Distribution

Transmission
Generatio
n
By:

Prof. ANIL KUMAR
P & IFM, UPES, DDN.


TRANSMISSION SYSTEM
Presented by:
ANIL KUMAR
BUSINESS PROCESS MAPPING - TRANSMISSION
4
TRANSMISSION - Overview
Transmission is link between Generation and Distribution.
Transfer of electrical power from Generating Stations to the industrial,
commercial or residential consumers is as important as Power
Generation & Supply of electricity.
Typically Power Transmission is in between the Power plants and a
Distribution Substation in the vicinity of a populated area and industries.
Power-Grid Corporation is nodal agency for major transmission activities
in India.
BUSINESS PROCESS MAPPING - TRANSMISSION
5
TRASMISSION- Overview (Cont.)
For power transmission of electricity normally we upgrade generated
voltage near power house for better economics and efficiency.
Which ultimately again converted into lower voltage for Sub-
transmission and Distribution at the fag end of transmission.
A power transmission system is sometimes referred as a "grid“
because of inter-connected network of transmission lines.










BUSINESS PROCESS MAPPING - TRANSMISSION
6
Transmission Sector in India as follow:

TRANSMISSION - Overview (Cont.)
•Transmission Line of Centre and State Sector have different voltage & system
e.g. 220Kv, 400Kv, 765Kv or 1200 Kv AC & 500 Kv & 800 Kv DC .
•Normally every region is divided in to two sector for transmission pricing - NR-
1,NR-2,ER-1,ER-2,WR-1,WR-2,SR-1,SR-2,NER
•Usually transmission length is given in Ckt. Km. Indian transmission system is
divided into five geographical zones – East, West, North, South & North-East
Regional Grids.
BUSINESS PROCESS MAPPING - TRANSMISSION
7
TRANSMISSION Project Classification
Transmission Project Life Cycle - Covers all the essential aspects right from the
need of particular Trans-project to its “Testing and commissioning”.
It also covers for the various activities and requirements during its “Operating
Phase”.
Hence, Transmission project is broadly classified into two sections :
Section A : Construction Phase
Section B : Operation and Maintenance Phase
BUSINESS PROCESS MAPPING - TRANSMISSION
8
SECTION A-CONSTRUCTION PROCESS.
SECTION B - OPERATION AND
MAINTENANCE PROCESS
TRANSMISSION
:
BUSINESS PROCESS MAPPING - TRANSMISSION
9
1-Project Conceptualization.
2-Transmission System Planning.
3-Feasibility Studies.
4-Bidding and Proposal.
5-Procurement.

6-Construction.
8-Quality Assurance.
9-EHS & Permit To Work.
7-Project Management and Monitoring.
10-Testing and Commissioning
BUSINESS PROCESS MAPPING - TRANSMISSION
10
11-Transmission Operation.
12-Grid Operating Procedure.
13-Scheduling and Dispatch
14-Regional Electricity Market
15-Smart Grid.
16-Electricaly Operated Equipments
18-Substation Automation
19-Disaster Management.
20-Metering and Billing.
17-Preventive Maintenance
A-CONSTRUCTION
CONCEPTUALIZATION
AND SYSTEM PLANNING
QUALITY
ASSURANCE
PROCUREME
NT &
CONSTRUCTI
ON
FEASIBILITY
STUDY
BIDDING &
PROPOSAL
PROJECT MGT.
&
MONITORING
TESTING AND
COMMISSIONIN
G
EHS &
PTW
B-OPERATION &
MAINTENANCE
SCHEDULING
& DISPATCH
DISASTER
MGT.
PREVENTIVE
MAINTENANC
E
SUBSTATION
AUTOMATION
REGIONAL
ELECTRICITY
MARKET
GRID
OPERATING
PROCEDURE
METERING AND
BILLING
TRANSMISSION PROCESS

