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Introduction to Voice technologies

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Voice over IP introduction

• VoIP = Voice + IP

• VOICE
Traditionally, voice was transmitted using a
separate dedicated infrastructure and it is still in
place i.e. PSTN
The first network that was put in place was for voice
ONLY.
Based on TDM

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Voice over IP introduction (contd..)

• VoIP = Voice + IP

• TCP/IP based Data Networks


Most common data network implementations
are based on TCP/IP.
Internet and most business networks are also
based on TCP/IP.
The purpose of data networks is to transfer &
share computer data between users
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Voice & Data Network infrastructure

• VOICE • DATA

Circuit Switching Packet Switching


Phones/terminals Data Terminals
Signaling Signaling
Routing Routing
Transmission Transmission
facilities facilities
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What is meant by Data?

• Computer Data
• Voice
• Video

• What is common in all of them?

They can all be represented as bits i.e. these are all


different forms of information

As all can be represented as digital data making


Voice/Video/Data integration possible

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Voice technologies

• Voice in PSTN (TDM Based)

• Voice over Packet (VoIP, VoFR


or VoATM)

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Voice over IP (contd..)

• Transport voice traffic using IP


• Voice over the Internet?
Interconnected networks
Applications: e-mail, file transfer, e-com
• The greatest challenges
Voice quality and bandwidth
Control and prioritize the access
• Internet: best-effort transfer
The next generation
VoIP != Internet telephony

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IP (Internet Protocol)

• A packet-based protocol
Routing on a packet-by-packet base
• Packet transfer with no guarantees
May not receive in order
May be lost or severely delayed
• TCP/IP
Retransmission
Assemble the packets in order
Congestion control
Useful for file-transfers and e-mail

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Voice over IP Protocols

Presentation G.729(A)/G.723(.1)/G.711

Session H.323/MGCP/SIP

Transport RTP/UDP/RSVP

Network IP/WFQ/IP-prec

Link MLPPP/FR/ATM AAL1

Physical –––

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Why VoIP?

• Why carry voice?


Internet supports instant access to anything
“Dot-com”
Many new services and applications
However, voice services provide more revenues

• Why use IP for voice?


Circuit-switching is not for datacom
IP-based Packet switching:
Equipment cost, integrated access, less bandwidth, and
widespread availability

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Lower Equipment Cost

– PSTN switch
Proprietary – hardware, OS, applications
High operation and management cost
Training, support and feature development cost
– Mainframe computer
– The IP world
Standard hardware and mass-produced
Application software is quite separate
– IN
does not match the openness and flexibility of IP
A few highly successful services

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Voice/Data Integration

– Click to talk application


Personal communication
E-commerce
CTI – Computer Telephony Integration
– Web collaboration
Shop on-line with a friend at another location
– Video conferencing
– IP-based PBX
– IP-based call centers

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Enterprise Voice Over IP Applications

• Toll bypass
Most common application

• PBX extension
Saves costs by reducing maintenance costs
and overhead

• H.323 interoperability
Supports voice-enabled Web applications

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Cisco “Voice over” Applications

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Connection Types

• Local
• On-net
• Off-net
• PLAR
• PBX-to-PBX
• On-net to Off-net

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Local Connections

555-4001

Between two FXS Stations

555-4002
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On-net Connections

Site A Site B

IP
Router Router
Gateway Gateway

Calls within an enterprise

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On-net Connections (contd..)

Branch A Branch B
Soft Phone
192.168.1.1

192.168.1.254 172.16.1.254

Internet

IP Phone

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Off-net Connections
Dial Access code: 9
Then PSTN number
Branch A Branch B
192.168.1.1

192.168.1.254 172.16.1.254

FR/ATM

PSTN

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Tie Line Trunks

PBX PBX

IP,FR
ATM
Router Router
Gateway Gateway

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On to off-net Connections

Branch A Branch B
PSTN

192.168.1.1

192.168.1.254 172.16.1.254

Internet

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Toll Bypass Using 3600

PBX

PBX
PSTN

4 to 12
QoS Analog ports

3620 V WAN
(Intranet)
V
3640

Branch Office Headquarters


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Introduction to PSTN
Legacy Voice Infrastructure

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Addressing in Telephone Systems

• Numbering is never flat, it is always


hierarchical

• E.163 Standard (replaced by E.164)

• E.164 ITU-T standard for ISDN numbers

• In switching terminology the numbers are


termed as DNs or (Directory Numbers)
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Dialing Types

• Pulse
Each digit is represented as a series of
pulses.

