MV are ordered, usually
from smallest to largest.

SCE3106_RM2011

CONSTRUCTING A TABLE OF
DATA

13

EXAMPLE OF TABLE OF DATA


TRIALS

COLUMN FOR MV

COLUMN FOR RV

SCE3106_RM2011

COLUMN FOR
DERIVED QUANTITY

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Does the title tell about the MV and the RV?


Is the left column for the MV?
Are the label and units given for the MV?
Are the levels of the MV ordered?
Is the right column for the RV?
Are the label and units given for the RV?
Is the RV column subdivided for repeated trials?
Are the RV data correctly recorded?
Are there additional columns for derived quantities?
Are the label and units given for the derived
quantities?
Are the derived quantities correctly calculated?

SCE3106_RM2011

TABULATING DATA SKILLS CHECKLIST

15

PROCEDURE
1. Draw a horizontal line (x-axis) and a vertical
line (y-axis)
2. The MV is written on the x-axis. The RV is
written on the y-axis.
3. Write the title of the graph.

SCE3106_RM2011

CONSTRUCTING A GRAPH

A graph title may take these form:


The Effect of the MV on the RV
How Does the MV affect the RV?

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SCE3106_RM2011

4.
Determine interval
scales for each axis.
PROCEDURE
(CONT)

STEPS
1.

2.

3.

4.

Find the range of data (subtract


the smallest value from the
largest value)

7
12
22
37
46
55

Divide the difference by the


number of interval you want (to
use/cover the entire graph area)

55 7 = 48

Round up interval to an easy


counting number eg. 5, 10, 2, 4
etc
Mark off intervals along the axis.
Begin with an interval that is
less than the smallest value to
be plotted and continue until
you have exceeded the largest
value to be plotted.

48 5 = 9.6
9.6 10

10

20

30

40

50

60 17

6.

point is represented as (x,y) or (MV,RV).


Connect the points or draw a best-fit line.

SCE3106_RM2011

PROCEDURE
(CONT)
5. Plot data pairs as points on the graph. The
The rules are:

The line should be a straight line or a smooth curve.


All points should lie either on the line or very near to
the line.
There should be approximately equal number of data
points on either side of the line.

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PROCEDURE
Tell what happens to the RV as the MV
changes.

SCE3106_RM2011

INTERPRETING A GRAPH

Eg: The temperature of water increases as the


length of time it is heated increases

For

a curved line graph

Describe the relationship in two


sentences.
First describe the relationship until the
curve changes direction.
A change in direction of a line indicates a
change in the relationships between the
variables
Then tell what the relationship is for the
rest of the graph.

19

SCE3106_RM2011

Shown are several graphs with lines drawn


EXERCISE
2
through data points. Decide whether it is a bestfit line. If not, why?

Too many data points on


one side
Should be curved

Some points too far from line

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Should be curved (U shaped)

Line is best-fit. Line


seems to average
the points.

Too many data


points on one side.

Curved line should


be lowered.

SCE3106_RM2011

EXERCISE 2 (CONT.)

Curve not smooth. A


J shaped smooth
curve is best-fit.

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SCE3106_RM2011

Draw best-fit
EXERCISE
3 lines for these points.

22

SCE3106_RM2011

SELF-CHECK EXERCISE 3

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the variables for each graph.

The breaking point


increases as the
diameter of the rope
increases.

SCE3106_RM2011

EXERCISE
4
Write a statement
of relationship between

The number of letters


recognized decreases
as the distance from
the chart increases.
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The average number of tomatoes


produced increased rapidly until
a temperature of 19C was
reached. Above 19C the average
number of tomatoes produced
declined rapidly.

SCE3106_RM2011

EXERCISE 4 (CONT.)

The temperature of water


steadily increases when heated
for 7 minutes. After that the
temperature stays about the
25
same even though heating
continues.

EXERCISE 5
Description of an investigation and the data collected are given
below. Also given are a graph of the data, a best-fit line, and a
statement of the relationship between the variables.

You are to describe whether each has been properly prepared. If a


section has not been correctly presented, check what part is wrong.

