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Ppt on functions(mathematics) and pigeonhole principle

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1

Functions

A function f from a set A to a set B is an

assignment of exactly one element of B to each

element of A.

We write f(a) = b if b is the unique element of B

assigned by the function f to the element a of A.

If f is a function from A to B, we write f: AB

(note: Here, has nothing to do with if

then)

2

3

1

2

3

4

5

2

1

0

8

6

4

Thus this is a fuction.

Functions

If f:AB, we say that A is the domain of f and B

is the codomain of f.

If f(a) = b, we say that b is the image of a and

a is the pre-image of b.

The range of f:AB is the set of all images of

elements of A.

We say that f:AB maps A to B.

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

2

1

0

8

6

4

Set A is the domain of the function.

Set B is the codomain of the function.

Set B excluding element 0 is the range of A.

F(1)=4 thus, 4 is the image of 1 and 1 is the pre-

image of 4.

6

Is the relation shown above a function?

NO

Why not??

2 is assigned both 4 and 10

1

2

3

4

5

2

1

0

8

6

4

7

A function I : A -> B can also be defined in terms of a

relation from A to B. A Relation from A to B that

contains one, and only one, ordered pair (a, b) for

every element a E A, defines a function I from A to B.

This function is defined by the assignment I(a) = b,

where (a, b) is the unique ordered pair in the relation

that has a as its first element.

EXAMPLE 2 Let R be the relation consisting of ordered pairs (Abdul, 22),

(Brenda, 24), (Carla, 21), (Desire, 22), (Eddie, 24), and (Felicia, 22), where

each pair consists of a graduate student and the age of this student. What

is the function that this relation determines?

Solution: This relation defines the function I, where with I(Abdul) = 22,

I(Brenda) = 24, I(Carla) = 21, I(Desire) = 22, l(Eddie) = 24, and I(Felicia)

= 22. Here the domain is the set {Abdul, Brenda, Carla, Desire, Eddie,

Felicia}. The codomain contains all possible ages of students. Finally,

the range is the set (21,22, 24).

Let f

1

and f

2

be functions from A to R.

Then the sum and the product of f

1

and f

2

are also functions

from A to R defined by:

(f

1

+ f

2

)(x) = f

1

(x) + f

2

(x)

(f

1

f

2

)(x) = f

1

(x) f

2

(x)

8

Example:

We already know that the range of a function F:

AB is the set of all images of elements aeA.

If we only regard a subset S_A, the set of all

images of elements seS is called the image of S.

We denote the image of S by f(S):

9

Let us look at the following well-known function:

f(Linda) = Moscow

f(Max) = Boston

f(Kathy) = Hong Kong

f(Peter) = Boston

What is the image of S = {Linda, Max} ?

f(S) = {Moscow, Boston}

What is the image of S = {Max, Peter} ?

f(S) = {Boston}

10

Properties of Functions

A function f:AB is said to be one-to-one

(or injective), if and only if it does not map two

distinct elements of A onto the same element of B.

11

We can express that f is one-to-one using

quantifiers as :-

x, yeA (f(x) = f(y) x = y)

12

1

2

3

4

5

2

1

0

8

6

4

For x , y e A f(x)=f(y) only when x= y for all x

and y in A. Thus this is a one to one function.

Properties of Functions

Example:

f:RR

f(x) = x

2

IS the function f(x) one to one??

Ans: f(3) = f(-3), but 3 = -3, so f is not one-to-one.

13

A function f:AB with A,B _ R is called

strictly increasing, if

x,yeA (x < y f(x) < f(y)),

and strictly decreasing, if

x,yeA (x < y f(x) > f(y)).

Obviously, a function that is either strictly

increasing or strictly decreasing is one-to-one.

14

A function f:AB is called onto, or surjective, if and only if for every element

beB there is an element aeA with f(a) = b.

In other words, f is onto if and only if its range is its entire codomain.

A function f: AB is a one-to-one correspondence, or a bijection, if and only if it

is both one-to-one and onto.

Obviously, if f is a bijection and A and B are finite sets, then |A| = |B|.

15

Is f injective?

No.

Is f surjective?

No.

Is f bijective?

No.

16

Linda

Max

Kathy

Peter

Boston

New York

Hong Kong

Moscow

Is f injective?

No.

Is f surjective?

Yes.

Is f bijective?

No.

17

Linda

Max

Kathy

Peter

Boston

New York

Hong Kong

Moscow

Paul

Is f injective?

Yes.

Is f surjective?

No.

Is f bijective?

No.

18

Linda

Max

Kathy

Peter

Boston

New York

Hong Kong

Moscow

Lbeck

Is f injective?

No! f is not even

a function!

19

Linda

Max

Kathy

Peter

Boston

New York

Hong Kong

Moscow

Lbeck

Is f injective?

Yes.

Is f surjective?

Yes.

Is f bijective?

Yes.

20

Linda

Max

Kathy

Peter

Boston

New York

Hong Kong

Moscow

Lbeck Helena

An interesting property of

bijections is that they have an

inverse function.

