You are on page 1of 11

Industrial-Organizational Psychology Learning Module

Leadership and Gender Stereotypes


Prepared by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology - SIOP 1998

Lesson Objectives
At the end of this lecture you should:

Understand the leadership perceptions approach Understand how gender stereotyping in organizations affects perceptions of leaders Know some of the methods used to control stereotyping in organizations
Prepared by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology - SIOP 1998

Leadership Perceptions

Leadership is hard to define


but

we know it when we see it!

Leadership Perceptions Approach


people

must first be recognized as leaders. then they are allowed to influence followers. followers determine the ultimate success of leaders.

Prepared by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology - SIOP 1998

General Model of Leadership Perceptions

Leader behavior determines follower perceptions, which are associated with positive or negative outcomes. Outcomes such as success can also serve to shape follower perceptions. General Model:
Leader Behavior Follower Perceptions Individual, Group, and Organizational Outcomes

Prepared by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology - SIOP 1998

Gender and Leadership Perceptions


Leader Behavior

Follower Perceptions

Individual, Group, and Organizational Outcomes

Identical behavior from men and women is interpreted differently. Perceivers attach different labels to the same behaviors enacted by men and women. One reason is because of gender stereotypes.
Prepared by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology - SIOP 1998

Gender Stereotypes and Leadership Perceptions


Stereotypes are expectations about members of certain groups. Gender-based stereotypes include beliefs about: expected interpersonal behavior the types of roles or jobs best suited for men and women. The role of gender stereotypes in employment was at issue in Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins.
Prepared by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology - SIOP 1998

Gender Stereotypes and Leadership Perceptions


Ann B. Hopkins was a high-performing, but masculine acting, prospective partner at PW. Hopkins alleged she was denied partnership because of her gender. PW countered that Hopkins had interpersonal problems (e.g., she was "macho"). Court eventually ruled that gender-based stereotyping influenced perceptions of her behavior. Because she was a woman in a nontraditional role, Hopkins' behavior was seen as more extreme than men who behaved similarly.
Prepared by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology - SIOP 1998

Controlling our Stereotyping

Everyone (or nearly everyone) engages in stereotyping. Most recognize it is inappropriate to judge others based on a stereotype. How can we learn to control our stereotyping? One way is through conscious control.

Prepared by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology - SIOP 1998

How do I/O psychologists help organizations control stereotyping?

Identifying organizational consequences that gender and race stereotyping have Training employees to gather individuating information about the stereotyped person
getting

to know the person as an individual understanding benefits of diversity

Training employers to effectively manage diversity Helping to minimize the effects of stereotyping and unfair treatment of employees
Prepared by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology - SIOP 1998

Sharing Perceptions

How would you describe each of these leaders? Was either of them more bossy or dominating? Which of the leaders had greater skill, ability, or intelligence? Did they both fit your image of a leader? Why or why not?

Prepared by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology - SIOP 1998

Sharing Perceptions (cont.)

Previous research indicates that the same behavior by men and women leaders results in different perceptions. Women are seen as more bossy and dominating. Men are seen as having greater ability, skill, and intelligence. Gender stereotypes influence our reactions, even without our awareness.
Prepared by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology - SIOP 1998