The sea otters in a


sheltered lagoon
were counted over a
number of years.
STATEMENT
The number of sea
otters in this location
has been steadily
decreasing since 1932

Year

Number
of sea
otters

193
2
194
46
0
42
195
35
2
30
196 SELF CHECK
26 on wrong axis
Variables
2
197 Statement is ok
2
Line does not average points (all
points above line)

SCE3106_RM2011

THE INVESTIGATION

26

1.
2.
3.

SCE3106_RM2011

EXERCISE
6 of an investigation and a table of
A description

data are given here.


Construct a graph
Draw a best-fit line
Write a statement of the relationship between
the variables.

THE INVESTIGATION
An investigation was carried
out to determine the
relationship between the
size of a car motor and the
gasoline mileage.

Size of Motor
(horsepower
)

Average
Kilometers per
Liter of Gasoline

47
100
140
193
227

7.0
5.0
4.0
3.5
3.0

27

SCE3106_RM2011

ANSWER EXERCISE 6

The number of kilometers per liter of gasoline


decreases as the size of the motor increases.
However, the decrease is slower for motors
above 120 horsepower.
28

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Does the title communicate the MV and RV?


Is the MV on the x-axis?
Are the labels/units given for the MV?
Is the scale on the x-axis appropriate to
represent the values of the MV?
Is the RV on the y-axis?
Are the labels/units given for the RV?
Is the scale on the y-axis appropriate to
represent the values of the RV?
Are the data correctly plotted?
Is the line-of-best-fit appropriate?
Is the graph done neatly?

SCE3106_RM2011

GRAPHING SKILLS CHECKLIST

29

SCE3106_RM2011

30

SCE3106_RM2011

31

SCE3106_RM2011

32

SCE3106_RM2011

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KPSB :
MENDEFINISI
SECARA OPERASI

SCE 3106 PISMP SEM 3


oleh
Rohaya Mee

variable is called an operational definition. Thus


an operational definition tells what operation is
performed (and observed) and how it is measured.
If you can measure a variable directly using
standard systems of measurement, you do not
need to define it operationally. Eg: depth ruler,
temperature thermometer, time stopwatch.
Defining operationally involves finding equivalent
ways of measuring something indirectly that
cannot be conveniently measured directly. Eg:
pendulum activity measure period in terms of
number of swings per 15 seconds because time of
one swing could not be measured conveniently.

SCE3106_RM2011

INTRODUCTORY
INFORMATION
The method or procedure
used to measure a

35

operationally definition for the same variable.

Example: investigation to test the effects of Vitamin


E on the endurance of a person.
The variable endurance of a person could be
defined operationally many different ways;

SCE3106_RM2011

INTRODUCTORY
Different investigatorsINFORMATION
may use different

The number of hours a person could stay awake.


The distance a person could run without stopping.
The number of jumping jacks a person could do before
tiring.

Operational definition should be EXPLICIT enough


that another investigator could carry out the
measurement without any further information from
the investigator.

36

SCE3106_RM2011

EXAMPLE 1

A study was done to determine if safety advertising


had any effect on automobile accidents. Different
numbers of billboards were put up in Keningau over a
period of four months to see if the number of people
hospitalized because of auto accidents was affected.
In January, five billboards carried safety messages; in
February there were ten, in March there were fifteen;
and in April there were twenty.During each of these
four months, a record of the number of people
hospitalized because of accidents was measured.

Identify the MV and RV.


How was each variable operationally defined?

37

MANIPULATED
VARIABLE

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION
Number of safety billboards put up in the
town during each month

RESPONDING
VARIABLE

SCE3106_RM2011

SAMPLE ANSWER FOR


EXAMPLE
1
SAFETY
ADVERTISING

Observed : safety billboards


Operation to measure: counting the
number of billboards erected each month

AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION
Number of people who are hospitalized
because of automobile accidents.
Observed : people who are hospitalized
because of automobile accidents.
Operation to measure: counting the
number of hospitalized people

38

SCE3106_RM2011

EXAMPLE 2

A study was done to determine the effect that


exercise has on pulse rate. Teacher trainees rode
bikes for different numbers of kilometers and then
their pulse rate was measured. One group rode 10
km, a second group rode 20 km, a third group rode
30 km and a fourth group rode 40 km. Following
the exercise the pulse rate was immediately
measured by counting the pulse for one minute.

