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BASIC

AERODYNAMIC
PRINCIPLES
THE EQUATION OF CONTINUITY
Simply states that MASS CAN
NEITHER BE CREATED OR
DESTROYED
Therefore, air mass flow is constant.
A.V. = Constant
V = Constant
A
At speeds below .4 M density can to thought to be
insignificant so;
BERNOULLIS THEOREM
1. Potential energy due to height
2. Heat energy
3. Pressure energy
4. Kinetic energy du to motion.
A gas in steady motion possesses
4 types of energy;
BERNOULLIS THEOREM
States THE TOTAL ENERGY OF
AN IDEAL STREAMLINED FLUID
IS CONSTANT
At speeds below .4 M it can be
further simplified by assuming no
transfer of heat energy and no
change in altitude.
For practical purposes, in the
streamlined flow around a wing at low
speed ;
Pressure + Kinetic = Constant
energy energy
p + 1 r V
2
= Constant
2
In words static pressure + dynamic
pressure will be constant.

Therefore an increase in dynamic
pressure will result in a decrease in
static pressure.
AEROFOIL TERMINOLOGY
ESSENTIAL
DEFINITIONS
FREE STREAM FLOW
Air in a region where pressure,
temperature and relative velocity are
unaffected by the passage of the
aircraft through it. Sometimes called
the RAF (Relative Air Flow)
TOTAL REACTION (TR)
The resultant of all the
aerodynamic forces acting on the
wing or aerofoil section
LIFT
That component of the TR which is
perpendicular to the flight path or
RAF
DRAG
The component of the TR which is
tangential to the flight path i. e
parallel to the RAF
CHORD LINE
A straight line joining the centres
of curvature of the leading and
trailing edges of an aerofoil
CHORD (c)
The distance between the leading
and trailing edge measured along the
chord line.
CHORD (c)
WING AREA (S)
Area of the wing projected on a
plane perpendicular to the normal
axis
MEAN LINE OR CAMBER LINE
A line joining the leading and
trailing edges of an aerofoil
equidistant from the upper and
lower surfaces.
MEAN LINE OR CAMBER LINE
ANGLE OF ATTACK (a)
The angle between the chord line
and the flight path or RAF.
Sometimes referred to as incidence.
(Riggers) ANGLE OF INCIDENCE
The angle at which an aerofoil is
attached to the fuselage. The angle
between the mean chord line and the
longitudinal fuselage datum.
THICKNESS/CHORD RATIO (t/c)
The maximum thickness or depth
of an aerofoil section expressed as a
percentage of chord length.
CENTRE OF PRESSURE (CP)
The point, usually on the chord
line, through which the TR may be
considered to act.
STREAMLINE
The path traced by a particle in a
steady fluid flow
ASPECT RATIO (AR)
SPAN
2
=ASPECT RATIO
AREA
SPAN =ASPECT RATIO
CHORD
WING LOADING
The weight per unit area of the
wing.

WEIGHT = W
WING AREA S
LOAD FACTOR (g or n)

n = TOTAL LIFT
WEIGHT
SUMMARY