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Disaster Management Plan for

Thermal Power Plants







By : H.M. Gangopadhyay
Dy. General Manager (Safety)
Corporate Safety Department
NTPC Limited
Presentation Outline
Classification of Disaster
Requirement under the Laws
Objective of the Plan
Disasters in Thermal Power Plants
Risk Assessment & Vulnerability Mapping
Emergency Equipments, Training & Mock Drills
Disaster Management Organisation
Responsibilities of Team Members
Emergency Control Centre (ECC)
Evacuation and Assembly Points
Mutual Aid Scheme



Natural disasters (earth quake, flood, Tsunami
etc.,)
Technical disasters collapse of buildings, release
of gases, major fires, explosions.
A disaster occurring in the plant may affect/cause
several sections within it
serious injuries / loss of lives,
Extensive damage to property
Serious disruption out side the works area

It requires the best use of internal resources as well as
outside resources to handle it effectively.

Classification of Disaster
ON-SITE EMERGENCY : An accident which takes place
in an industry handling hazardous materials and its
effects are confined to the factory premises involving
only the people working in the factory.

OFF-SITE EMERGENCY: If an accident takes place
in an industry handling hazardous materials and its
effects are felt outside the factory premises, the situation
thus generated is called an Off-Site Emergency
Factories Act Requirement

In accordance with the provision of Section 2 (cb), read
with The Factories Act - 1948, power generating
industry is classified as hazardous process under item
5 thereof.

According to Section 41-b, para 4, of Factories Act- 1948,
all factories engaged in hazardous processes must have
Disaster Management Plan.
Every occupier shall, with the approval of the Chief
Inspector, draw up an on site emergency plan and detailed
disaster control measures for his factory and make known
to the workers employed there in and to the general public
living in the vicinity of factory, the safety measures required
to be taken in the event of an accident taking place.
Section 41-b, Para -4 of Factories Act-1948
Approach and Objective of the Plan
The plan is developed to make best possible use of
resources at its command and / or out side agencies
for the following purposes.89

Prevention, Mitigation & Preparedness (Pre phase)
Response, Rehabilitation & Recovery (Post phase)
Safe guard others by evacuating them to safer places;
Rescue of victims and treating them suitably to effect
speedy recovery at hospital;
Identify the personnel affected / dead;
Inform relatives of those deceased / affected;
Providing relevant records / data needed as evidence
for subsequent enquiry;
Rehabilitation of the affected persons;

Possible Disasters in Thermal Power Plants
Fast spreading fires
Explosions
Bursting of pipe lines / vessels
Uncontrolled release of toxic / corrosive / flammable
liquids
Slow isolated fires
Breach of dams / ash dykes
Floods


Fire Hazards In Thermal Power Plants
Coal handling plant:
Coal dust accumulation on
conveyor decks,
cable trays,
head & tail pulleys,
Crusher house and vibrating screen floors,
Bunker house ,
Belt sway, belt tension,
Failure of belt joints,
Snapping of belts,
Partially damaged belt in operation,
Smoldering fire in bunkers,
Jamming of idlers and pulleys,
Fire Hazards In Thermal Power Plants
Cables in cable galleries and on trays in all plant
sections,
Coal dust deposited on cable trays in mill area
Fuel oil handling and oil tanks (HSD, HFO, Petrol )
Transformer oil, turbine oil, control fluid, seal oil,
Electrical system
Heat path damaged insulation
Dry grasses
Accumulation of waste materials etc.


Explosion Hazard In Thermal Power Plant
Hydrogen plant
Turbo generators where hydrogen is used for cooling of
TG.
Transformer (oil cooled).
Boiler (Coal/Oil fired).
Coal dust in Mills and Boilers.
Bursting of Pipe Lines, Vessels
Water / Steam pipes due to high pressure/
temperature
H
2
Gas lines and Acid lines.
Acid/Alkali tanks
H
2
Gas Cylinders
Compressed air header.
Compressed air receivers.
H
2
Gas Holder.
Release of Gases / Dust
Chlorine in water treatment plant
Hydrogen in turbo generator area of main plant
Pulverized coal dust from mills and associated piping
Fly ash from chimneys and ash ponds, ESP hoppers and
bottom ash system
Coal dust in transfer points, CHP, Crusher & mill area.
Flue gas from the ducts
Release Of Liquid

Acid and alkali tanks in water treatment plants
Chlorine toners in WTPs
Fuel oil tanks in fuel oil handling section
Ash dyke
Turbine oil and seal oil leakage
Floods
Breach of balancing reservoir.
Breach of ash dykes
Sections prone to Emergencies


Coal handling plant
Main plant, including Boiler, TG, ESP
Water treatment plant, use of Chlorine gas
Hydrogen generation plant
Fuel Oil Handling areas

Components of Disaster Management Plan
Plant emergency organization
Plant & area risk evaluation
Notification procedures & communication systems
Emergency equipments and facilities available
Procedure for returning to normal operations
Training and mock-drills for specialized services
Regular tests of emergency organization and procedures
Review of Plan and updates
Emergency response procedures
Detailed operating manual

Risk Assesment & Vulnerability Mapping
Consists of the following components:

Maximum quantitative and qualitative assessment of
hazards at any given point of time
Location of hazardous operations and systems
Properties of hazardous systems (MSDS)
Location of isolation systems
Special fire-fighting procedures
Special handling requirements.
Communication systems
Alarm systems
Communication equipments
Plant management, Local Officials, Response Agencies,
Neighbouring industries, Neighbourhood population
Names and telephone numbers of the designated officials
and their alternates
Designated persons for media contacts
Procedures for notifying families of injured employees
Central reporting office (ECC).