Project identification
Requirement Analysis
& Load Computation

Project
Conceptualization

Environment Impact
Assessment


Feasibility Study

Clearances
Forest Clearances
PTCC

Bidding and Proposal

Transmission system
Development with
Criteria
Transmission System
Planning


Transmission line
Design
Substation Design

Procurement &
Construction

Package List For
Proposals
Cost Estimate
Qualifying Requirement

Procurement &
Construction

System of Vendor and Sub
Vendor Approvals
Manufacturing Quality Plan

Quality Assurance



Environment, Health &
Safety (EHS)
a
Erection and
Commissioning
of S/s

Project Mgt &
Monitoring



Grid Operating Procedure
IT application in
Transmission
Protection of
Transmission




Operation &
Maintenance



Preventive Maint.
Disaster Mgt CRM
,Metering & Billing
Inspection Mgt

14
BUSINESS PROCESS MAPPING - TRANSMISSION
TRANSMISSION SYSTEM PLANNING (TSP)
•PROCESS OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEM PLANNING
•TRANSMISSION PLANNING CRIETERION
•PROCESS FLOW FOR TRANSMISSION FLOW DECISION
FEASIBILITY STUDY
•RECONNAISSANCE & PRELIMINARY SURVEYS
•ENVIRONMENT IMPACT ASSESMENT AND MGT. PLANNING
•ENVIRONMENT & SOCIAL MGT. PROCEDURES
•CLEARANCES
•PROCEDURE OF FOREST CLEARNCES
•FOREST PROPOSAL
•POWER & TELECOM COORDINATION COMMITTEE.
PROJECT IDENTIFICATION
•A POWER TRNSMISSION PROJECT IS IDENTIFIED ACCORDING TO THE
DEMAND-SUPPLY OF A GIVEN REGION
• REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS AND LOAD COMPUTATION.
15
BUSINESS PROCESS MAPPING - TRANSMISSION

PROCUREMENT & CONSTRUCTION
•DETAILING OF CONSTRUCTION-PLANNING OF TRANS. LINE
•ROUTE ALIGNMENT & DETAILED SURVEY USING MODERN
TECHNIQUES.
•COMPLETE DESIGN WITH STANDARIZATION
•COMMERCIAL SPECIFICATION
•GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITION OF CONTRACT
DETAILED STUDY OF COMPONENTS LIKE
1) OIL FILLED TRANSFORMER, 2) OIL FILLING
3) VACCUM PULLING 4)EARTH SWITCHING
5) ARCING HORNS 6) CONSRUCTION AND COMMISSIONING OF S/S
7) LIGHTING ARRESTORS

BIDDING AND PROPOSAL
•BIDDING PROCESS
•FORMS OF CONTRACT
•QUALIFYING REQUIREMENT
•BIDDERS SELECTION:PREPARATION OF COMMERCIAL/
•TEHNICAL SPECIFICATION
•SUBMISSION OF BID
16
BUSINESS PROCESS MAPPING - TRANSMISSION

PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING
•PROJECT MONITORING
•PROJECT SCHEDULE


QUALITY ASSURANCE
•NEED FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE
•QUALITY ASSURANCE OBJECTIVES
•SERVICE REALIZATION PROCESS AND INTERACTIONS
•SHIFT IN QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCESS

[]
PROCUREMENT & CONSTRUCTION (CONTD..)
DETAILED STUDY OF COMPONENTS AS 1) OIL FILLED TRANSFORMER,
2) OIL FILLING 3) VACCUM PULLING 4)EARTH SWITCHING 5) ARCING
HORNS 6) CONSRUCTION AND COMMISSIONING 7)LIGHTING
ARRESTORS


EHS & PERMIT TO WORK
•TERRESTRIAL HABITAT ALTERATION
•RIGHT OF WAY MAINTENANCE
•AQUATIC HABITAT ALTERATION


17
BUSINESS PROCESS MAPPING - TRANSMISSION

SAFETY INSTRUCTION
•SAFETY INSTRUCTION SFOR WORKING UPTO 650 VOLTS
•WORKING WITH LINE MAINS AND APPARATUS
•SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS ABOVE 650 VOLTS
•TEST FOR PROVING MAINS AND APPARATUS
•EARTHING AND SHORT CIRCUITING THE MAINS
•WORK ON OVERHEADLINES ; HIGH VOLTAGE CABLES
•SAFETY AND FIRST AID EQUIPMENTS

•ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS
•HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
•OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY
•PERMIT TO WORK
•ISSUANCE OF PTW:WORK ON MAINS
•VALIDITY OF AUTHORIZATION
TESTING AND COMMISSIONING
•TESTING : CONDUCTOR CONTINUITY TEST
•APPROVALS

18
BUSINESS PROCESS MAPPING - TRANSMISSION
GRID OPERATING PROCEDURE
•NETWOR SECURITY AND SYSTEM OPERATION
•FREQUENCY CONTROL
•PREVENTIVE MEASURES DURING HIGH FREQUENCY.
•DEMAND ESTIMATION
•LOAD CRASH
•BILATERAL AGREEMENTS

TRANSMISSION OPERATION
•ROLE OF LOAD DISPATCH CENTER
•GRID MANGEMENT FUNCTIONS


SCHEDULING AND DISPATCH
•SCHEDULING AND DISPATCH PROCEDURES.
•REVISION OF SCHEDULES.
•EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION.
•GRID DISTURBANCES AND REVIVAL
•SYSTEM REVIVAL
•DECLARATION OF SYSTEM NORMALIZATION

19
BUSINESS PROCESS MAPPING - TRANSMISSION
REGIONAL ELECTRICITY MARKET
•DAILY SCHEDULING PROCESS.
•UI VS. SYSTEM MARGINAL COST.
•IT APPLICATION IN POWER SECTOR.
•CONVERGENCE OF THREE ASPECTS OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY.

•INTER-REGIONAL SUPPORT .
•EVENT INFORMATION AND REPORTING.
•SETTLEMENTS SYSTEM.

SMART GRID – KEY ATTRIBUTES
•ARCHITECTURAL VIEW.
•PROXIMITY OF COASTAL AREAS


ELECTRICALLY OPERATED EQUIPMENTS
•CLEANING VANS
•TRUCK ENGINE OPERATED VAN
•ROBOT SYSTEM
•METHODS OF CLEANING

20
BUSINESS PROCESS MAPPING - TRANSMISSION
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
•PROTECTION SYSTEM
•RESPONSE TO POWER SYSTEM STABILITIES
•FACTS
•AUTOMATIC GENERATOR CONTROL (AGC)
•ISLANDING
•HAND CLEANING
•TECHNIQUES FOR CLEANING DURING ENERGIZED CONDITION
1)HAND HELD JET NOZZLE 2)REMOTE CONTROL JET 3)FIXED SPRAY
4)HELICOPTER MOUNTED
•COMPRESSED AIR DRY CLEANING
•TYPES OF EQUPMENTS


IT APPLICATION & SUBSTATION AUTOMATION
•DYNAMIC LOAD SHEDDING
•ONLINE SYSTEM MONITORING
•ENHANCING LEGACY CONTOL AND PROTECTION SYSTEM
•IT APPLICATION IN TRANSMISSION


21
BUSINESS PROCESS MAPPING - TRANSMISSION
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
•FAILURE OF ELECTRICITY GRID.
•DISASTER ZONING FOR NATURAL CLAMITIES.
•OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE DISASTER MANGEMENT PLAN.
•STRUCTURE AND ACTIVITIES OF DMP.
•ENERGY MANAGEMENT GROUP




METERING AND BILLING
INTEGRATED METERING & BILLING SYSTEM
EFFIENT COLLECTION SYSTEM



REGIONAL ELECTRICITY MARKETS

Ex-ante Functions
Schudlling
Real Time Functions
-Supervision and Control of System Parameters
-Facilitating Open Access Transactions
Post Facto Functions
-Settlement system operation
Interaction with Stakeholders
Under Normal State
Black Start
Re-Synchronisation of Generator and
Building Network
Load Restoration
Under Emergency State
Grid Management Function
Or House Load Operation
24

