You are on page 1of 22

NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION

The study of behaviors other than words


that create shared meaning between people
who are interacting with one another.
Hall,2003
Transmission of meaning through the use of
symbols and signs.

Forms of Non-Verbal
Communication

Conscious Non- Verbal


Communication
Subconscious Non Verbal
Communication

PRINCIPLES OF NONVERBAL

Universal/Omnipresent
Intentional or Unintentional
Continuous(cannot easily separate into units)
Multi-channeled(all senses)
Instantaneous(immediately perceived)
It is culturally determined- Your own culture has
an impact on the deciphering of NVC. Reflects
culture values.
Contextual-Interpretations are both relative and
subjective
Ambiguous-can be interpreted in many different
ways
Regulates Interaction

Non verbal Communication is Culture-bound


An African-American male goes into a
convenience store recently taken over by
new Korean immigrants. He gives a $20 bill
for his purchase to Mrs Cho who is the
cashier and waits for his change. He is upset
when his change is put down on the counter
in front of him.
What is the problem?

FUNCTIONS OF NON-VERBAL
Provide information- Could reflect social status:
Dominance or subordination
Identity management- How we present ourselves ,project
an image, influence others, express power & control
Convey interpersonal attitudes. Primary source of
relationship cues. Broadcasts our own intentions &
feelings, emotions, attitudes & clues us in on others
intentions & feelings, emotions, attitudes. Usage of
Nonverbal Cues are a basis for decision-making and
information processing.
Affective function- Establishing & maintaining
interpersonal relationships. Defines the kind & quality of
relationship we want with others.
Immediacy-Verbal & Nonverbal are interconnected &
operate together. NV qualifies, complements, contradicts,
accents or expands verbal. It adds meaning or modifies
verbal.

Function of Non-verbals
Repeating- Using gestures with words to
illustrate better.
Deceiving- Leakage NV cues that send
signals that a person is deceiving you.
Regulating flow of interactions.

Body Language
Body Language may be an evidence of your
character, attitude, nature and personality etc.
The language of the body is the key that can
unlock the soul. Improving body language will
make major enhancement in your personal
and official life

TYPES OF NON VERBAL CODES


KINESICS (Body Movement, Gesture, Posture, Facial
expressions, Eyes)
PROXEMICS (Space-Physical Distance, Closeness,
territory markers, spatial arrangement)
PARALANGUAGE (Vocal cues, voice quality, extra
symbolic codes-Tone, pitch, volume, Intonation, rate,
pause)
HAPTICS
CHRONEMICS
OCCULESICS
APPEARANCE
ARTIFACTS (objects), ENVIRONMENT (colors,
architecture, temperature, etc.)

HAPTICS-STUDY OF TOUCH
Many rules and taboos regulating physical contact

Touch is culturally determined! Basic message of


touch is to affect or control protect, support,
disapprove (i.e. hug, kiss, hit, kick).
USA handshake is common, hugs, kisses for those of
opposite gender or of family. Most African Americans
touch on greeting but are annoyed if touched on the
head.
Islamic and Hindu: typically dont touch with the left
hand. To do so is a social insult.
Many Asians dont touch the head

Cultures (English , German, Scandinavian,


Chinese, Japanese) with high emotional restraint
concepts have little public touch; those which
encourage emotion (Latino, Middle-East, Jewish)
accept frequent touches.

REASONS WE TOUCH
1. POSITIVE EMOTION- support, appreciation,
inclusion, trust, interest, and affection.
2. PLAYFULNESS- Tells the other person not to take them
seriously
3. CONTROL- touch controls another persons behaviors,
attitudes, feelings. Ex: move over, hurry, stay
there
4.RITUALISTIC- greetings and departures
5. TASK-RELATED- Touch for a task
Ex: removing of a hair on others shirt, checking forehead for a fever

CHRONEMICS

Chronemics
the study of the use of time in nonverbal
communication.
The way we perceive time, structure our time and
react to time is a powerful communication tool,
and helps set the stage for the communication
process.
MONOCHRONIC & POLYCHRONIC PEOPLE
Countries that follow monochronic time perform
only one major activity at a time (U.S., England,
Switzerland, Germany).
Countries that follow polychronic time work on
several activities simultaneously (Latin America,
the Mediterranean, the Arabs).

Chromatics
Communication of messages through colors
It is a scientific movement which explores the
physical properties of colour and the effect of color
on humans
The connotations colors have may be positive or
negative depending on the culture
In Hong Kong Red is used for happiness or luck and
traditional bridal dress; in Poland brides wear white
In Asia people like colored shampoos, in US shampoos
tend to be light colored

Oculesics
Study of eye-contact
Avoiding eye contact considered as insecure,
untrustworthy
Direct eye contact may be misinterpreted as
hostility, aggressiveness
Lowering eyes in China and Indonesia-sign of
respect. They prefer indirect eye contact,
prolonged eye contact is seen as sign of bad
manners

Olfactics
The study of sense of smell
Someones smell can have a positive or
negative effect on the oral message
Although people of the U.S. respond
negatively to body odors, Arabs are
comfortable with natural body odors.

Clothing & Artifacts


Objectives - study of human use of
clothing & other artifacts as
nonverbal codes.

NONVERBAL TIPS
Check context and Culture: Be tentative in interpreting NVC. Don't
try to interpret cues isolated, from the verbal communication, or
from the physical or emotional context.

Look for clusters: This is the nonverbal context itself. See if a


resistance accompanies the arms being crossed to eye contact and a
flat tone of voice.
Consider past experience: We can more accurately interpret the
behavior of people we know. For e.g. Your mother may always hugs
when you come home from school and so you learn that this
represents happiness in that particular situation.
Practice perception checking: Recognize that you are interpreting
observed behavior, not reading a mind, and check out your
observation.
Monitor your NV impressions. They matter to others.

A competent communicator will:


- Recognise and use different verbal and nonverbal styles as they are suited to different
social situations
- Recognise the subtle interplay of verbal and
non-verbal elements in communication
- Compensate for possible misinterpretations in
communication with others