\

A
A
A A
= A
1
2
1 2
ln
T
T
T T
T
Ln
T 1
T 2
A
A
1 2
T 1
T 2
T 4 T 5
T 6
T 3
T 7
T 8 T 9
T 10
P ara ll e l Fl ow
7 3 1
T T T T T
in
c
in
h
= = A
10 6 2
T T T T T
out
c
out
h
= = A
Cocurrent flow
T
1
A
1 2
T
2
T
3
T
6
T
4
T
6
T
7
T
8
T
9
T
10
Wall
T 1
T 2
T 4 T 5
T 3
T 7
T 8 T 9
T 10
T 6
Co un t e r  C u r re n t F l ow
10 6 2
T T T T T
in
c
out
h
= = A
7 3 1
T T T T T
out
c
in
h
= = A
Countercurrent flow
Log Mean Temperature
Difference Correction Factor
The Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference(LMTD) is
valid only for heat exchanger with one shell pass and one
tube pass. For multiple number of shell and tube passes
the flow pattern in a heat exchanger is neither purely co
current nor purely countercurrent. Hence to account for
geometric irregularity, Logarithmic Mean Temperature
Difference (LMTD) has to be multiplied by a Mean
Temperature Difference (MTD) correction factor(F) to
obtain the Corrected Mean Temperature Difference
(Corrected MTD) or the effective driving force.
Where,
LMTD = Log mean temperature
difference
CLMTD = Corrected Log mean
temperature difference
F = Correction factor
T
h1
= hot fluid inlet temperature
T
h2
= hot fluid outlet temperature
T
c1
= cold fluid inlet temperature
T
c2
= cold fluid outlet
temperature
N = number of shell passes = shell
passes per shell x number of shell
units in series
P = temperature efficiency
R=capacity ratio
X=temperature ratio
Overall Heat Transfer
coefficients
Calculate convective heat transfer coefficient for tube side (hi).
Calculate convective heat transfer coefficient for shell side (ho).
Outside surface area of tube (Ao)
Inside surface area of tube (Ai )
Mean surface area (Am)
Based on the outside tube area, clean overall heat transfer coefficient
becomes
1/Uo = 1/ho + (Ao/Am) x (ro  ri / kw) + Ao/Ai(1/hi)
Based on the outside tube area,the relation for the overall heat
transfer coefficient becomes
1/Ud = 1/ho +Rdo + (Ao/Am) x (ro  ri / kw) + (Ao /Ai) x Rdi +
Ao /Ai(1/hi)
Energy Balance and Heat duty
The Heat transfer rate taking into account the fouling or the dirt
factor and LMTD correction factor is as follows:
Q = UdAFTTm
Where,
Ud = the overall heat transfer coefficient that takes into
account the fouling or the dirt factor Rd.
FT Tm = the true temperature difference.
If U is the clean overall coefficient, then by addition of heat
resistances, we have
1/Ud = (1/U) + Rd
Overall resistance of the fouled exchanger = overall resistance of
the clean exchanger + heat transfer resistance due to dirt or
scaling on both sides of the tube.
An overall heat balance for the counter current doublepipe exchanger
may be written as follows:
Q=WcCpc(Tc1Tc2) = Wh Cph(Th1Th2)
Where, c=cold fluid T=Temperature
h=hot fluid Q=Heat duty or load duty of exchanger
Cp=Specific heat W=Flow rate of a stream
In this calculation, the heat exchange (gain or loss) with the ambient
medium, if any, is neglected.
Pressure drop calculations
where,
f = friction factor
Gt = mass velocity of the fluid
L = length of the tube, m
g =9.8m/s
2
pt = density of tube fluid
di= inside diameter of tube
n =the number of tube passes
t = dimensionless viscosity ratio
Pt =pressure drop
t=(viscosity at bulk temperature/viscosity at wall temperature)^m
where m=0.14 for Re > 2100 and m= 0.25 for Re < 2100
Tubeside pressure drop
In a multipass exchanger, in addition to frictional loss the head
loss known as return loss has to be taken into account.
The pressure drop owing to the return loss is given by
Where,
n=the number of tube passes
V=linear velocity of the tube fluid
The total tubeside pressure drop is
PT = Pt + Pr
Shellside pressure drop
For an unbaffled shell the following equation may be used
Where,
L=shell length, m
N=number of the shell passes
ps=shell fluid velocity, m/s
Gs=shellside mass velocity, kg/m2 s
DH=hydraulic diameter of the shell, m
s=viscosity correction factor for the shellside fluid
Where,
do=the outer diameter of the tube, m
Ds=the inside diameter of the shell, m
Nt=the number of tubes in the shell
and
For a shell with segmented baffles,
Where,
Nb=the number of baffles
DH=the hydraulic diameter of the shell, m
The Reynolds number of the shellside flow is given by
The Design Procedure
Calculate the log mean driving force, LMTD.
Select the diameters of the inner and outer pipes.If the
allowable pressure drops for the individual streams are
given,they may provide a basis for selection of the pipe
diameters.
Calculate the inner fluid Reynolds number; estimate the
heat transfer coefficient hi from the DittusBoelter
equation or from jH factor chart.
Nu = hidi/k = 0.023(Re)
0.8
(Pr)
0.3
Calculate the Reynolds number of the outer fluid flowing
through the annulus.Use the equivalent diameter of the
annulus.Estimate the outside heat transfer coefficient ho
using the equation or the chart mentioned above.