Identify the MV and RV.


How was each variable operationally defined?

39

MANIPULATED
VARIABLE

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION
Number of kilometer a person rode

SCE3106_RM2011

SAMPLE ANSWER FOR


EXAMPLE
2
AMOUNT
OF EXERCISE

Observed : distance in km

RESPONDING
VARIABLE

Operation to measure: counting


(measuring) the number of kilometers a
person rode
PULSE RATE

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION
Number of heartbeats felt at the wrist
following exercise.
Observed : heartbeats.
Operation to measure: counting number of
heartbeats

40

INDIVIDUALLY.
REMEMBER !!!! THERE ARE A VARIETY
OF WAYS TO OPERATIONALLY DEFINE A
VARIABLE. WRITE AT LEAST THREE.
BE CREATIVE. I KNOW YOU CAN
HONESTLY DO IT!!!
THINK! THINK! THINK!

SCE3106_RM2011

NOW
ITSFOLLOWING
YOUR TURN
DO THE
EXERCISE

41

paper towels.

How does he operationally define absorbency of


paper towel?

SCE3106_RM2011

EXERCISE
1 to measure the absorbency of
A student wants

Possible Operational Definitions


1. Measure the amount of water that remains after a crumpled
paper towel has been placed in 25 ml of water for 5
minutes.
2. Measure the amount of water that collects after 25 ml of
water has been poured through a crumpled paper towel.
3. Measure the height that water reaches after the end of a
folded paper towel has been inserted in water for 15
minutes.

42

size of a person.

Write at least 3 ways this variable could be


defined operationally.

SCE3106_RM2011

EXERCISE
2
You want to operationally
define the variable

Possible Operational Definitions


1.

2.

3.

4.

The reading in kilograms obtained when a person steps on


a scale.
The smallest number showing when a person stands
against a ruler which extends from the floor up.
The amount of water that overflows when a person is
submerged in a full bathtub.
The amount of tape required to encircle the chest, waist and
hips.

43

beans in an experiment.

Write at least 3 ways to define operationally the


variable amount of plant growth.

SCE3106_RM2011

EXERCISE
3 in agriculture. You are using
You are an expert

Possible Operational Definitions


1.

2.

3.

Count the number of leaves on a plant. Wait two weeks


and count them again.
Measure the distance from the soil to the uppermost leaf.
Ten days later, measure it again.
Weigh the plant and its pot. Wait one month and do it
again. The difference is how much it grew.
44

students enjoyment of reading.


List at least 3 ways that enjoyment of reading
could be operationally defined. Think of some
specific things you could measure with your students
that would indicate their enjoyment of reading.

SCE3106_RM2011

A primary school
EXERCISE
4 has a program for increasing

Possible Operational Definitions


1.

2.
3.
4.

Amount of time students voluntarily spend at the reading


table.
Number of references to books read during sharing time.
Number of voluntary book reports.
Number of books taken home.

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a concern for their environment.

SCE3106_RM2011

EXERCISE
5 of SK IPKS is that all children acquire
One of the goals

What are some of the ways that we might operationally


define this variable? Describe at least three.
Possible Operational Definitions
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

The number of special projects students choose to do on


environment matters
The weight of rubbish picked up on the playground each week
The number of paper bags thrown away (instead of reused) from
the cafeteria
The number of paper towels used in the washrooms
The number of posters on environmental matters in a show-yourconcern-with-a-poster contest

46

temperature of a liquid affects the amount of


evaporation.

SCE3106_RM2011

EXERCISE
6 is underway to see how the initial
An investigation
Describe at least three ways that amount of
evaporation could be operationally defined.
Possible Operational Definitions
1.

2.

3.