Network Planning
& Construction

Network
Operations

Network
Maintenance

• Network Planning


• Control and Automation

• Asset Management

•Design


• Alarm and Event
handling

• Crew Management

• Work Management

• Switching Operation

• Trouble call Handling

• Project Management

• Load Shedding

• Outage Analysis
Key Processes And Activities in Network Management
25

CENTRAL
HYDRO

CENTRAL
THERMAL
CENTRAL
NUCLEAR

BULK
CONSUMERS
STATE
GRID 1
STATE
GRID 2

STATE
GRID n

IPPs
REGIONAL GRID
RLDC
DISCOS DISCOS

DISCOS



OTHER REGIONAL GRIDS

Independent power
producers
27
Normal State
99 % of the Time utilized
Restoration State
Load Constraints are
violated
Alert state
System weakened
Extreme State
Dynamic Instability
Emergency State
Load Constraints are still
satisfied
Restorative
Force
Resynchronization
Fast Corrective
Action
Emergency
Control
Preventive
Control




BUSINESS PROCESS MAPPING - TRANSMISSION
29

TECHNICAL
INSTALLATION
HUMAN
RESOURCE
S
FINANCIAL OPERATIONAL
Voltage
Level &
System
Transfor-
ming
capacity
No of
S/S &
Transmis
sion Line
Length in
Ckt, Km
Power
Transfer
In
MW/KM
Per
Manday
Inter-
Regional
Transfer
Capacity
Revenue
&
Expenses
per unit
Energy
Transfer
Return
on
Capital
(ROC)
T&C
Losses
Wheeling
Charges
% of Loading of
Transmission Line
Metering Billing &
Collection Efficiency
% of Outage or
Service Interruption in
a month
No & Duration of
voltage complaints
received during the
month
No & Duration of frequency
complaints received during
the month

Reliability, Quality,
Safety & Security
Factors


SCADA

DMS FUNCTION


EMS FUNCTION

S/S
AUTOMATION
FUNCTION
ELECTRICAL
DISTRIBUTION
NETWORK
ELECTRICAL
TRANSMISSION
NETWORK
S/S AUTOMATION
RTU DATA ACQUISITION
SUPERVISORY CONTROL
DATA EXCHANGE
DATA PROCESSING
oAlarms
oSequence of Event (SOE) recording
oGeneralised Calculations
DISTURBANCE DATA COLLECTION
HISTORICAL INFORMATION STORAGE & RETRIEVAL

OPERATION
SCHEDULING

Load forecasting
Inflow forecasting
Unit commitment
Hydro scheduling
Hydro Thermal
Coordination
Interchange scheduling
Interchange transaction
evaluation
Current operating plan
Outage scheduling
POWER SYSTEM
ANALYSIS

Network
Topology
State estimation
Contingency
analysis
Optimal power
flow
Transmission
loss sensitivity
factors
Post disturbance
analysis
LOAD GENERATION
BALANCE

Operation monitoring
AGC
Economic despatch
Reserve monitoring
Loadshed /Restoration
 Production costing
RLDC
STATE LDC STATE LDC STATE LDC STATE LDC STATE LDC
SUB-LDC SUB-LDC
SUB-LDCs SUB-LDCs
RTUs RTUs
SCADA/EMS FUNCTIONS RLDC SLDC Sub-LDC
SCADA
INFORMATION STORAGE &
RETRIEVAL
REAL-TIME DISPATCHING
OPERATIONS SCHEDULING
POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS
DISPATCHER TRAINING
SIMULATOR
 Capture location sensitivity
 Layered information
 Time slices
 Integrating location and time
information in a consistent
framework
GIS Application
GIS will become the starting point for almost all activities not only in
transmission but also in distribution too like

 Planning
 Engineering
 Estimation & Ordering
 Customer Relationship Management
 O&M and OMS
 Network Optimization.
 Energy Auditing etc.
GIS-
AM/FM
Network
Analysis
Consumer
Information
System(CIS)
SCADA-DMS
SAP
Enterprise Wide Integrated GIS.
OMS-
Responder
Custom Tools
( Energy Audit
Scheduler et al.)
Utility wide Unified Database
Stages of Development of Smart Grid
42