Calculate the clean overall heat transfer coefficient;
calculate the design overall coefficient Ud using a suitable
value of the dirt factor.
Calculate the heat transfer area A(for a counter flow
doublepipe exchanger LMTD correction factor, F=1
Determine the length of the pipe that will provide the
required heat transfer area.If the length is large use a
number of hairpins in series.
Calculate the pressure drop of the fluids.Use the Reynolds
number calculated above to determine the friction factor.
Shell and tube
heat exchanger
Shell and tube heat
exhangers are one of the
most common heat exchange
equipment found in all plants.
They are the most versatile
type of heat exchangers.
This type provides a large heat transfer surface in a small space.
They can operate at high pressures, are easy to clean and can be made
of a wide variety of materials.
Components
Shell
fluid in
Tube
fluid out
15
16
1Channel cover
2Stationary head channel
3Channel flange
4Pass partition plate
5 Tube sheet
6Shell flange
7Tube
8Shell
9Baffles
10Floating head backing device
11Floating tube sheet
12Floating head
13Floating head flange
14Stationary head bonnet
15Heat exchanger support
16Shell expansion joint
Shellfluid
nozzle
Tube
fluid in
Shell fluid
out
The shell [item 8]
The shell is the enclosure and passage of the shellside fluid.
It has a circular crosssection.
The selection of the material depends upon the corrosiveness of
the fluid and the working temperature and pressure.
Carbon steel is a common material for the shell under moderate
working conditions.
The tubes [item 7]
The tubes provide the heat transfer area in a shell and tube heat
exchanger.
Tubes of 19mm and 25mm diameter are more commonly used.
The tube wall thickness is designated in terms of BWG
(Birmingham wire gauge).
Tubes are generally arranged in a triangular or square pitch.
The tube sheets [item 5]
The tube sheets are circular, thick metal plates which hold the
tubes at the ends.
The arrangement of tubes on a tube sheet in a suitable pitch is
called tubesheet layout.
Two common techniques of fixing the ends of a tube to the tube
sheet are: (i)expanded joints and (ii) welded joints.
A few common joints between the tube and the tube sheet:
(a)Grooved joint (b)Plain joint (c)Belled or beaded joint (d)Welded
joint
The bonnet and the channel [item 14 and 2]
The closure of heat exchanger is called bonnet or channel
depending upon its shape and construction.
A bonnet has an integral cover and a channel closure has a
removable cover.
The bonnet closure consists of a short cylindrical section with a
bonnet welded at one end and a flange welded at the other end.
The bonnettype closure is replaced by a channeltype closure if a
nozzle is required to be fitted.
The pass partition plate [item 4]
The channel is divided into compartments by a pass partition
plate.
The number of tube and shellside passes can be increased by
using more pass partition plates for both the sides.
The number of passes in either the shell or the tube side indicates
the number of times the shell or the tube side fluid traverses the
length of the exchanger.
For a given number of tubes, the area available for flow of the
tubeside fluid is inversely proportional to the number of passes.
An even number of passes on any side is generally used (For
example,12,14,24,26 etc; 13,25 etc are not used).
24 pass heat exchanger
12 pass heat exchanger
Nozzles
Nozzles are small sections of pipes welded to the shell or the
channel which act as the inlet or outlet of the fluids.
The shellside inlet nozzle is often provided with an
impingement plate.
The impingement plate prevents impact of the high velocity inlet
fluid stream on the tube bundle.
Fig: Two types of impingement
plates.
AThe plates
BExpanded nozzle
CNozzle flange
Baffles [item 9]
A baffle is a metal plate usually in the form of the segment of a
circle having holes to accommodate tubes.
Segmental baffle is the most popular type of baffle.
Functions of shellside baffles(i)to cause changes in the flow
pattern of the shell fluid creating parallel or cross flow to the tube
bundle and (ii)to support the tubes.
A few types of baffles:
Disc and doughnut baffle
Rod baffle
Baffle cut
Baffle cut orientation
Segmented baffles
Tie rods and baffle spacers
Tie rods having threaded ends are used to hold the baffles in
position.
The baffle spacers maintain the distance or spacing between
successive baffles.
Flanges and gaskets [item 13]
The flanges fixes the bonnet and the channel closures to the tube
sheets.
Gaskets are placed between two flanges to make the joint leak
free.
Expansion joint [item 16]
The expansion joint prevents the problem of thermal stress which
may occur when there is a substantial difference of expansion
between the shell and the tubes because of the temperature
difference between the two fluid streams.
Tube Layout
Design Procedure
Perform the energy balance and calculate the exchanger
heat duty.
Obtain the necessary thermo physical property at mean
temperature (If the variation of viscosity is large then we
would do the same at the caloric temperature of hot and
cold fluid).
Select the tentative number of shell and tube passes;
calculate the LMTD and the correction factor F
T.
Assume a reasonable value of U
d
on outside tube area
basis. This is available in the literature.
Select tube diameter, its wall thickness(in terms of BWG or
SWG) and the tube length. Calculate the number of tubes
required to provide the area A calculated above.
Select the type, size, number and spacing of baffles.
Estimate the tube side and shell side heat transfer coefficient.
Calculate the clean overall coefficient U, select the dirt factor,
and then calculate U
d
and the area on the basis of U
d.
Now compare the U
d
and the area to that assumed earlier. If the
configuration gives 10% excess area than its fine. Otherwise
the configuration has to be changed.
Calculate the tube side and shell side pressure drop. If pressure
drop value is more than corresponding allowable value then
further adjustment in configuration will be necessary.