Measure the depth of the liquid. Measure it again twentyfour hours later.
Pour a known quantity of liquid into an open container.
Measure its volume again three hours later.
Weigh the container of liquid. Twenty minutes later, weigh
it again. The difference is the amount of evaporation.

47

SCE3106_RM2011

THANK YOU
POUNSIKOU
XIE XIE
ARIGATO
DANKE
DANK U WEL
NANEDRI
GARCIAS
48

KPSB :
MENGENAL PASTI & MENGAWAL
PEMBOLEH UBAH
SCE 3106 PISMP SEM 3
Oleh

APA?

Pemboleh ubah boleh jadi satu faktor, keadaan atau


hubungan yang boleh diubah dalam suatu kejadian
atau sistem yang dikaji
Pemboleh ubah dimanipulasikan untuk menghasilkan
perubahan dalam pemboleh ubah kedua (pemboleh ubah
bergerakbalas)
Pembolehubah lain yang mungkin mempengaruhi
keputusan perlu dimalarkan (pemboleh ubah
dimalarkan)

50

SCE31
06_RM
2011

APA?
Pembolehubah manipulasi
faktor yang diubah oleh pengkaji untuk mengkaji
kesan terhadap hasil eksperimen
Pembolehubah bergerakbalas
hasil eksperimen yang bergerakbalas terhadap
faktor yang diubah oleh pengkaji.
Pembolehubah yang dimalarkan
faktor- faktor lain eksperimen yang dikawal atau
yang tidak diubah

51
SCE31
06_RM
2011

CONTOH
52

Nadiah telah melakukan eksperimen :


Sebatang lilin dinyalakan.
Sebuah bekas kaca ditelangkupkan untuk
menutup lilin itu.
Masa untuk lilin terpadam dicatatkan.
Eksperimen diulangi dengan menggunakan
bekas-bekas kaca yang berlainan saiz
Apakah tujuan eksperimen Nadiah?
Tujuan eksperimen di atas adalah mengkaji
kesan saiz bekas ke atas masa untuk lilin
terpadam sedang dikaji.

SCE31
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2011

CONTOH

53

Saiz bekas kaca dan masa untuk lilin terpadam adalah


pembolehubah-pembolehubah dalam eksperimen yang
dijalankan.
Saiz bekas diubah untuk menentukan kesannya ke atas
masa untuk lilin terpadam.
Oleh itu saiz bekas kaca ialah pembolehubah yang
dimanipulasi, manakala masa untuk lilin terpadam
adalah pembolehubah yang berubah.
Pembolehubah yang berubah ini dinamakan
pembolehubah gerakbalas.

SCE31
06_RM
2011

KEPENTINGAN
Membantu kita menentukan dengan teliti
pembolehubah yang menyebabkan sesuatu kesan
kepada keputusan ujikaji yang dilaksanakan.
Menetapkan pembolehubah-pembolehubah
tertentu supaya tidak memberi kesan kepada
keputusan ujikaji.
Membantu kita menentukan bahawa sesuatu
kesan adalah disebabkan oleh pembolehubah
yang dimanipulasi ke atas pembolehubah
gerakbalas

54
SCE31
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2011

DEFINITION

VARIABLES:

/ CONDITIONS THAT CAN CHANGE OR


BE CHANGED IN AN EVENT OR SYSTEM
THINGS WITHIN AN INVESTIGATION WHICH
CAN BE CHANGED OR KEPT THE SAME

55

FACTORS

SCE31
06_RM
2011

TYPES OF VARIABLES

MANIPULATED VARIABLE (INDEPENDENT


VARIABLE / INPUT VARIABLES) WHAT TO
CHANGE

OR CONDITION THAT IS INTENTIONALLY


CHANGED IN AN EXPERIMENT / INVESTIGATION.

