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Prepared by : Amirul Zakwan Evanna Devi Hanis Ayuni Kaarteeka Anbarasan

What is Behaviour Modification?

What is Behaviour?
Definition: Any glandular, chemical, electrical, or muscular response. Anything a person does.

What is Behaviour Modification?


General Definition: Systematic application of learning principles and techniques to assess and improve individuals covert and overt behaviors in order to help them function more fully in society.

Skinner : Principles of Behaviour Shaping


Skinners behaviourism suggests that people can be controlled by applying the correct rewards and punishments.

Characteristics of Behaviour Modification


Treatment focuses greatly on the environment. Methods and rationales can be described precisely. Most techniques are based on research on learning. Accountability is placed on everyone involved.

William Glasser : The Choice Theory

William Glasser : The Choice Theory


Was once called the Reality Theory, then was changed to the Control theory, then lastly named The Choice Theory. Behavior is caused not by an outside stimulus, but by what a person wants most at any given time

Control Theory
Glasser (1984) states that control is necessary for the psychological balance is ones life. It is a common trait of human beings to want control in their lives. In schools this is carried to such an extent that discipline itself is often seen as synonymous with control.

Glassers Control Theory suggests that one of the criteria that makes us psychologically healthy is possessing control in our life.

Glasser (1984) suggests that there are FOUR basic human needs. They are : - Love - Control - Freedom - Fun

Reality Therapy
Reality Therapy is a series of steps to help children understand the choices they are making. A teacher first tries to help the student identify the inappropriate behaviour of the student. Then the teacher helps the student identify the consequences of that behaviour.

THOMAS GORDON
1918 - 2002 Keys to Success

Use of coercive
damages relationships.

power

Gordon (1989) : Effective classroom


Gordon believes that classroom problems are teacher owned. Factors that characterise effective classrooms are : 1. Whole class instruction 2. Interactive group activities 3. Smooth activity flow

Gordon believes that when the lesson flow keeps the students attention without frequent interruptions, distractions, or diversions, there is less opportunity for offtask behaviour and less competition for student attention from what is external to the lesson.

Gordons Words:
Classroom discipline occurs best when children are able to use their inner sense of self control.

Gordons Words Cont.:


You acquire more influence with young people when you give up your power to control them the more you use your power to control people, the less real influence you will have in your life.

Skinners Approach
All we need to know in order to describe and explain behaviour is this: actions followed by good outcomes are likely to reoccur , and actions followed by bad outcomes are less likely to recur. (Skinner, 1953)

Laboratory Examples
Operant Conditioning
Exploring Scratching Pigeon (in a Skinner box) Key-pecking Grooming Defecating Urinating Reinforcement (food pellet)

OPERANT CONDITIONING TECHNIQUES

POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT = increasing a behaviour by administering a reward NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT = increasing a behaviour by removing an aversive stimulus when a behaviour occurs PUNISHMENT = decreasing a behaviour by administering an aversive stimulus following a behaviour OR by removing a positive stimulus EXTINCTION = decreasing a behaviour by not rewarding it

SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT
Interval schedules: reinforcement occurs after a certain amount of time has passed Fixed Interval = reinforcement is presented after a fixed amount of time Variable Interval = reinforcement is delivered on a random/variable time schedule Ratio schedules: reinforcement occurs after a certain number of responses Fixed Ratio = reinforcement presented after a fixed # of responses Variable Ratio = reinforcement delivery is variable but based on an overall average # of responses

LIMITED EFFECTS OF PUNISHMENT


Punishment does not teach appropriate behaviours Must be delivered immediately & consistently May result in negative side effects Undesirable behaviours may be learned through modeling (aggression) May create negative emotions (anxiety & fear)

HOW COMPLEX BEHAVIORS ARE LEARNED


Successive approximation/shaping = reinforcing behaviours as they come to approximate the desired behaviour Superstitious Behaviour = when persistent behaviours are reinforced coincidentally rather than functionally Self-control of behaviour Stimulus avoidance Self-administered satiation Aversive stimulation Self-reinforcement

William Glassers Choice Theory

We all make choices according to basic needs that come from within ourselves. The needs drive our choices and influence how we behave in those choices.

5 Basic Needs
(according to Glasser)

o Fun o Freedom o Power o Belonging o Survival

The need for pleasure To play To laugh Naturally motivating No one has to bribe you to do these things

Try to imagine life without fun

The need for independence For autonomy For control over ones own life For choice

Some students have had little experience with choice

Empowerment The need to achieve To be recognized for achievement/skills To have a sense of self-worth To contribute

What makes your students feel valued?

