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The most fundamental executive

functions are Those Which relates to essential


activities of government. The State is now
regarded as a means for achieving the
welfare of man. it must provide for
that atmosphere in which welfare can best be
realised .
if this it function .there is ,no uniformly between the
executive functions of one state and those of
the other. Broadly speaking ,the essential functions
may be enumerated as:

Eve r y st at e i s a po l i t i cal l y o r gani se d
so ci e t y. t he pur po se o f t he st at e canno t
be r e al i se d, unl e ss t he r e i s i nt e r nal pe ace
and o r de r . I t i s t he f o r e mo st pe ace wi t hi n
t he co unt r y. The de par t me nt whi ch i s
r e spo nsi bl e f o r t he mai nt e nance o f i nt e r nal
pe ace and o r de r i s cal l e d t he ho me de par t me nt
, o r t he de par t me nt o f t he i nt e r i o r t he
no me ncl at ur e var i e s f r o m st at e t o st at e .
It is the duty of the executive to implement
policies and direct the execution of laws .
It entails the division of the work of
government into different departments
and agencies and their organization in
such a manner as to ensure efficient and
effective administration. It also
coordinates the business of government.
Various department government do not
function in watertight compartments.
They act and upon one another..
They hold office at the pleasure of the
head of the state, though their removal is
governed according to the provision of
the constitution and laws in acted by
parliament . in the united state the power
of the president is unqualified .the
supreme court ruled that the consent of
the senate is not necessary in case of
removal as it is in the case of
appointment .
All states are sovereign and independent .but no state can
lead an isolated life or exclusive independence. all states
exists under conditions of mutual dependency .to ensure
mutual peace and security and to avoid all acts of
aggression against one another, state adjust their
differences, if any , through diplomatic negotiations. It
negotiates and concludes ,through its representatives,
treaties and agreements .in some states the treaty making
power of the executive is subject to approval and
ratification of one or both the houses of its legislature

it is essential function of executive of territorial integrity of the state
and to protect the country from external aggression, and when
necessary ,to wage war. the problem of common defence today is
entirely different from what it was a century or so before. No
country can afford to wait for defence until war is declared. It must
be prepared to ward off the probabilities of war and to win, if it
actually comes.
The department, which is concerned with the defence of the country
and controls its military operations, is called the defence and war
department. Even when such powers are not conferred, the executive
may take any action necessary to safeguard the safety of the state
and ensure the successful prosecution of war.
all government spend huge sums of money every year to perform their
multifarious functions. When money is to spent, it must be obtained by some
means. Government meet their expenditure by taxing the people and by tapping
other sources of income. This is an executive function and the department which
makes provision of ways and means is called the finances department or the
treasury. This department is the most powerful, because it only allocates money
to the different departments but also regulates and controls their expenditure
through audit.

the legislative functions of the executive vary with the form of
government that prevails in the state .it is everywhere the right of the
executive to summon, adjourn and prorogue the sessions of its
parliament .In countries where there is a parliamentary government, the
executive dissolves the popular house and orders fresh election. it can
also convene special sessions Of the legislature whenever necessary.
the executive furnishes necessary information to the legislature
regarding the needs of the country ,either at the beginning of the
session, or from time to time, during the continuance of the session .
All bill passed by the legislature must receive the assent of the executive
head in order to become law.