56

FACTOR

RESPONDING VARIABLE (DEPENDENT VARIABLE /


OUTCOME VARIABLE) WHAT TO MEASURE
FACTOR

OR CONDITION THAT WILL BE AFFECTED AS


A RESULT OF THAT CHANGE (MV)

CONTROLLED VARIABLE (CONSTANT VARIABLES)


WHAT TO KEEP THE SAME
FACTOR

OR CONDITION THAT IS DELIBERATELY NOT


CHANGED (KEPT THE SAME)

SCE31
06_RM
2011

TYPES OF VARIABLES

57

MANIPULATED VARIABLE
(WHAT TO CHANGE)

RESPONDING VARIABLE
(WHAT TO MEASURE)

CONTROLLED VARIABLE
(WHAT TO KEEP THE
SAME)

FACTOR OR CONDITION
THAT IS INTENTIONALLY
CHANGED IN AN
EXPERIMENT /
INVESTIGATION TO FIND
OUT WHAT EFFECT IT HAS

FACTOR OR CONDITION
THAT IS AFFECTED AS A
RESULT OF CHANGING
THE MANIPULATED
VARIABLE

FACTOR OR CONDITION
THAT IS DELIBERATELY
NOT CHANGED (KEPT THE
SAME) TO MAKE IT A FAIR
TEST
SCE31
06_RM
2011

IDENTIFYING VARIABLES:
WHAT ARE THE VARIABLES IN THESE STATEMENTS?

The time it takes to run a kilometer depend on the


amount of exercise a person get
58

Time to run a kilometer


VARIABLE : _______________________
amount of exercise
VARIABLE : _______________________
NOTE:
It would not be correct to name just time
or exercise. We must include how each
variable will be measured or described.
SCE31
06_RM
2011

IDENTIFYING VARIABLES:
WHAT ARE THE VARIABLES IN THESE STATEMENTS?

Temperature of water
VARIABLE : _______________________

59

The higher the temperature of water, the faster an


egg will cook

time needed for an egg to cook


VARIABLE : _______________________

SCE31
06_RM
2011

IDENTIFYING VARIABLES:
WHAT ARE THE VARIABLES IN THESE STATEMENTS?

60

An investigation was done to see if keeping the light on


for different amount of time each day affected the
number of eggs chickens laid
Hours (or amount) of light
VARIABLE : _______________________
number of eggs
VARIABLE : _______________________
NOTE:
Just light and eggs however, would be incorrect
descriptions of the variables. IT MUST BE

MEASURABLE.

SCE31
06_RM
2011

CLASSIFYING VARIABLES : MV, RV,


CV

The amount of pollution produced by cars was measured


for cars using gasoline containing different amount of
lead
61

MANIPULATED VARIABLE :
amount of lead in gasoline
_______________________
RESPONDING VARIABLE :
amount of pollution
_______________________

SCE31
06_RM
2011

CLASSIFYING VARIABLES : MV, RV,


CV

more bushels of potatoes will produced if the soil is


fertilized more
62

MANIPULATED VARIABLE :
amount of fertilizer
_______________________
RESPONDING VARIABLE :
number of bushels of potatoes
_______________________

SCE31
06_RM
2011

CLASSIFYING VARIABLES : MV, RV,


CV groups of rats are fed identical diets except for the
Five

63

amount of Vitamin A that they receive. Each group gets a


different amount. After three weeks on the diet, the rats
are weighed to see if the amount of vitamin A received has
affected their weight.
MANIPULATED VARIABLE :
Amount of Vitamin A
_______________________
RESPONDING VARIABLE :
_______________________
Weight of rats
NOTE:
Weight of rats may not be affected if
Vitamin A is not essential but the weight
of rats is still the RV.

