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Design and Construction

BY- Prerona Das 10010744


Pritom Sharma 10010745
Rijumoni Boro 10010746
Rohitash Meena 10010747

Introduction
A heat exchanger is a device in which two fluid streams, one
hot and another cold, are brought into thermal contact in order
to effect transfer of heat from the hot fluid stream to the cold.
It provides relatively large area of heat transfer for a given
volume of the equipment.
They are in frequent use in the chemical process industries as
well as in the refrigeration,cryogenic,waste-heat recovery,
metallurgical and manufacturing applications.
The driving force for the operation of a heat exchanger is the
temperature difference between the fluids.
The Indian code for heat exchanger design is I S 4503 and the
British code is BS 3274.
The heat exchanger design code for mechanical design
calculations is TEMA (US code).




Basis of
classification
Contacting
technique

Construction
Surface
compactness
Flow
arrangement
Classification of heat exchangers
H
Indirect contact
Heat
exchangers
Direct contact
Tubular [double-pipe, shell and tube, spiral tube]
Plate [plate and frame (gasketed and welded plate),
spiral plate]
Extended surface [plate-fin, tube-fin]
Regenerative
Single pass [parallel flow, counter-flow, cross flow]
Multi-pass [parallel flow, counter-flow, split-flow,
divided flow]
Non-compact [surface area density < 700 m2/m3]
Compact [surface area density > 700 m2/m3]
Contacting technique
Construction
Flow arrangement
Surface compactness
Fig: Classification of heat exchangers
TEMA
Heat
Exchanger



Tubular Exchanger Manufactures
Association(TEMA) is the most
widely used standard or
stipulated heat exchanger design
code.This is a US code and is
used together with ASME Section
VIII(for the design of unfired
pressure vessels).The TEMA code
specifies the mechanical design
procedure, tolerances allowed and
the dimensions of the various parts
of an exchanger.

Front Head Type
A-Type B-Type C-Type
Shell type
E-Type
F-Type
J-Type K-Type
Rear End Head Types
M-Type
Fixed Tubesheet
S-Type
Floating Head
T-Type
Pull-Through
Floating Head
Double pipe heat
exchanger
A typical double pipe heat
exchanger basically consists of a
tube or pipe fixed concentrically
inside a larger pipe or tube.
They are used when the flow rates
of the fluids and the heat duty are
small (less than 500 kW).
These are simple to construct, but
may require a lot of physical space
to achieve the desired heat transfer
area.

Construction of double pipe
Straight construction

It has single sections of inner and outer pipes.
It requires more space.
Hairpin construction
It has two sections each of the inner and outer pipes.
It is more convenient because it requires less space.
Several hairpins may be connected in series to obtain large
heat transfer area.
All the return bends of the inner pipe are kept outside the
jacket and do not contribute to the heat transfer area.
Hairpin heat exchanger
Components
Packing & gland
The packing and gland provides sealing to the annulus and support
the inner pipe.
Return bend
The opposite ends are joined by a U-bend through welded joints.
Support lugs
Support lugs may be fitted at these ends to hold the inner pipe
position.
Flange
The outer pipes are joined by flanges at the return ends in order that
the assembly may be opened or dismantled for cleaning and
maintenance.
Union joint
For joining the inner tube with U-bend.

Flow arrangements
Co-current flow
(Fluids flow in same direction)
Counter-current flow
(Fluids flow in opposite direction)
The Dirt factor or Fouling factor
Deposition of any undesired material on heat transfer surfaces
is called fouling, and the heat transfer resistance offered by the
deposit is called the fouling factor or dirt factor, commonly
denoted by Rd.
Fouling increases the overall thermal resistance and lowers the
overall heat transfer coefficient of heat exchangers.
The fouling factor is zero for a new heat exchanger.
It can be only be determined from experimental data on heat
transfer coefficient of a fouled exchanger and a clean
exchanger of similar design operated at identical conditions.




Types of fouling
Chemical fouling Corrosion fouling
Crystallization fouling
Biological fouling
Log MeanTemperature
evaluation
|
|
.
|

\
|
A
A
A A
= A
1
2
1 2
ln
T
T
T T
T
Ln
T 1
T 2
A
A
1 2
T 1
T 2
T 4 T 5
T 6
T 3
T 7
T 8 T 9
T 10
P ara ll e l Fl ow
7 3 1
T T T T T
in
c
in
h
= = A
10 6 2
T T T T T
out
c
out
h
= = A
Co-current flow
T
1

A
1 2
T
2

T
3

T
6

T
4

T
6

T
7

T
8

T
9

T
10

Wall
T 1
T 2
T 4 T 5
T 3
T 7
T 8 T 9
T 10
T 6
Co un t e r - C u r re n t F l ow
10 6 2
T T T T T
in
c
out
h
= = A
7 3 1
T T T T T
out
c
in
h
= = A
Counter-current flow
Log Mean Temperature
Difference Correction Factor
The Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference(LMTD) is
valid only for heat exchanger with one shell pass and one
tube pass. For multiple number of shell and tube passes
the flow pattern in a heat exchanger is neither purely co-
current nor purely counter-current. Hence to account for
geometric irregularity, Logarithmic Mean Temperature
Difference (LMTD) has to be multiplied by a Mean
Temperature Difference (MTD) correction factor(F) to
obtain the Corrected Mean Temperature Difference
(Corrected MTD) or the effective driving force.



