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BAMBOO REINFORCED

CONCRETE

2

INTRODUCTION

Bamboo has been used as a

construction material in certain area for

centuries. A study of bamboo is used

as a reinforcement in precast concrete

elements was carried out in U.S Army

Engineer Waterway experiment station

in 1964. Bamboo was given recent

consideration for use as reinforcement

in soil cement pavement slabs in which

the slabs behave inelastically even

under light loads.

3

BAMBOO CHARACTERISTICS

Bamboo is giant grass not a tree.

The density of fibres in cross-section of a

bamboo shell varies with thickness as well

as height.

The strength of bamboo is greater than

most of the timber products.

Bamboo is more prone to insect attack

than other trees and grasses.

Bamboo can prevent pollution.

4

SELECTION AND PREPARATION

OF BAMBOO

SELECTION

Use only bamboo showing a pronounced brown

color. This will insure that the plant is at least

three years old.

Select the longest large diameter culms

available.

Do not use whole culms of green, unseasoned

bamboo.

Avoid bamboo cut in spring or early summer.

These culms are generally weaker due to

increased fiber moisture content.

5

VARIOUS SPECIES OF BAMBOO

6

PREPARATION

Sizing

Splitting

Seasoning

Bending

Waterproof Coating

7

CONSTRUCTION PRINCIPLES

Concrete Mix Proportions

The same mix designs can be used as

would normally be used with steel reinforced

concrete. Concrete slump should be as low as

workability will allow. Excess water causes

swelling of the bamboo. High early-strength

cement is preferred to minimize cracks caused

by swelling of bamboo when seasoned

bamboo cannot be waterproofed.

8

Placement of bamboo

Bamboo reinforcement should not be placed

less than 1 inches from the face of the

concrete surface.

The clear spacing between bamboo rods or

splints should not be less than the maximum

size aggregate plus inch.

Reinforcement should be evenly spaced and

lashed together on short sticks placed at right

angles to the main reinforcement.

The ties can be maid with vegetation strips.

This embedded depth is approximately 10 times

the diameter of whole culms or 25 times the

thickness of inch wide splints.

Spacing of the stirrups should not exceed 6

inches.

9

DESIGN PRINCIPLES

Bamboo reinforced concrete design is

similar to steel reinforcing design. Bamboo

reinforcement can be assumed to have the

following mechanical properties.

10

Mechanical properties of bamboo reinforcement

Mechanical Property Symbol Value (psi)Value (psi)

Ultimate compressive strength --- 8,000

Allowable compressive stress s 4,000

Ultimate tensile strength --- 18,000

Allowable tensile stress s 4,000

Allowable bond stress u 50

Modulus of elasticity E 2.5x10

6

11

When design handbooks are available for

steel reinforced concrete, the equations

and design procedures can be used to

design bamboo reinforced concrete if the

above mechanical properties are

substituted for the reinforcement.

12

BEAMS AND GIRDERS

Bamboo longitudinal reinforcement

should be between 3 and 4 percent of the

concrete cross section.It have the same

bending moment resistance coefficient as a

balanced steel reinforced beam, singly

reinforced. Economy of concrete increases

going to the left on the curve; therefore,

deeper, narrower replacement beams are

recommended. A minimum number of rods

should be used to provide adequate spacing.

The bamboo stirrup area should always be

about 4 times the steel stirrup area.

13

Example

Design of Bamboo Reinforced Beam:

Design a bamboo reinforced concrete beam to span

2.43m and to carry a uniform dead load plus live

load of 450 KN/m and two concentrated loads of

108 KN each symmetrically located 0.6m each side

of the center line of span. Assume the ultimate

strength of the concrete is 240KN/m2; the

allowable compression stress is 108 KN/m2

Allowable unit diagonal tension stress,V , in the

concrete is 72 KN/m2. Allowable tension stress, s,

in the bamboo is 400 KN/m2; the allowable unit

bond stress between bamboo and concrete is 40

KN/m2.

14

Solution

1. At the intersection of the allowable stress curves for concrete and

bamboo, find R = 115 and p = 3.1 percent.