The inverse function of the

bijection f:AB is the function

f

-1

:BA with

f

-1

(b) = a whenever

f(a) = b.

21

Inversion

22

Example:

f(Linda) = Moscow

f(Max) = Boston

f(Kathy) = Hong Kong

f(Peter) = Lbeck

f(Helena) = New York

Clearly, f is bijective.

The inverse function

f

-1

is given by:

f

-1

(Moscow) = Linda

f

-1

(Boston) = Max

f

-1

(Hong Kong) = Kathy

f

-1

(Lbeck) = Peter

f

-1

(New York) = Helena

Inversion is only

possible for bijections

(= invertible functions)

23

Q-Let I: Z -> Z be such that I(x) = x + 1. Is I invertible, and

if it is, what is its inverse?

Solution: The function I has an inverse

because it is a one-to-one an onto.

y is the image of x, so that y = x + 1. Then

x = y - 1. This means that y - 1 is the unique

element of Z that is sent to y by I.

Consequently,

I

-1

(y) = y - 1.

Composition

The composition of two functions g:AB and f:BC,

denoted by fg, is defined by (fg)(a) = f(g(a)).

This means that first, function g is applied to element

aeA, mapping it onto an element of B, then, function

f is applied to this element of B, mapping it onto an

element of C. Therefore, the composite function maps

from A to C.

24

Example:

f(x) = 7x 4, g(x) = 3x,

f:RR, g:RR

(fg)(5) = f(g(5)) = f(15) = 105 4 = 101

(fg)(x) = f(g(x)) = f(3x) = 21x - 4

25

Note that composition f

o

g cannot be defined

unless the range of g is a subset of the domain of f.

(f

-1

f)(x) = f

-1

(f(x)) = x

The composition of a function and its inverse is

the identity function i(x) = x.

Consequently (f

-1

f)= I

A

and (ff

-1

) = I

B

, where I

A

and I

B

are the identity functions on

the sets A and B, respectively.

That is, (f

-1

)

-1

= f .

26

Composition of a function and its inverse:

The graph of a function f:AB is the set of

ordered pairs {(a, b) | aeA and f(a) = b eB}.

The graph is a subset of AB that can be

used to visualize f in a two-dimensional

coordinate system.

27

28

Q:- Display the graph of the function I(n) = 2n + I from the

set of integers to the set of integers.

Solution: The graph of I is the set of ordered pairs of the

form (n, 2n + I), where n is an integer.

Example:

The floor and ceiling functions map the real numbers onto the

integers (RZ).

The floor function assigns to reR the largest zeZ with z s r,

denoted by r.

Examples: 2.3 = 2, 2 = 2, 0.5 = 0, -3.5 = -4

The ceiling function assigns to reR the smallest zeZ with z > r,

denoted by r(.

Examples: 2.3( = 3, 2( = 2, 0.5( = 1, -3.5( = -3

29

30

Graphs for (a) Floor and (b) Ceiling functions

31

32

Q:-In asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) (a communications

protocol used on backbone networks), data are organized into cells of

53 bytes. How many ATM cells can be transmitted in I minute

over a connection that transmits data at the rate of 500 kilobits per

second?

Solution: In I minute, this connection can transmit 500,00060 =

30,000,000 bits. Each ATM cell is 53 bytes long, which means that it

is 53 . 8 = 424 bits long. To determine the number of cells that can be

transmitted in 1 minute, we determine the largest integer not

exceeding the quotient when 30,000,000 is divided by 424.

Consequently, L30,000,000/424J = 70,754 ATM cells can be

transmitted in 1 minute over a 500 kilobit per second connection.

Example:

33

The pigeonhole principle

Suppose a flock of pigeons fly into a set

of pigeonholes to roost

If there are more pigeons than

pigeonholes, then there must be at least

1 pigeonhole that has more than one

pigeon in it

If k+1 or more objects are placed into k

boxes, then there is at least one box

containing two or more of the objects

This is Theorem 1

34

In a group of 367 people, there must be

two people with the same birthday

As there are 366 possible birthdays

In a group of 27 English words, at least

two words must start with the same letter

As there are only 26 letters

35

If N objects are placed into k

boxes, then there is at least one

box containing N/k( objects

This is Theorem 2

36

Generalized pigeonhole

principle examples

Among 100 people, there are at least

100/12( = 9 born on the same month

How many students in a class must

there be to ensure that 6 students get

the same grade (one of A, B, C, D, or F)?

The boxes are the grades. Thus, k = 5

Thus, we set N/5( = 6

Lowest possible value for N is 26

37

A bowl contains 10 red and 10 yellow balls

a) How many balls must be selected to ensure 3 balls

of the same color?

One solution: consider the worst case

Consider 2 balls of each color

You cant take another ball without hitting 3

Thus, the answer is 5

Via generalized pigeonhole principle

How many balls are required if there are 2 colors, and one

color must have 3 balls?

How many pigeons are required if there are 2 pigeon holes,

and one must have 3 pigeons?

number of boxes: k = 2

We want N/k( = 3

What is the minimum N?

N = 5

38

39

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