SCE31
06_RM
2011

CLASSIFYING VARIABLES : MV, RV,


CV

64

A student wanted to test how the mass of a paper


airplane affected the distance it would fly. Paper clips
were added before each test flight. As each paper clip was
added, the plane was tested to determine how far it would
fly
MANIPULATED VARIABLE :
Number of paper clip added
_______________________
RESPONDING VARIABLE :
Distance flown
_______________________
CONTROLLED VARIABLES :
The same plane was used for each trial
_______________________

SCE31
06_RM
2011

65

THANK YOU FOR YOUR


ATTENTION AND
COOPERATION

SCE31
06_RM
2011

KPSB:
MEMBUAT
HIPOTESIS

SCE 3106
PISMP SEM 3
Oleh
Rohaya Mee

INTRODUCTORY
INFORMATION
A

67

hypothesis is a statement of your best


prediction as to the relationship between two
variables, the MANIPULATED VARIABLE
and the RESPONDING VARIABLE.
A hypotheis should be TESTABLE ie. It
should point the way towards the DESIGN
of an experiment to test it.
Expressed as an IF.THEN
sentence. This form, while not always
necessary, is a useful way to learn to write a
hypothesis.

SCE31
06_R
M2011

STEPS FOR WRITING


HYPOTHESIS
1.

3.
4.

68

2.

Identify variables in a given event or


relationship.
Identify a pair of variables that might be
logically related.
Identify the manipulated and responding
variables.
Write the hypothesis using the format:

If the (MV) increases / decreases, then the (RV)


will increase / decrease
SCE31
06_R
M2011

EXAMPLE 1

69

PROBLEM / QUESTION
Rosli raises bees. He noticed that different
numbers of young hatched from the same
number of hives at different times. He
wondered what factors might influence the
hatching rate of bees. He selected the
following variables to be tested:
1. Temperature of the hive
2. Relative humidity inside the hive
3. Amount of food available
4. Number of bees living in the hive.
Construct a hypothesis for each variable
listed above.
SCE31
06_R
M2011

ANSWER FOR EXAMPLE 1


1.

3.

4.

70

2.

As the temperature of hive increases,


the hatching rate will increase.
As the relative humidity inside the
hive increases, the hatching rate will
decrease.
As the amount of food available
decreases,
the
hatching
rate
increases.
As the number of bees living in the
hive increases, the hatching rate
decreases.

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EXAMPLE 2

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PROBLEM / QUESTION
What factors determine the rate at which
an object falls through air?
List 4 possible variables and construct a
hypothesis for each variable.

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ANSWER FOR EXAMPLE 2

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Possible variables:
a. Volume of object
b. Surface area of object
c. Length of fall
d. Weight of object
Hypothesis:
Volume of object
As the volume of an object increases, the rate at which it
falls through air decreases.
Surface area of object
As the surface area of an object increases, the rate at which
it falls through air decreases.
Length of fall
The longer or farther an object falls through air, the faster it
will fall
Weight of object
The more weight and object has, the faster it will fall
through air

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ITS YOUR TURN (EXERCISE 1)

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PROBLEM / QUESTION
Why is it warmer in one house than
another?

List 3 possible variables and construct


a hypothesis for each variable.

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SAMPLE ANSWER EXERCISE 1

Outside temperature

Location of house

The steeper the roof, the higher the temperature inside the
house.

Thickness of insulation

The nearer the house is to the equator, the higher the


temperature inside the house.

Slope of roof

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The higher the outside temperature, the higher the


temperature inside the house.

The thicker the insulation, the higher the temperature


inside the house.

Number of openings to the outside

The more openings (windows and doors) to the outside, the


lower the temperature inside the house.

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ITS YOUR TURN (EXERCISE 2)

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PROBLEM / QUESTION
What factors determine the length of
a shadow?
List 3 possible variables and
construct a hypothesis for each
variable.

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SAMPLE ANSWER EXERCISE 2

Height of object

taller the object, the longer its shadow.

Time of day

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The
The

closer the time moves toward noon, the shorter


the shadow of an object.

Season of year
As

the season progresses from summer to winter, the


length of a shadow becomes longer.

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ITS YOUR TURN (EXERCISE 3)

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PROBLEM / QUESTION
What factors determine the number
of fleas on two types of dog, a golden
retriever and a dachshund?
List 3 possible variables and
construct a hypothesis for each
variable.

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SAMPLE ANSWER EXERCISE 3

Size of dog

dogs are larger, then they will have a larger flea


population than smaller dogs.

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If

Length of hair
If

dogs have longer hair, then they will have more


fleas than dogs with shorter hair.