44
• Transmission Utility at the Centre & States must undertake planning & development
of transmission system. (Sections 38 & 39)

• Load Despatch to be in the hands of a govt company/organisation. Flexibility
regarding keeping Transmission Utility and load despatch together or separating
them. Load Despatch function critical for grid stability and neutrality vis a vis
generators and distributors. Instructions to be binding on both. (Sections 26, 27,31,
38, 39)

• Private Transmission companies to be licensed by the Appropriate Commission after
giving due consideration to the views of the Transmission Utility. (Sections 15 (5)
(b))

• Load Despatch Centre/Transmission Utility / Transmission Licensee not to trade in
power. Facilitating genuine competition between generators
(Sections 27, 31, 38, 39,41)

• Open access to the transmission lines to be provided to distribution licensees,
generating companies. (Sections 38-40)

• Transmission Utility can do other Business but not the Power Trading.
( Section 41)



Transmission Regulations (25 to 41)
DISTRIBUTION REGULATIONS (42 TO 60)
Energy Resource Map
NR
WR
SR
ER
NER
Ennore
Kudankulam
Kayamkulam
Partabpur
Talcher/Ib Valley
Vindhyachal
Korba
LEGEND
Coal
Hydro
Lignite
Coastal
Nuclear
Vizag
Simhadri
Kaiga
Tarapur
Mangalore
Krishnapatnam
RAPP
SIKKIM
M
Y
A
N
M
M
A
R
CHICKEN
NECK
Cuddalore
SRI LANKA
COLOMBO
NEPAL
BHUTAN
DESH
BANGLA
South Madras
Pipavav
Generation Load-Centre
Kolkata
Bhubaneswar
Patna
Lucknow
Delhi
Mumbai
Chennai
Bangalore
Bhopal
Guwahati
Jammu
Ludhiana
Jaipur
Gandhinagar
Indore
Raipur
Thiruvananthapuram
Kozhikode
Hyderabad
Coal
Hydro

• Hydro potential in
NER and upper part of
NR

• Coal reserves mainly
in ER

• For optimal utilisation
of resources, better
load management
and avoiding regional
imbalance - strong
National Grid
2300
Installed Capacity 1,56,092 MW (approx.)
March 2010, (Central: State - 34:55 )
36,547.01 MW
40,514.54 MW
17,608.82
38,143.63 MW
2,506.25
Surplus Regions
Deficit Regions
Indian Power Scenario- At a Glance


National
Grid
1950-60’s
1970-80s
2000 onwards
Local
1950’s
EVOLUTION OF ELECTRIC GRID
State
Grids by
SEBs
Regional Grids
with ATS of
Central
Generation
Shift from
Regional self
sufficiency
concept to
National level
Planning
Interconnecting
Regional Grids
with HVDC
1990s
Towards National Grid System
Except Southern Others linked
132 kV Highest level at the time of
Independence
Iintroduction of 220 kV in 1960
400 kV in 1977
HVDC back-to-back link in 1989,
500kV, HVDC bi-pole line in 1990
 765 kV transmission line from 2000
onwards.

Existing Inter Regional Links
Present IR Capacity= 20,750 MW
6330 MW
1720MW
3630 MW
4220 MW
2990 MW
1250 MW
SOUTHERN
REGION
WESTERN
REGION
NORTHERN
REGION
NORTH-
EASTERN
REGION
EASTERN
REGION
11,730 MW
2,450 MW
6500 MW
7600 MW
2700 MW
3,600 MW
37,150 MW
OF INTER-REGIONAL POWER BY
2012

3,000 MW
 Power System started building up in 1960
 Need arose for regional grid
 Power System divided in 5 regions
 Five regional grids established namely
• Northern
• Eastern
• North-Eastern
• Southern
• Western
 Regional Electricity Boards (REB) created to co-
ordinate regional grids

National Grid
5
33
Regional Grids
State Utilities
1
Hierarchy of Indian Power
System

 National Grid planned in a
phased manner
 Phase-I: Transfer of
Transmission facilities along
with related manpower from
Central / Centre–State Joint
Venture Organizations.