Where,
LMTD = Log mean temperature
difference
CLMTD = Corrected Log mean
temperature difference
F = Correction factor
T
h1
= hot fluid inlet temperature
T
h2
= hot fluid outlet temperature
T
c1
= cold fluid inlet temperature
T
c2
= cold fluid outlet
temperature
N = number of shell passes = shell
passes per shell x number of shell
units in series
P = temperature efficiency
R=capacity ratio
X=temperature ratio
Overall Heat Transfer
coefficients
Calculate convective heat transfer coefficient for tube side (hi).
Calculate convective heat transfer coefficient for shell side (ho).
Outside surface area of tube (Ao)
Inside surface area of tube (Ai )
Mean surface area (Am)
Based on the outside tube area, clean overall heat transfer coefficient
becomes
1/Uo = 1/ho + (Ao/Am) x (ro - ri / kw) + Ao/Ai(1/hi)
Based on the outside tube area,the relation for the overall heat
transfer coefficient becomes
1/Ud = 1/ho +Rdo + (Ao/Am) x (ro - ri / kw) + (Ao /Ai) x Rdi +
Ao /Ai(1/hi)





Energy Balance and Heat duty
The Heat transfer rate taking into account the fouling or the dirt
factor and LMTD correction factor is as follows:
Q = UdAFTTm
Where,
Ud = the overall heat transfer coefficient that takes into
account the fouling or the dirt factor Rd.
FT Tm = the true temperature difference.
If U is the clean overall coefficient, then by addition of heat
resistances, we have
1/Ud = (1/U) + Rd
Overall resistance of the fouled exchanger = overall resistance of
the clean exchanger + heat transfer resistance due to dirt or
scaling on both sides of the tube.


An overall heat balance for the counter current double-pipe exchanger
may be written as follows:
Q=WcCpc(Tc1-Tc2) = Wh Cph(Th1-Th2)
Where, c=cold fluid T=Temperature
h=hot fluid Q=Heat duty or load duty of exchanger
Cp=Specific heat W=Flow rate of a stream
In this calculation, the heat exchange (gain or loss) with the ambient
medium, if any, is neglected.
Pressure drop calculations
where,
f = friction factor
Gt = mass velocity of the fluid
L = length of the tube, m
g =9.8m/s
2
pt = density of tube fluid
di= inside diameter of tube
n =the number of tube passes
t = dimensionless viscosity ratio
Pt =pressure drop
t=(viscosity at bulk temperature/viscosity at wall temperature)^m
where m=0.14 for Re > 2100 and m= 0.25 for Re < 2100

Tube-side pressure drop
In a multi-pass exchanger, in addition to frictional loss the head
loss known as return loss has to be taken into account.
The pressure drop owing to the return loss is given by-
Where,
n=the number of tube passes
V=linear velocity of the tube fluid
The total tube-side pressure drop is
PT = Pt + Pr
Shell-side pressure drop
For an unbaffled shell the following equation may be used
Where,
L=shell length, m
N=number of the shell passes
ps=shell fluid velocity, m/s
Gs=shell-side mass velocity, kg/m2 s
DH=hydraulic diameter of the shell, m

s=viscosity correction factor for the shell-side fluid
Where,
do=the outer diameter of the tube, m
Ds=the inside diameter of the shell, m
Nt=the number of tubes in the shell
and

For a shell with segmented baffles,
Where,
Nb=the number of baffles
DH=the hydraulic diameter of the shell, m

The Reynolds number of the shell-side flow is given by

The Design Procedure
Calculate the log mean driving force, LMTD.
Select the diameters of the inner and outer pipes.If the
allowable pressure drops for the individual streams are
given,they may provide a basis for selection of the pipe
diameters.
Calculate the inner fluid Reynolds number; estimate the
heat transfer coefficient hi from the Dittus-Boelter
equation or from jH factor chart.
Nu = hidi/k = 0.023(Re)
0.8
(Pr)
0.3

Calculate the Reynolds number of the outer fluid flowing
through the annulus.Use the equivalent diameter of the
annulus.Estimate the outside heat transfer coefficient ho
using the equation or the chart mentioned above.
Calculate the clean overall heat transfer coefficient;
calculate the design overall coefficient Ud using a suitable
value of the dirt factor.
Calculate the heat transfer area A(for a counter flow
double-pipe exchanger LMTD correction factor, F=1
Determine the length of the pipe that will provide the
required heat transfer area.If the length is large use a
number of hairpins in series.
Calculate the pressure drop of the fluids.Use the Reynolds
number calculated above to determine the friction factor.


Shell and tube
heat exchanger
Shell and tube heat
exhangers are one of the
most common heat exchange
equipment found in all plants.
They are the most versatile
type of heat exchangers.
This type provides a large heat transfer surface in a small space.
They can operate at high pressures, are easy to clean and can be made
of a wide variety of materials.




