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2010 API Spring Refining and Equipment Standards Meeting

Differences Between API-2000 5th and 6th Editions


Brad Otis April 26, 2010

Agenda
Recent History Significant Differences o Normal Tank Venting o Internal Deflagration o Flame Propagation Through PVVs o Refrigerated Tank Venting o Testing of Venting Devices Path Forward

Recent History
API-2000 5th Edition o Published April 1998 o Work started on 6th edition ISO - 28300 o New work item submitted in June 2006 o Convert and update API-2000 into ISO Standard o FDIS 28300 submitted Jan 2008 o Memo highlighting differences issued o FDIS approved with no negative ballots API adopted-back in Dec 09 with no negative ballots Now working 2nd edition of ISO-28300 (API-2000 7th edition)

Significant Differences
Normal Tank Venting
EN 14015 Tank Venting o EN 14015 Tank design standard used in Europe o Venting model based on theory and validated via test o Applicable to any tank service, any temperature, and any size o Therefore placed in main body of ISO standard API-2000 5th Edition Tank Venting o Venting model based on theory with simplified assumptions o Applicable to hexane or similar services, temperature < 120 F, and tanks < 180,0000 bbls o Therefore placed in Annex A of ISO standard

EN-14015 Validation Test Tests and model calculations at Hoechst in 1980 and 1981 Tank: V = 617 m3; D = 8,5 m; H = 10,6 m 17 C T 26 C Water (rain) flow density: about 60 kg/m2h TRbF-model calculation

Significant Differences
Normal Tank Venting - continued Discussion o Both methods are acceptable when applied correctly o Both were included To fill gap where Annex A method does not apply To allow continued use of the Annex A method To ensure global support for the FDIS o EN-14015 vent loads can be higher than Annex A Calculations and comparison courtesy of Protego (USA) Inc.

Calculation Examples Tank 1


Tank: - Height: 5m - Diameter: 7m - Tank volume: 192.4 m3 - Pump in rate: 96 m3/h - Pump out rate: 96 m3/h - Vertical tank - No insulation - MAWP: 7.5 mbar - MAWV: 2.5 mbar

Inbreathing Requirements (Total) for Tank 1


Inbreathing requirements Tank 1 400 350

Venting requirements [m3/h]

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 API 2000 EN 14015, North, VP Hexane EN 14015, North, VP> Hexane EN 14015, 42- EN 14015, 4258, VP Hexane 58, VP> Hexane Pump out Thermal EN 14015, South, VP Hexane EN 14015, South, VP> Hexane TRbF 20

Outbreathing Requirements (Total) for Tank 1


Outbreathing requirements Tank 1
250

226
Venting requirements [m3/h]
200

150

116
100

117

123

130

H/D = 0.71

H/D = 0.5 H/D = 2

118

122
109

50

0 API 2000, FP <37.8C API 2000, FP >=37.8C EN 14015, North EN 14015, 4258 Pump in EN 14015, South Thermal TRbF 20 TRbF 20-2 TRbF 20-3

Overview Inbreathing Venting Requirements (thermal) Small tanks (<3,180 m3)


Comparision Venting Requirements for Thermal Inbreathing 2000 1800

Venting Requirements [m3/h]

1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 100 200 500 1000 2000 3180 Tank Volume [m3] API 2000 EN 14015, 42-58, VP Hexane, T<25C EN 14015, South, VP>Hexane, T>=25C EN 14015, North, VP Hexane, T<25C EN 14015, 42-58, VP>Hexane, T<25C TRbF 20 EN 14015, North, VP> Hexane, T>= 25C EN 14015, South, VP Hexane, T< 25C

Overview Inbreathing Venting Requirements (thermal) Large tanks (>3,180 m3)


Comparision Venting Requirements for Thermal Inbreathing 25000

Venting Requirements [m3/h]

20000

Outside scope of API 2000


15000

10000

5000

0 5000 10000 20000 Tank Volume [m3] API 2000 EN 14015, 42-58, VP Hexane, T<25C EN 14015, South, VP>Hexane, T>=25C EN 14015, North, VP Hexane, T<25C EN 14015, 42-58, VP>Hexane, T<25C TRbF 20 EN 14015, North, VP> Hexane, T>= 25C EN 14015, South, VP Hexane, T< 25C 50000 100000

Overview Outbreathing Venting Requirements (thermal) Small tanks (<3,180 m3)


Comparision Venting Requirements Outbreathing, Thermal 600

Venting Requirements [m3/h]

500

400

300

200

100

0 100 200 500 1000 2000 3180 Tank Volume [m3} API, FP<37.8C API, FP>37.8C EN 14015, North EN 14015, 42-58 EN 14015, South TRbF 20

Overview Outbreathing Venting Requirements (thermal) Large tanks (>3,180 m3)


Comparision Venting Requirements Outbreathing, Thermal 12000

10000

Venting Requirements [m3/h]

8000

Outside scope of API 2000


6000

4000

2000

0 5000 10000 20000 Tank Volume [m3} API, FP<37.8C API, FP>37.8C EN 14015, North EN 14015, 42-58 EN 14015, South TRbF 20 50000 100000

Significant Differences
Normal Tank Venting - continued Discussion o Operational experience with petroleum or petrochemical fluid storage tanks indicates that tank failures/damage due to vacuum have not been caused by inadequate venting when that relief system is designed using the method in this Annex o Tanks that meet the criteria in Annex A can have tank vents designed using the method shown in Annex A. o Tanks that dont meet the Annex A criteria, then the general method in 4.3.2.1 should be used. Questions?

Significant Differences
Internal Deflagration New section on tank internal deflagration Provides examples on how this may be mitigated Previously no home for this issue Detailed presentation on this on 4/28/10 at API-2000 meeting Questions?

Significant Differences
Flame Propagation Through PVV The 5th edition states A flame arrester is not considered necessary for use in conjunction with a PV valve venting to atmosphere because flame speeds are less than vapor velocities across the seats of PV. Recent controlled experiments have shown that flash back through a PVV is possible during very low unstable outflow conditions or if there is an external flammable vapor cloud that ignites with sufficient overpressure to lift the vacuum pallet.

Significant Differences
Flame Propagation Through PVV - continued API-2010 and NFPA-30 have language similar to what was stated in the 5th edition of API-2000 Until those standards are updated, there will appear to be an inconsistency on this issue. Questions?

Significant Differences
Refrigerated Tank Venting Completely re-written Previously was based on hexane Borrowed heavily from EN14620 and EN1473

Questions?

Significant Differences
Testing of Venting Devices New section to provide consistency in capacity testing Combination of API 2000 5th edition section 4.6 and EN 14015 Annex L.6.

Questions?

Path Forward
2nd Edition of ISO-28300 is being worked now Fall 2010 is deadline for submitting new items