Emergency equipments & facilities
Fire-fighting equipment
Emergency medical supplies
Toxic gas detectors
Wind direction (wind sock)/speed indicators
Self-contained breathing apparatus
Protective clothings
Other on-site equipments according to the local conditions
Containment facilities around tanks/vessels
Interfaces & lines of communication with off-site officials,
neighbouring industries.

Training, Simulation & Mock Drills
Knowledge of chemicals (properties, toxicity, etc.)
and procedures for reporting emergencies
Alarm systems and communication network
Location of fire-fighting/first-aid equipment
Use of fire-fighting/first-aid equipment
Use of protective equipment(respirators, breathing
apparatus, clothing, etc.)
Decontamination procedure for protective clothing and
equipment; demolition and repair
Evaluation procedures and rescue services
Records of documented simulated emergencies which
should be conducted frequently.


Training and drills for specialized services
Regular tests of emergency organization and
procedures
Plan updates
Emergency response procedures
Detailed operating manual
Training, Simulation & Mock Drills
Work Incident
Controller
Chief Incident
Controller
Task Force
Team
HR Team
Matls Mgmt.
Team
Rescue Team
Medical team
Autobase Team
Security Team
Support Team
Communication
team
Maint
Team
Support
Team
Disaster Management Organisation
Responsibilities of WIC
The WIC shall identify;
All probable emergency causing situations and take
proper precautionary measures to prevent / control such
situations;
Ensure that all emergency team under him are informed
about their functions before and during emergency;
Direct all operations within the affected area with the
following priority;
Secure the safety of personnel
Minimise damage to plant & environment
Minimise loss of material

Responsibilities of WIC
Ensure that all non-essential workers in the affected areas
are evacuated to appropriate assembly point.
Set up communication contact through telephone /
messenger etc. With emergency control centre (ECC).
Report significant developments to the chief incident
controller.
Assume duties of chief incident controller pending his arrival
and in particular;
1. Direct the shut down and evacuation of plant and affected
areas likely to be threatened by the emergency.
2. Ensure key personnel are informed and they are called in

Responsibilities of CIC
Relieve the works incidence controller from the
responsibility of over all main control.
Declare major emergency, if considered necessary and
ensure out side emergency services are called in and near
by industries are informed.
Directing shutting down and evacuation of plant, establish
liaison with head of fire, safety, medical, HR, security and
local police.
Arrange for relief of personnel and catering facilities for
affected in emergency.
Ensure information / reporting to Corporate Office and
Statutory authorities as per provisions of state Factory rules
and Factory Act

Emergency Control Centre (ECC)
Emergency control centre shall be established and
equipped with adequate means of communication to
areas inside and outside.
The emergency control room will be manned by the Chief
Incident Controller, Work Incident Controller, key
personnel and Sr.Officers of out side services called for
assistance.
It should have general map and guide for Assembly
Points, location of Hazardous process/operation
No other personnel shall have access to the ECC.

Emergency Control Centre (ECC)

ECC must contain the following information:

Safety data pertaining to all hazardous materials likely to
cause emergency.
Procedure of major and special fire fighting, rescue
operations, first aid etc.
Emergency call out list of persons drafted for emergency
control eg key personnel from fire, safety, medical, HR,
security, local police and District Admn. Authorities.

Evacuation And Assembly Points
In an emergency, it will almost certainly be necessary to
evacuate personnel from affected areas.
On evacuation, employees shall assemble at assembly
points.
Assembly point must be shown in Disaster Management
Plan.
Key Personnel
Apart from WIC and CIC, other works personnel will have
key role to play in providing advice and in implementing
the decisions made by CIC.

Key personnel includes
1. Incharge of generation, electrical & mechanical
maintenance, C&I, Chemistry (& WTP)
2. Heads of HR, safety, PR, Medical, Security & Fire
Department.
Mutual Aid Scheme
An understanding for mutual aid between nearby
industries to send assistance to each other in case of an
emergency;
Details of facilities offered by the mutual aid partners
should be mentioned in the plan;
Details of contact phone nos. of officers responsible for
emergency action of mutual aid partners should be
mentioned in the plan

Support team to CIC & WIC
In addition to the teams already mentioned there will be
one additional team known as support team.
This team will assist CIC & WIC during an emergency.
The responsibilities of the team given below;

Contacting statutory authorities.
Arranging for relievers and catering facilities.
Giving information to media.
Responsibilities Of Support Team
Arranging shelters for affected persons.
Contacting medical centres and nursing homes.
Providing all other support, as necessary.
Arranging for urgently required materials through cash
purchase or whatever means.
Arranging funds for various relief measures as
emergency purchase of materials.
Departmental heads:
The departmental heads will provide assistance as required
by the works incident controller. They will decide which
members of their departments are required at the incident
site.
Head of Tech. Services
On knowing the major emergency, he will proceed to the
site and report to CIC.
He will provide technical information as required to
CIC/WIC.
Head of Safety:
On knowing the emergency, he will immediately report to
site and keep in touch with CIC
He will make sure that all safety equipments are made
available to the emergency teams.
Participate in rescue operations.
Maintain inventory of items in ECC.
Responsibilities of key personnel
Mock Drill
Mock-drills are conducted to test the effectiveness of
action plan / emergency preparedness.

Periodicity of mock drill is at least once in every six
months (As per Factories Act-1948).

Deficiencies found are to be recorded and corrective
actions are to be taken immediately for effectiveness of
the plan.
Emergency Siren

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T y p e Duration
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In case of fire 10 seconds on
05 seconds off,
3 times

In case of 20 seconds on,
Heavy chlorine leak 10 seconds off,
5 times.
All clear signal Continuous
siren for 3 min,
only once.
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