• Touch Tone (DTMF)


Each digit represented as a pair of
frequencies
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Pulse Dialing Scheme

Make = Circuit Closed Off-Hook Dialing Inter-Digit Delay


Next Digit

Break = Open Circuit

700 ms

Pulse Period Supported on Cisco routers


(100 ms)

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DTMF Dialing

Supported on Cisco routers

Dual Tone Multifrequency (DTMF)

1209 1336 1477 1633

697 1 2 3 A

770 4 5 6 B

852 7 8 9 C

941 * 0 # D

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Types of circuit switched calls

Call on same switch


a calling b

Call established through


multiple switches
c calling d

End-Office
Central Office Tandem for calls within city
Local Exchange Transit for calls out of city
CLASS 5 switch
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Introduction to Signaling
The main purpose of Signaling is to setup and
tear down a call and providing supervisory
functions.
Signaling
Classification

Off-hook Trunk or
Dial-tone Subscriber Inter-switch SS1-6
Ringing Signaling Signaling SS7
Busy Tone Router-Router R2 (Analog / PCM
Hookflash H.323 / SIP
ISDN Q.931 MGCP

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Types of Signaling
Method of communicating telephony events: Off-hook, busy, on-hook…

Analog Digital
• Digital subscriber
• 2-wire
lines: 2-wire, 4-wire
• Loop start • Digital trunks: 4-wire
• Ground start
• Channel associated
• E&M signaling (CAS)
• 2-wire, 4-wire • In-band signaling
• Five types I-V
• (Cisco I,II,III,V) • Common channel
signaling (CCS)
• Out-of-band signaling
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Basic Local Call Flow

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Subscriber signaling for local calls

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Basic Call Progress: On-Hook

Telephone
Switch

Local Local
Loop Loop

-48 DC Voltage
DC Open Circuit
No Current Flow

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Basic Call Progress: Off-Hook

Off-Hook
Closed
Telephone
Circuit
Switch

DC Current
Dial Tone

Local Local
Loop Loop

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Basic Call Progress: Dialing

Off-Hook
Closed
Telephone
Circuit Dialed Digits
Pulses or Switch
Tones
DC Current

Local
Loop

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Basic Call Progress: Switching
Off-Hook
Closed
Telephone
Circuit
Switch

DC Current Address
to
Port
Local Translation Local
Loop Loop

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Basic Call Progress: Ringing

Off-Hook
Closed
Telephone
Circuit
Switch
Ring Back
Tone DC Open Cct.
DC Current Ringing Tone

Local Local
Loop Loop

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Basic Call Progress: Talking

Off-Hook
Closed
Telephone
Circuit
Switch
Voice Energy Voice Energy
DC Current DC Current

Local Local
Loop Loop

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Common Terms

• Local Loop
• Switches
• Trunks

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Switch Types

• Local Exchange / CO
• PBX
• Tandem
• Transit

Switches solve the N² problem

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Trunk Types

• Private Trunks
• CO Trunks
• FXO Trunks
• FXS Trunks
• DID/DOD Trunks
• Inter-office trunks

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2-to-4 wire conversion

• Done in Telephone Set


• Done on Switch side as well

Result: ????

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Speech-Coding Techniques

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Introduction

• Codecs / Speech coding schemes


• Subjective impairment analysis: MOS
• Digitizing voice
• Voice compression
ADPCM
CELP
Silence Removal Techniques (DSI using VAD)
• Processing Power
A balance between quality and cost

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Voice Quality Measure

• Bandwidth is easily quantified


Voice quality is subjective
• MOS, Mean Opinion Score
ITU-T Recommendation P.800
Excellent – 5
Good – 4
Fair – 3
Poor – 2
Bad – 1
A minimum of 30 people
Listen to voice samples or in conversations

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ITU-T Voice Quality Standards

P.800 recommendations
The selection of participants
The test environment
Explanations to listeners
Analysis of results

Toll quality
A MOS of 4.0 or higher

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ITU-T Voice Quality Standards

• Subjective and objective quality-testing


techniques
• PSQM – Perceptual Speech Quality
Measurement
ITU-T P.861
algorithmic comparison between the output
signal and a known input
type of speaker, loudness, delay, active/silence
frames, clipping, environmental noise

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Voice Compression Technologies

Unacceptable Business Toll


Quality Quality
64 *
(Cellular) PCM (G.711)

Bandwidth
(Kbps)

32 *
ADPCM 32 (G.726)
24 *
ADPCM 24 (G.726)
16 * *
ADPCM 16 (G.726) LDCELP 16 (G.728)
8 *
* CS-ACELP 8 (G.729)
LPC 4.8
0
Quality

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Speech Waveforms & PSD

• Voiced speech • Power spectrum


density
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Speech Waveforms & PSD (contd..)