The need for love For relationships Social connection Part of a group

In schools, we must work to make students (parents, teachers) feel they belong

Physiological The need for food, shelter, safety Safe from bullying

Schools should be a safe environment from bodily harm, mental or physical intimidation, abuse.

Gordons Behaviour Window


Students behaviour is causing a problem for the student only STUDENT OWNS THE PROBLEM Students behaviour is not causing a problem for either student or teacher NO PROBLEM EXISTS Students behaviour is causing a problem for the teacher TEACHER OWNS THE PROBLEM

Behaviour Window Skills


Confrontive Skills- when teacher owns the problems
Modify the environment through enrichment or limiting distracters Identify and respond to teachers own primary feeling of worry, disappointment, or fear that may be bringing anger to the situation Send I-messages instead of you-messages Shift gears by attentive listening when students become defensive Use the no-lose method of conflict resolution

Behaviour Window Skills


Helping Skills- when the student owns the problem
Use listening skills-passive listening, acknowledgement, door openers, active listening Avoid communication roadblocks

Preventive Skills- when no problem exists


Use preventive I-messages Use participative management in solving and making decisions

B.F Skinner Burrhus Frederic Skinner

Strengths of Skinners Theory -Behaviour Modification Emphasis behaviours, on measuring of observable unobservable instead

constructs (unconscious) Helps shaping behaviour Practical usage of theory applicable in classrooms

Weaknesses of Skinners theory


Behaviour is more than stimulus-response (Skinner focuses on stimulus response) Behaviour is not totally determined by externals (actions) Overly explanation for human behaviours. (Rigid)

THOMAS GORDON

STRENGTHS OF GORDONS THEORY


Popularised the no-lose method of conflict resolution Identified roadblocks to communication that suppress students willingness to discuss problems Demonstrated how to clarify problems, determine ownership, and deal with problems

DISADVANTAGES
Rewards bring disadvantages because: Students become concerned only with the reward, not with good behaviour When rewards are removed, students revert to improper behaviour When students accustomed to rewards do not receive them, they feel they are being punished

Punishment is also ineffective because:


It makes students feel belittled, hostile, and angry It decreases student desire to cooperate It teaches that might makes right

William Glasser

ADVANTAGES
Focusing on acting and thinking reduce resistance to counseling Allowing for a wide range of acceptable behaviors to satisfy needs

Action and commitment to follow through

are the core of the therapeutic process


Accepting personal responsibility Gaining more effective control Focusing on what they can do in the present to change their behaviour

DISADVANTAGES
Not give enough emphasis to
Feelings Unconscious Dream Transference the effect of early childhood experiences, the power of the past to influence ones present personality.

Application in classroom should focus on 1) Reinforcements - Positive reinforcements - Negative reinforcements 2) Punishments

Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement and Punishment


Positive reinforcement: Strengthen response by providing desirable rewards
Ex: Token economy

Negative reinforcement: Strengthen response by removing aversive stimuli


Ex: Prisoners-early release for good behavior

Punishment: Use aversive stimulus following response to decrease likelihood of behaviour in the future

Applying Operant Conditioning: Behaviour Modification


Behaviour modification: apply principles of reinforcement to bring about behavioural changes Token economy: tokens given as reinforcement for positive behaviours, later redeem tokens for rewards

WILLIAM GLASSER
Focus on the present
- Avoid discussing the past

Stay away form criticising and blaming


- may destroy relationships Remain nonjudgmental Show patience and support to troubled individuals

For younger children (students)


1. What did you do? 2. What is our rule about this? 3. Was what you did against our rule? 4. What were you supposed to do? 5. What are you going to do next time

2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning

Questions to ponder (teacher)


1. What are you doing? 2. Is what you are doing helping you get what you want?

3. If not, what might be some other things you could try?


4. Which idea would you like to try first? 5. When?
2011 Brooks/Cole, A Division of Cengage Learning

THOMAS GORDON
Ordering, Commanding & Directing (fear & resentment) Warning or threatening (Fear, Submission & Hostility) Moralising & preaching (guilt feelings) Advising, Giving solutions or suggestions (feeling misunderstood )

Lecturing, Teaching, giving logical arguments


(Feeling of inadequacy or defensiveness) Analysing, Diagnosing & Interpreting Praising, agreeing , Giving positive evaluations Reassuring, Sympathising, Consoling

Questioning & Interrogating