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Best Practices for External

Aerodynamics
Best Practices Document
For lower Mach numbers, the pressure-based solver with an
incompressible fluid formulation will likely yield better
convergence behavior.
If vortex shedding (large bluff bodies, fully separated flow, etc.)
is important, a DES approach is recommended.
Beware using URANS for this type of analysis
Range of Applicability

Domain
Poly meshes: Use polyhedral expansion and match surface growth
rate with volume growth behavior
Trimmer meshes: No special treatment needed
Half Models
No
Yes
The new curvature correction option can be applied to the
SST K-Omega model when flows with high streamline curvature
are important.
This model is more difficult to converge, so may need to run without CC
first, then turn it on.
Vorticity Confinement can be used to help prevent vortices
from dissipating downstream.
Physics

Mesh
C-Grid Topology
Cp values are all within experimental
uncertainty, even with TE separation
CL values deviate <0.2% prior to TE
separation (a~12deg)
~2% after TE separation

NACA 0012 Effect of Cell Type
NACA0012, 15 deg
NACA0012, 15 deg
Structured Quad
57k Cells
Polyhedra
22k Cells
Cartesian Trim
16k Cells

Mesh (Continued)

Surface Refinement
AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop 3
Purpose to benchmark CFD codes for drag prediction
Wing/Body configuration with/without fairing (Mach 0.75)
Utilized unstructured Cartesian trim-cell mesh with prism layers
Volumetric Controls to refine mesh in critical regions
Nominal grid contains 12.4M cells
AIAA DPW3 Background
11
AIAA DPW3 Wing/Body Results
AIAA DPW3 Wing/Body Results
Re = 3e6
Mach No = 0.75
AoAs = -2, -1, 0, 1, 2





Simulation :
Mesh 29 million Cells (Half model)
Steady Coupled Solver
K-Omega SST
Transition Modeling

DLR Drag Prediction Workshop 2
Mesh - Trimmer
AIAA HiLiftWS1 Configuration
Manual / Automatic
Shocks, wakes, vortices, shear layers, etc.
Volumetric controls
Trimmer wake refinement (anisotropic)
Mesh Adaption

Wake
Prevents
smearing
for 1-2
chords
downstream
Its generally not possible to enforce correct wall y+
everywhere, so focus on the important areas
Avoid putting the first cell in the y+ = 10-50 range

Prism Layers
C-Grid provides best TE solution
Not always feasible for complex wing shapes
O-Grid without retraction provides best
compromise with automated meshing
O-Grid with retractionis default behavior!
Keep in mind: is the actual trailing edge really
a knife-edge?
NACA 0012 Effect of Trailing Edge Mesh
NACA0012, 15 deg
NACA0012, 15 deg
C-Grid
22k Cells
O-Grid, No Retract
10k Cells
O-Grid, Retract
10k Cells

Blunt Trailing Edges
No
Yes (Almost)
Should refine
the wake here