2. Maximum bending moment, M, is given by:

M = [450(2.43)2(12)]/2.43 + 108(0.6)(12) =13899.6 KN m.

R = M/bd2

3. From

bd2 = 13899.6/115 = 120.86 m3

4. If b = 2.43m. is chosen, then d = (120.86(10)/2.43) = 7.05mm.

5. Bamboo reinforcement = pbd = 0.031(2.43)(7.05) = 4.75

6. Use -inch-thick splints, area = 0.563 m2.

Number required = 4.75/0.563 = 8.4; round up to 9. Space evenly

in three rows. Bend up top row randomly in the outer one-third

ends of the beam.

15

7. Check the bond stress. Maximum shear at the support, V, is

determined as:

V = 450(2.43)/2 + 108 = 860 KN/m2.

The perimeter of one splint is 4(3/4) or 3 m.; the total perimeter

of the longitudinal reinforcement, 0, is 9(3) = 27 m. The value

of j = 0.925

u = V ojd = 654.7 27(0.925)(7.06) = 13 KN/m2

This is less than the allowable bond stress of 40 KN/m2.

8. Calculate the shear, V', taken by the concrete from

V' = bjd = 72(2.4)(0.925)(4.75) = 759.2 KN/m2

Where is the allowable diagonal tension stress of the concrete.

9. Provide 0.4 mm thick splints for stirrups. The area provided by

one stirrup bent into a U-shape, A, is 4(0.4) = 1.6 mm2 (Stirrup

area 4 times the dia). Maximum spacing, s, is given by:

s = Ajd (V - V') = 1.6(400)(0.925)(4.75) (860 759.2) =

10.1mm.

Common practice is to include two additional stirrups

past the point where diagonal tension reinforcement is not

needed.

16

COLUMNS

Bamboo reinforcement in columns serves to resist

a compression load equal to that taken by the

concrete it displaces; it also will resist shear and

tensile stresses. Of the full cross section of concrete,

only 80 percent is considered effective in rectangular

tied, columns. Allowable concrete stress should not

exceed 0.225 f'c where f'c is the ultimate

compressive strength of the concrete.

Vertical reinforcement should be approximately 4

percent of the column cross section for rectangular

columns. When bamboo is used as lateral tie

reinforcement, the ties should be spaced not over 16

times the least dimension of the vertical

reinforcement nor farther apart than the least

dimension of the column.

17

Example

Design of Bamboo Reinforced ConcreteColumn:

Determine the cross section and bamboo

reinforcement of a column required to carry an

axial load of 700 KN. Ultimate compression

strength of the concrete, 240.KN/m2

Solution:

1. For an unreinforced rectangular column the safe

axial load, P, is given by:

P = 0.8Ac (0.225 f'c)

Where Ac is the cross-sectional area of the

concrete column and f'c is the ultimate

compressive strength of concrete.

2. The column should have a cross-sectional area of:

Ac = 700 0.8 (0.225) (240)(10) 3 = 16.20 m2.

18

3. If a square column is chosen, it will have face

dimensions of

b = (16.20) = 4.0 m

4. The amount of vertical reinforcement should be 4

percent of the concrete area .These should be spaced

evenly around the perimeter of 1 to 1 mm of cover.

Provide each vertical splint with a 90-degree corner.

19

COMPARISON OF BAMBOO AND

STEEL

The strength of bamboo is greater than

steel.

Bamboo is easily accessible.

Bamboo lowers the cost of construction.

Increases the strength of the buildings .

Bamboo can crack and deflect more than

steel reinforcement.

20

Other Applications Of Bamboo

Bamboo bridge in the Amsterdam Woods

21

Bamboo theatre during the Festival of Vision, Berlin, 2000

22

Bamboo scaffolding at the top of a new high-rise building in Hong kong

23

CONCLUSION

The environmental and financial

comparison demonstrates that bamboo can

compete with building material. Bamboo is a

natural product and will therefore always have

some extent of irregularity. It is therefore

suggested that the bamboo culm should be used

in functions were the measurement

requirements are not entirely precise or fixed, as

in temporary buildings (e.g., pavilions and tents)

or small civil projects. Furthermore, bamboo

can play a role as a non-supporting or finishing

material.

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