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Polity & Society

Relationship between State &


Government
Unity in Diversity
State
The term State can be defined as a
assemblage of people occupying a definite
territory, under an organized government &
subject to no outside control
In the words of Aristotle, the state comes
into existence originating in the bare need of
life & continuing in existence for the sake of
good life
Elements of State
Population
Territory
Government
Sovereignty
The State is divided into two parts; the rulers
and the ruled i.e. the government and the
subjects.
Government
Government can be defined as administration
& management of any organization, business,
institution or political territory.
A system or policy by which a political unit is
governed.

Relationship between State &
Government
State is a group of people living in a definite
territory ; Government is any agency formed
to maintain order among these people.
People living in the state abide by certain
rules of conduct; government forms these
rules & ensures their enforcement.
State is superior i.e. it remains constant;
government is temporary & can be over riden.

The government ensures unity, peace, order &
discipline for the state & works endlessly for the
welfare of its people
The people of the state are liable to be punished by
the government for any misdemeanor or any act
considered to be harmful to the security and/or
integrity of the state.
The people of the state enjoy certain rights, that they
can exercise without misusing or exploiting them
The people are also entrusted with certain duties
toward the government that they are expected to
fulfill



Unity & Diversity
Unity in diversity is a motto celebrating co-
operation between different groups in a single
society & socio-ecological philosophy that
describes a sense of oneness despite physical
or psychological barriers between people.
The phrase is often used in close context with
India as it perfectly describes the harmonic co-
existence of the numerous ethnic, social &
religious groups residing in the country.
According to the demographic records of India,
its population of nearly 1.17 billion, consists
of around 2000 ethnic groups & represents
every major religion in the world.
Its ethnic diversity is exceeded only by Africa
Hindus form the major religious group in India.
India is home to the worlds 3
rd
largest
population of muslims, ranking behind only
Pakistan & Indonesia
It also contains the worlds majority of
Zoroastrians, Sikhs, Hindus & Jains
There are over 29 different languages
spoken across the length & breadth of
the country, Hindi & its dialects being the
most vastly used of them.
India adheres to a policy of
multiculturalism. Multiculturalism is the
acceptance of multi ethnic & religious
groups, for moral, practical &
organizational reasons.
Varna, Class & Caste
People are segregated into their respective
classes by way of birth, occupation or
marriage.
The different classes of India are:
Brahmin- the high ranking priests
Kshatriya- the warriors
Vaishya-the businessmen, farmers &
craftsmen
Shudra- the lowest class, untouchables

Tribes
Tribes, viewed historically or developmentally,
can be described as a social group existing
before the formation of the state
In India, tribes are polities that have been
granted legal recognition & limited autonomy
by the government
With more than 84 million tribal people, India
is home to the majority of tribes & tribal
population
These tribes include Gonds, Bhils, Khasis,
Angamis, Santhals, etc
The presence of these tribes is felt most in
parts of Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh,
Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, the North-
eastern states & Rajasthan
Thank You
Presented by
Sana Pardiwalla- roll no: 22
Joel Duarte- roll no: 32
Drishty Tanwar- roll no: 33
Manoj Pillai- roll no:34