Components
Shell
fluid in
Tube
fluid out
15
16
1-Channel cover
2-Stationary head channel
3-Channel flange
4-Pass partition plate
5- Tube sheet
6-Shell flange
7-Tube
8-Shell


9-Baffles
10-Floating head backing device
11-Floating tube sheet
12-Floating head
13-Floating head flange
14-Stationary head bonnet
15-Heat exchanger support
16-Shell expansion joint
Shell-fluid
nozzle
Tube
fluid in
Shell fluid
out
The shell [item 8]
The shell is the enclosure and passage of the shell-side fluid.
It has a circular cross-section.
The selection of the material depends upon the corrosiveness of
the fluid and the working temperature and pressure.
Carbon steel is a common material for the shell under moderate
working conditions.
The tubes [item 7]
The tubes provide the heat transfer area in a shell and tube heat
exchanger.
Tubes of 19mm and 25mm diameter are more commonly used.
The tube wall thickness is designated in terms of BWG
(Birmingham wire gauge).
Tubes are generally arranged in a triangular or square pitch.





The tube sheets [item 5]
The tube sheets are circular, thick metal plates which hold the
tubes at the ends.
The arrangement of tubes on a tube sheet in a suitable pitch is
called tube-sheet layout.
Two common techniques of fixing the ends of a tube to the tube
sheet are: (i)expanded joints and (ii) welded joints.
A few common joints between the tube and the tube sheet:
(a)Grooved joint (b)Plain joint (c)Belled or beaded joint (d)Welded
joint



The bonnet and the channel [item 14 and 2]
The closure of heat exchanger is called bonnet or channel
depending upon its shape and construction.
A bonnet has an integral cover and a channel closure has a
removable cover.
The bonnet closure consists of a short cylindrical section with a
bonnet welded at one end and a flange welded at the other end.
The bonnet-type closure is replaced by a channel-type closure if a
nozzle is required to be fitted.
The pass partition plate [item 4]
The channel is divided into compartments by a pass partition
plate.
The number of tube and shell-side passes can be increased by
using more pass partition plates for both the sides.
The number of passes in either the shell or the tube side indicates
the number of times the shell or the tube side fluid traverses the




length of the exchanger.
For a given number of tubes, the area available for flow of the
tube-side fluid is inversely proportional to the number of passes.
An even number of passes on any side is generally used (For
example,1-2,1-4,2-4,2-6 etc; 1-3,2-5 etc are not used).



2-4 pass heat exchanger
1-2 pass heat exchanger
Nozzles
Nozzles are small sections of pipes welded to the shell or the
channel which act as the inlet or outlet of the fluids.
The shell-side inlet nozzle is often provided with an
impingement plate.
The impingement plate prevents impact of the high velocity inlet
fluid stream on the tube bundle.



Fig: Two types of impingement
plates.

A-The plates
B-Expanded nozzle
C-Nozzle flange
Baffles [item 9]
A baffle is a metal plate usually in the form of the segment of a
circle having holes to accommodate tubes.
Segmental baffle is the most popular type of baffle.
Functions of shell-side baffles-(i)to cause changes in the flow
pattern of the shell fluid creating parallel or cross flow to the tube
bundle and (ii)to support the tubes.
A few types of baffles:


Disc and doughnut baffle
Rod baffle
Baffle cut
Baffle cut orientation
Segmented baffles
Tie rods and baffle spacers
Tie rods having threaded ends are used to hold the baffles in
position.
The baffle spacers maintain the distance or spacing between
successive baffles.
Flanges and gaskets [item 13]
The flanges fixes the bonnet and the channel closures to the tube
sheets.
Gaskets are placed between two flanges to make the joint leak-
free.
Expansion joint [item 16]
The expansion joint prevents the problem of thermal stress which
may occur when there is a substantial difference of expansion
between the shell and the tubes because of the temperature
difference between the two fluid streams.

Tube Layout
Design Procedure
Perform the energy balance and calculate the exchanger
heat duty.
Obtain the necessary thermo physical property at mean
temperature (If the variation of viscosity is large then we
would do the same at the caloric temperature of hot and
cold fluid).
Select the tentative number of shell and tube passes;
calculate the LMTD and the correction factor F
T.

Assume a reasonable value of U
d
on outside tube area
basis. This is available in the literature.




Select tube diameter, its wall thickness(in terms of BWG or
SWG) and the tube length. Calculate the number of tubes
required to provide the area A calculated above.
Select the type, size, number and spacing of baffles.
Estimate the tube side and shell side heat transfer coefficient.
Calculate the clean overall coefficient U, select the dirt factor,
and then calculate U
d
and the area on the basis of U
d.

Now compare the U
d
and the area to that assumed earlier. If the
configuration gives 10% excess area than its fine. Otherwise
the configuration has to be changed.
Calculate the tube side and shell side pressure drop. If pressure
drop value is more than corresponding allowable value then
further adjustment in configuration will be necessary.