• Power spectrum
• Unvoiced speech
density
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Type of Speech Coders

• Waveform codecs
Sample and code
High-quality and not complex
Large amount of bandwidth
• Source codecs (Vocoders)
Match the incoming signal to a mathematical model
Linear-predictive filter model of the vocal tract
The information is sent rather than the signal
Low bit rates, but sounds synthetic
Higher bit rates do not improve much

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Types of codecs
• Hybrid codecs
Attempt to provide the best of both
Perform a degree of waveform matching
Utilize the sound production model
Quite good quality at low bit rate

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Waveform Coders

Quantizing
Encoding
Sampling
Filtering

1110010010010110

Waveform Waveform
ENCODER DECODER

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Vocoders

PCM PCM
Quantizing Encoder Decoder

Encoding
Sampling
Filtering

111001001001011
Sample
Frames
VocalCords

Parameters

Parameters
Throat

Mouth
Nose

Model
Model

10110010
Parameters
Human
Speech Model

Analysis Synthesis
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Voice Digitization

• Analog-to-Digital Conversion
discrete samples of the waveform and represent each
sample by some number of bits
A signal can be reconstructed if it is sampled at a
minimum of twice the maximum freq.

• Human speech
0-4KHz (300-3400 Hz used in telephony)
8000 samples per second

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Digitizing Voice: PCM
Waveform Encoding

• Nyquist Theorem: sample at twice the


highest frequency
Voice frequency range: 300-3400 Hz
Sampling frequency = 8000/sec (every 125us)
Bit rate: (2 x 4 Khz) x 8 bits per sample
= 64,000 bits per second (DS-0)

• By far the most commonly used method


CODEC
PCM
= DS-0
64 Kbps

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G.711

• The most common codec


Used in circuit-switched telephone network
PCM, Pulse-Code Modulation
• Uniform quantization (not done)
12 bits * 8 k/sec = 96 kbps
• Non-uniform quantization
64 kbps DS0 rate
mu-law
North America & Japan
A-law
Other countries, including Pakistan
A MOS (Mean Opinion Score) of about 4.3

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DPCM

•DPCM, Differential PCM


Only transmit the difference between the predicated
value and the actual value
Voice changes relatively slowly
It is possible to predict the value of a sample based on
the values of previous samples
The receiver performs the same prediction
The simplest form
• No prediction

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ADPCM

• ADPCM, Adaptive DPCM


Predicts sample values based on
Past samples
Factoring in some knowledge of how speech varies over time
The error is quantized and transmitted
Fewer bits required
G.721
32 kbps
G.726
A-law/mu-law PCM -> 16, 24, 32, 40 kbps
An MOS of about 4.0 at 32 kbps

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CELP

• Code excited linear predictive


Hybrid coding scheme

• Very high voice quality at low bit rates, processor intensive,


use of DSPs
• G.728: LD CELP—16 Kbps
Smaller Codebook

• G.729: CS ACELP—8 Kbps


G.729a variant— “stripped down” 8 kbps (with a noticeable quality
difference) to reduce processing load, allows two voice channels
encoded per DSP

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G.729 an Advanced CODEC
Code Excited Linear Prediction
Cake (CELP) Consumes ~ 8 Kbps

Cake
A/D Code DSP Packet Recipe $0.32
10.1.1.1
16-Bit
Linear PCM Code
Look-Up

• DSP = Digital
Signal Ingredients: Directions:
A-sound Play K, A,
Processing K-sound and K

Recipe or Code Book


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G.729x

• G.729.B
VAD, Voice Activity Detection
Based on analysis of several parameters of the input
The current frames plus two preceding frames
DTX, Discontinuous Transmission
Send nothing or send an SID frame
SID frame contains information to generate comfort noise
CNG, Comfort Noise Generation
• G.729, an MOS of about 4.0
• G.729A an MOS of about 3.7

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Digital Speech Interpolation (DSI)

• Voice Activity Detection (VAD)


• Removal of voice silence
• Examines voice for power, change of
power
• Automatically disabled for fax/modem

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Bandwidth Requirements

Voice Band Traffic


Encoding/ Result
Compression Bit Rate
G.711 PCM 64 kbps (DS0)
A-Law/u-Law

G.726 ADPCM 16, 24, 32, 40 kbps

G.729 CS-ACELP 8 kbps

G.728 LD-CELP 16 kbps

G.723.1 CELP 6.3/5.3 kbps


Variable

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Voice Quality Comparison

Anything Above an MOS of 4.0 Is “Toll” Quality

Compression Method MOS Score Delay


(msec)

64K PCM (G.711) 4.4 0.75

32K ADPCM (G.726) 4.2 1

16K LD-CELP (G.728) 4.2 3–5

8K CS-ACELP (G.729) 4.2 15

8K CS-ACELP (G.729a) 3.6 15

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