Presence of flea collar


If

dogs have flea collars, then they will have fewer


fleas than dogs without flea collars.

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EXERCISE 4

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Which of the following are stated as hypotheses?


1. As more salt is dissolved in water, the water
will become cloudy.
2. The earths crust contains 90 elements.
3. Magnetism and gravity are not the same.
4. If the length of a vibrating string is increased,
the sound will become louder.

1, 4
Remember, a hypothesis is stated as the predicted effect
one variable (MV) will have on another (RV)
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EXERCISE 6

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Which of these statements are hypotheses?


1. As the temperature of its environment increases,
the temperature of a cold-blooded animal increases.
2. Glass is harder than iron; therefore glass will
scratch anything which is softer than iron.
3. A change in weather causes a change in mood

1, 2, 3
In all three cases we are predicting what will happen to a
responding variable if we manipulate another variable.
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EXERCISE
Which of these7statements are hypotheses?
1.

3.
4.
5.

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2.

If clouds act as insulators, then the earth should


get colder on cloudless nights.
Leaves manufacture food, stems transfer food, and
roots store the food in plants.
The colder the temperature, the slower plants grow.
The deeper one dives, the greater the pressure.
Algae are living organisms.

1, 3, 4
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EXERCISE 8

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Read the description of investigations in the following


slides. Then, answer the following questions.
1. What are some of the constants?
2. What variable was manipulated?
3. Which variable was expected to respond?
4. What was the hypothesis being tested?

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EXERCISE 8 INVESTIGATION
1
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John was interested in determining the effect


the number of plants located in an area has on
growth rate. He planted radish seeds in several
milk cartons. In the first carton, he planted 5
seeds 1 cm deep and no less than 5 cm apart;
in the second, 10 seeds were planted 1 cm deep
and no more than 2 cm apart; in the third, 15
seeds, 1 cm deep and 1 cm apart; and in the
fourth, 20 seed, 1 cm deep and 0.5 cm apart.
Each carton was watered daily and daily
measurements of the length of leaves were
made.

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ANSWER FOR EXERCISE 8


INVESTIGATION 1
1.

3.
4.

Kind of seed, planting depth, type of soil,


environmental temperature, amount of water,
kind of containers, and amount of light received.

Manipulated variable : number of plants in


an area
Responding variable : Growth rate (OD =
length of leaves)
As the number of plants in an area
increases, the length of the leaves will
become shorter. OR
As the number of plants in an area
increases, the length of the leaves will
become longer

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2.

Factors that were kept the same:

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EXERCISE 8 EXPERIMENT 2

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Is there a relationship between the amount


of training received and the length of time a
learned behaviour persists in insects? Select
a number of sowbugs which always turn
right when entering the intersection of a Tshaped maze. Using the tendency of
sowbugs to avoid light, it is possible to train
them to turn left by shining a strong-light
from the right as they enter the
intersection. Subject an animal to 1, 5, 10,
15, or 20 training sessions. Test each animal
once an hour by running it through the Tmaze.

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ANSWER FOR EXERCISE 8 EXPERIMENT


2
1.

3.
4.

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2.

The constants: type of animal, shape of maze,


strength of light source, environmental
temperature
MV : the amount of training
RV : the length of time a learned behaviour
persisted
If the amount of training is increased, then the
length of time a learned behavior persisted will
also increase.

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A TEACHERS REFLECTION

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.The most common problem is that students


write a simple statement that is a cause and effect
relationship that makes a prediction (example: "If
I eat chocolate, then I will get pimples."). They
have to be reminded that what makes a
hypothetical statement is the idea that two things
might be, but not necessarily related. In other
words they failed to state a proposed relationship
before making the prediction. Literally speaking,
cause and effect statements are based on unstated
assumptions. In models for scientific research,
minimizing assumptions first and then stating
your hypothesis is how variables are
controlled.

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KPSB :
MENGEKSPERIMEN

SCE 3106 PISMP SEM 3


Oleh
Rohaya Mee

INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION

90

EXPERIMENTING IS THE SCIENCE PROCESS


SKILL THAT ENCOMPASSES ALL THE BASIC
AND INTEGRATED PROCESSES.

