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DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING SAROJ INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT

The visual aids support the air traffic control system for navigational help (landing and take off operations).The different type of visual aids are: Markings Signs Lights Markers

Air port markings helps the pilot in proper, efficient and safe use of the airport facilities. Airport markings can be grouped as: Runway markings Taxiway markings Other markings

Airport marking

Runway markings are of three catagories, i.e, visual marking, precision instrument marking, non-precision instrument marking. The table differentiate between the catagories.
No 1 2 3 4 5 Marking element Designation marking Centerline marking Threshold marking Aiming point marking Sides stripe marking Visual marking X X X1 X2 Non-precision marking X X X X Precision marking X X X X X

Note: 1) Used when runway intended to be use for international commercial transport. 2) Aiming point marking used by air jet on 1200m long runway.

Following markings are basically use on runway: Runway designation marking Runway center line marking Runway threshold marking Runway threshold bar marking Runway aiming point marking Runway side stripe marking Chevrons

Runway designation marking are located just after the threshold of a paved runway. Runway designation marking is basically a number and on parallel runway is suplemented with a letter. The number is basically the (1/10)th of the bearing with the north pole. Example: When the runway is located with 1800 degree with north pole, its designation number will be (180/10) 18.

Runway center line marking identifies the physical center of the runway and provide alignment guidance during take off and landing operations. It is located along the center of the runway through out the lenght. A runway center line marking shall consist of a line of uniformly spaced stripes and gapes.

Runway centerline marking

A threshold bar delineath the begenning of the runway that is available for landing. The threshold bar is 3m in width and extend across the width of the runway.

Threshold bar marking

Threshold marking identifies the begenning of the runway that is available for landing and take off operations. They are a series of parallel, longitudinal stripes across the width of the runway. In some instances the landing threshold may be relocated or displaced. The number of stripes shall be in accordance with the runway width as follows:

No 1 2 3 4 5

Runway width 18 23 30 45 60

Number of stripes 4 6 8 12 16

Runway aiming point markings provide guidance on where to land on the runway. Typically started 300m from the threshold of the runway. Aiming point marking consist of two rectangular stripe 45m in lenght and 9m wide. The lateral space between the inner side of the marking is 21.6m for a runway of width 45m.

Runway side stripe provide visual contrast between the runway and sorrounding terrian and delineath the width of the paved runway. Runway side stripe is a continouse stripe along the lenght on each side of the runway. Runway side stripe The minimum width of side stripe marking marking is 0.9m on 30m wide runway.

Chevron

marking are used to identify paved area unusable for landing and take off operation. Chevrons are located on paved runway that are contigoues to the runway. They are yellow in colour.

These markings identify the locations on a taxiway where an aircraft is supposed to stop when it does not have clearance to proceed onto the runway. They consist of four yellow lines two solid, and two dashed, extending across the width of the taxiway. The solid lines are always on the side where the aircraft is to hold.

Runway

shoulder marking are use to identify the paved area contagious to the runway sides that are not intended to be use by aircraft. Located between the runway side stripe marking and the runway paved edge.

Runway shoulder marking

The

yellow "X" denotes that the runway is closed to all operations: landing, takeoff and taxing.

Clouser marking

taxiway is a path on an airport connecting runways with ramps ,hangars, terminals and other facilities. They mostly have hard surface such as asphalt or concrete. Taxiway markings are yellow to differentiate it between white runway markings and the pavement.

Taxiway marking

Following marking are basically use on taxiways: Normal Centerline. Enhanced Centerline. Geographic Position Markings. Taxi Shoulder Markings. Taxiway Edge Markings.

The taxiway centerline is a single continuous yellow line that provides a visual clue to permit taxiing along a designated path. Its width is 0.5 to 1feet.

Taxiway centerline marking

The

enhanced taxiway centerline marking consists of a parallel line of yellow dashes on either side of the taxiway centerline. Taxiway centerlines are enhanced for 150 feet prior to a runway holding position marking.

Enhanced centerline marking

The

taxiway edge marking is used to delineate the taxiway edge from the shoulder or some other contiguous paved surface that is not intended for use by pilots. It is yellow in colour and consists of dual, continuous lines. Each line being at least 0.5feet in width and spaced 0.5feet apart.

Taxiway edge marking

These markings are installed when its necessary to identify the location of taxing during low visibility operation. Low visibility operation are those that occur when the runway visible range is below 360m. They are positioned to the left of the taxiway centerline in the direction of taxiing.

Geographic position marking

Taxiways,

holding bays, and aprons are sometimes provided with paved shoulders to prevent blast and water erosion. Shoulders are not intended for use by aircraft, and may be unable to carry the aircraft load. Taxiway shoulder markings are yellow lines perpendicular to taxiway edge.

Taxiway
shoulder marking

Taxi shoulder marking

The following marking can also be used on runway: Vehicular roadway marking VOR checkpoint marking Non-movement area boundary marking

The standard vehicle roadway markings are use to determine roadway located on or crossing area , that are also intended for use by aircraft. Vehicular roadways are delineated on runway when there is a need to define a path way for vehicle operations A minimum spacing of 0.67m must be maintained between the roadway edge marking and the non-movement area boundary marking. Vehicle road way markings are white.

VOR receiver check point markings allow the pilot to check aircraft instruments with navigational signals. A VOR aerodrome check point marking is located on the spot at which an aircraft is to be parked to receive the correct VOR signals. VOR reciever check points are provided with painted markings and an associated sign. VOR marking consist of a circle 6m in diameter and have a line width of 15cm.

Non-movement area boundary markings are used when there is a need to delineate the movement area. This marking should be used only when it is considered necessary. This marking consist of two yellow lines, one solid and one dashed line. Each line is 15cm in width with 15cm spacing between them. The dash are 1m in length with 1m spacing between them.