You are on page 1of 27

Welding Technology

for Welding Engineers




Fe-C Phase diagram
Steel is an alloy
of Iron and carbon
Iron C < 0.02%

Steel 0.02 C 0.21%

Cast iron : 0.21% < C
Phase transformation in cooling - I
Phase transformation in cooling - II
Diffusion of carbon plays an important role in
phase transformation

Heat treatment of steels
Weldability of steels
Welding heat input
Energy Input (AWS D1.1), Arc Energy(EN standard)

EI(J/mm) = 60 (EI/v)
E(V), I(A), v(mm/min)

6025170/150 1700 (J/mm), 1.7(kJ/mm)

Heat Input

HI(J/mm) = h EI
h : Arc thermal efficiency 1.0 for SAW
0.8 for SMAW, GMAW
0.6 for autogenus TIG




Welding cooling rate, cooling time
CR(
o
C/s) at 540
o
C

t
8/5
(s):
Cooling time between
800
o
C and 500
o
C

1.7kJ/mm on 20mm thick

7s in t
8/5



Cooling rate, Cooling time
Heat input

Plate thickness

Joint shape (Butt-joint, fillet-joint)

Preheat temperature

Prediction of cooling time, t
8/5

JWES IT-Center
(http://www-it.jwes.or.jp/index_e.jsp)
Microstructure of HAZ
Normalizing heat treatment
Cooling curve (log-scale)
CCT (Low-hardenability)
HAZ maximum hardness
Prediction of HAZ hardness
HAZ hardness
Welding conditions

Heat input
Plate thickness
Preheat temperature
t
8/5
Chemical composition of steel
C
Carbon Equivalent

JWES IT-Center
(http://www-it.jwes.or.jp/index_e.jsp)

Carbon equivalent
CE
IIW
= C + Mn/6 + (Cu + Ni)/15 + (Cr + Mo + V)/5
CE
WES
= C + Si/24 + Mn/6 + Ni/40 + Cr/5 + Mo/4 + V/14
Weld cracking
Hot cracking (>1200
o
C)

Solidification cracking
Liquation cracking

Cold cracking (<100
o
C)
(Hydrogen assisted cracking)
Hot cracking
Solidification crack
Liquation crack
Stainless steel, Al
Weld metal cracking
Segregation of impurities during solidification
Phase diagram
Residual liquid phase
Direction of solidification growth
H/W
Welding velocity
Cold cracks
Root crack (HAZ) Toe crack (HAZ)
Transverse crack
(Weld metal)
Under-bead crack
(HAZ)
Generation and diffusion of hydrogen
Generation of hydrogen Hydrogen diffusion in weld
Mineral water in flux, Moisture in flux
Moisture in atmosphere,
Rust, oil, grease in groove
Arc
H (hydrogen)
Effect of preheat on HAZ hydrogen
Cause of hydrogen-assisted cold cracking
Cold cracking
Diffusible hydrogen

Weld metal hydrogen
Preheat temperature

Hardness (HAZ, Weld metal)

Steel chemical composition

t8/5 HI, thickness

Tensile residual stress
Yield strength of weld metal
Notch concentration factor
Determination of necessary preheat temperature
AWS D1.1 Annex I
Hardness control method (CEIIW) C>0.11%
Hydrogen control method (Pcm) C<0.11%

BS5135 [EN 1011-2 A] (CEIIW)

CE
T
method [EN 10110-2 B] (CET)

CE
N
method (CEN)
JWES IT -center
(http://www-it.jwes.or.jp/index_e.jsp)

Pc method (Pcm)


Flux type of covered electrode
Basic type CaCO
3
CaO + CO
2
lime
Decrease of partial pressure of H
High basicity Low oxygen in weld metal
Low hydrogen