 Phase-II: Transfer of
existing Regional Electricity
Boards and Regional Load
Dispatch Centres together
with associated
communication facilities.
9500
11500
18000
40000
65000
100000
150000
5000
25000
45000
65000
85000
105000
125000
145000
165000
Present 2006 2007 2012 2017 2022 2027
M
W
 Phase-III: Establish Power Pool to
facilitate exchange of power
between States/Regions leading to
formation of National Power
Grid/Inter regional capacity


ROURKELA
RAIPUR
HIRMA
TALCHER
JAIPUR
NER
ER
WR
NR
SR
B'SHARIF
ALLAHABAD
SIPAT
GAZUWAKA
JEYPORE
CHANDRAPUR
SINGRAULI
VINDHYA-
2
0
0
0
M
W

2
0
0
0
M
W

2
5
0
0
M
W

1000MW
500MW
LUCKNOW
DIHANG
CHICKEN NECK
TEESTA
TIPAIMUKH
BADARPUR
MISA
DAMWE
KATHAL-
GURI
LEGEND
765 KV LINES
400 KV LINES
HVDC B/B
HVDC BIPOLE
EXISTING/ X PLAN NATIONAL
ZERDA
HISSAR
BONGAIGAON
DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL GRID
KOLHAPUR
NARENDRA
KAIGA
PONDA
IX PLAN
MARIANI
NORTH
KAHALGAON
RANGANADI
SEONI
CHEGAON
BHANDARA
DEHGAM
KARAD
LONIKAND
VAPI
GANDHAR/
TALA
BANGLA
BALLABGARH
A'PUR
(DELHI RING)
BANGALORE
KOZHIKODE
COCHIN
KAYAMKULAM
TRIVANDRUM
PUGALUR
KAYATHAR
KARAIKUDI
CUDDALORE
SOUTH CHENNAI
KRISHNAPATNAM
CHITTOOR
VIJAYAWADA
SINGARPET
PIPAVAV
LIMBDI
KISHENPUR
DULHASTI
WAGOORA
MOGA
URI
BHUTAN
RAMAGUNDAM
SATLUJ
RAVI
JULLANDHAR
DESH
VARANASI /UNNAO
M'BAD
PURNEA
KORBA
NAGDA
SILIGURI/BIRPARA
L
A
K
S
H
A
D
W
E
E
P
TEHRI
MEERUT
BHIWADI
BINA
SATNA
MALANPUR
SHIROHI
KAWAS
AMRAVATI
AKOLA
AGRA
SIRSI
CHAL
JETPUR
AMRELI
BOISAR
TARAPUR
PADGHE
DHABOL
KOYNA
BARH
G'PUR
HOSUR
MYSORE
KUDANKULAM
M'PUR
KARANPURA
MAITHON
JAMSHEDPUR
PARLI
WARDA
BEARILLY
SALEM
GRID
XI PLAN
765 KV LINES IN X PLAN. TO BE CHARGED AT 400KV INITIALLY
TO BE CHARGED AT 765 KV UNDER NATIONAL GRID
National Grid by 2012
THE POWER
‘HIGHWAY’


Issues in Transmission Development
 Right-of-Way (ROW)

 Coordinated development of cost effective
Transmission corridor

 Flexibility in upgradation of transfer capacity matching
with power transfer requirement

 Optimization of investment

 Resettlement and Rehabilitation

 Non-discriminatory open access

 Utilisation of hydro potential in North-eastern Region

One 800kV line on a 64 meter wide
right-of-way can carry the same amount
of power as g a combined width of 184
m. 400 kV lines on four 48 m wide
rights-of-way, havin
64 M
184 M
Multi-conductor Bundle line
58
ROW = 85 Mts ROW = 64 Mts
140 meter tall tower
BY ANIL KUMAR
60