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RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE


SKILLS

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STEPS IN A SCIENTIFIC
EXPERIMENT
1.
Determining what I want to find out
2.
3.
5.

Identify the variables


Define variables operationally
Making a smart guess (forming a hypothesis),
Planning how to test the hypothesis (planning the experiment)

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

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4.

(identifying the problem),

determine the apparatus and materials required,


determine the procedure to carry out the experiment, method
to collect and analyse data.

Carrying out the experiment,


Writing down what has been observed (collecting data),
Finding a meaning for what has been observed (analysing and
interpreting data),
Deciding whether the hypothesis is true (making conclusions),
Writing a report on the investigation (reporting).

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A SIMPLE WHOLE INVESTIGATION

PLAN, DESIGN, CARRY OUT


INVESTIGATION

The blue ball will


bounce more than
the red ball, because
it is softer

If I drop both balls


at the same time, I
can see how high
they bounce
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HYPOTHESISING

The red ball bounces


up to my tummy but the
blue ball only comes up
to my knee

I must tell the


teacher

COMMUNICATING

RECORD &
INTERPRET RESULTS
Thats funny, I
didnt think it
would do that

Well, the red ball


bounces better than the
blue one that must be
because its harder

INFERRING

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EVALUATING

FACTORS AFFECTING COMPLEXITY OF INVESTIGATION

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NUMBER OF VARIABLES INVOLVED


TYPES OF VARIABLES INVOLVED
THE EASE VARIABLES CAN BE CONTROLLED
CONTEXT (FAMILIAR/EVERYDAY TO NOVEL/SCIENTIFIC)
KNOWLEDGE / CONCEPT BASE (SIMPLE GENERAL
KNOWLEDGE TO SCIENTIFIC THEORY)
ACCURACY OF OBSERVATION AND MEASUREMENT
REQUIRED
COMPLEXITY OF EQUIPMENT USED
DURATION OF INVESTIGATION (RANGE: MINUTES TO
MONTHS)
NUMBER OF LOOPS ROUND THE INVESTIGATION CYCLE
INVOLVED
DEGREE OF CERTAINITY IN THE EVIDENCE OBTAINED
INTERPLAY BETWEEN INTERPRETATION AND EVALUATION
OF EVIDENCE AND THE SCIENTIFIC THEORY / MODEL
INVOLVED

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PLANNING SHEETS

Help children

Help teachers identify

95

plan
managing work
structure investigation
record evidence
apparatus likely to be needed
suggested apparatus likely to be inappropriate
safety considerations
Children who need guidance
Possible regrouping of children for more effective learning
Evidence of achievement of learning objectives

Not used as formal exercise for assessment purposes only


Adapted to make more appropriate to particular class/students
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE OF COMPLETED PLANNING SHEET
EXAMPLE OF ADVANCED PLANNING SHEET

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ENABLING QUESTIONS PLANNER


If answers are supplied to children at inappropriate
points in an investigation or if teachers ask questions
that close down options, achievement at a higher level
may be prevented and hinder investigative attitude.
Questions that teachers ask during an investigation
has to be planned.
Purpose of questions:

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Promote investigative attitude


Encourage and support learning
Help initiate investigations
Encourage and assist children with procedural
difficulties such as assembly of equipment or measuring

EXAMPLE

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ACTIVITY: YOUR TURN TO


EXPERIMENT

97

TAKE PART IN A SCIENCE FAIR COMPETITION


INDIVIDUALLY, IN PAIRS OR GROUP OF 3
FOLLOW PROCEDURE AS BRIEFED BY
ORGANIZER
FOLLOW THE STEPS IN A SCIENTIFIC
EXPERIMENT TO INVESTIGATE YOUR
SELECTED PROBLEM USING THE
ADVANCED INVESTIGATION PLANNING
SHEET
DISPLAY & PRESENT DURING SCIENCE
FAIR
SUBMIT EXPERIMENT REPORT

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