National Workshop

on

CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES
IN SOLAR PHOTO VOLTAICS -
AN EMERGING ENERGY RESEARCH
R.M.K.Engineering College
Kavraipettai 601 206
Tamil Nadu
19-20
th
December 2013

Dr. A. Jagadeesh Head R & D
Centre for Energy and Sustainable Resources
R.M.K. Engineering College KAVARAIPETTAI 601 206 Tamil Nadu
E-mail: anumakonda.jagadeesh@gmail.com
Energy from the Sun
 About half the incoming solar energy reaches the Earth's
surface.
 The Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) (10
15
watts) of
incoming solar radiation at the upper atmosphere.
Approximately 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is
absorbed by clouds, oceans and land masses.
 Earth's land surface, oceans and atmosphere absorb solar
radiation, and this raises their temperature. Sunlight
absorbed by the oceans and land masses keeps the surface
at an average temperature of 14 °C.
 By photosynthesis green plants convert solar energy
into chemical energy, which produces food, wood and
the biomass from which fossil fuels are derived.
Yearly Solar fluxes & Human Energy Consumption
 The total solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, oceans
and land masses is approximately 3,850,000 exajoules (EJ) (10
18

joules) per year. (70% of incoming sunlight) (1 Joule = energy
required to heat one gram of dry, cool air by 1˚ C)
 Primary energy use (2005) 487 EJ (0.0126%)
 Electricity (2005) 56.7 EJ (0.0015%) Therefore a good target
 2002, more energy in one hour than the world used in the year.
 Photosynthesis captures approximately 3,000 EJ per year in
biomass.
 The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet
is so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will ever be
obtained from all of the Earth's non-renewable resources of coal,
oil, natural gas, and mined uranium combined.
 As intermittent resources, solar and wind raise issues.
Solar Cells Background
 1839 - French physicist A. E. Becquerel first recognized the
photovoltaic effect.
 Photo+voltaic = convert light to electricity
 1883 - first solar cell built, by Charles Fritts, coated
semiconductor selenium with an extremely thin layer of gold to
form the junctions.
 1954 - Bell Laboratories, experimenting with semiconductors,
accidentally found that silicon doped with certain impurities was
very sensitive to light. Daryl Chapin, Calvin Fuller and Gerald
Pearson, invented the first practical device for converting sunlight
into useful electrical power. Resulted in the production of the first
practical solar cells with a sunlight energy conversion efficiency of
around 6%.
 1958 - First spacecraft to use solar panels was US satellite
Vanguard 1
PV Solar for Electricity
Photovoltaic's
 For the 2 billion people without access to electricity, it would be
cheaper to install solar panels than to extend the electrical grid.
(The Fund for Renewable Energy Everywhere)
 Providing power for villages in developing countries is a fast-
growing market for photovoltaics. The United Nations estimates
that more than 2 million villages worldwide are without electric
power for water supply, refrigeration, lighting, and other basic
needs.
 A one kilowatt PV system* each month:
 Prevents 150 lbs. of coal from being mined
 Prevents 300 lbs. of CO2 from entering the atmosphere
 Keeps 105 gallons of water from being consumed
 Keeps NO and SO2 from being released into the environment
Morphology of solar cells
... a house, but also with very large
systems that then is connected via a ...
Solar Street Lights
Hybrid Solar and Wind
Solar Lights
Solar Reading Lamps
Solar Cap
Solar Safety Helmet
Solar Fan
Solar Key Chain Mobile Charger
Solar key ring
Amorphous Solar Panel Torch Lights
Solar Cars
Solar Boat
Concentrated Solar Power
Is it a Bird, Is it a Plane? No, it's the new Com-Bat Solar Powered Spy ...
SOLAR TOWER POWER PLANT Solar Two in Barstow, California,
At Abengoa Solar's facility in Spain, mirrors heat a liquid in a tower, ...
Tower of Power
Over 4,400 solar PV panels will span the bridge
Solar Pump
Put the SUN to WORK: To get
inexhaustible,pollution-free energy
which cannot be misused