You are on page 1of 21

Rotary Wing AERODYNAMICS

Aerodynamics

Airfoil Force Vectors

Aerodynamics

Aerodynamic Terms
Rotational Relative Wind
Opposes Direction of Blade Rotation in Tip Path Plane

Induced Flow
Vertical Component of Airflow Drawn Through the Rotor System

Resultant Relative Wind


Actual ind that Acts on the Airfoil (Vector Sum of Rotational Relative Wind & Induced Flow)

Angle of Incidence
Angle Between Chord !ine " Rotational Relati#e $Tip Path Plane%
Aerodynamics

ind
3

Aerodynamic Terms (Cont)


Angle of Attack
Angle Between Chord !ine " Resultant Relati#e ind

Lift
Acts Perpendicular to Resultant Relati#e ind

Drag
Acts Parallel " Opposite to Resultant Relati#e ind

otal Aerodynamic Force


Vector Sum of Airfoil !ift " Drag

Aerodynamics

Lift
"ressure Differential
Between &pper " !ower Airfoil Surfaces Creates !ift

Lift #$uation

L = 2 V 2 SC L

%am&ered Airfoil in "ositive Lift

Aerodynamics

Drag
y(es of Drag
' Induced) Caused (y the Production of !ift ' "arasite) All Drag )ot Caused (y !ift
* "rofile) Parasitic Drag of Rotor Blades Passing Through the Air

Drag #$uation

D = 2 V 2 SC D

Largest %ontri&utor to otal Drag


' Low *(eed) +nduced Drag ' +ig, *(eed) Parasite,Profile Drag

Aerodynamics

'

Helicopter Drag vs. Airspeed

Aerodynamics

Airflow At A Hover - OGE

Aerodynamics

Airflow At A Hover - IGE

Aerodynamics

Translating Tendency
endency of Aircraft to Drift In t,e Direction of ail Rotor ,rust at a +over

%om(ensated for &y 1i2ing 3nit 4 "ilot In(ut

Aerodynamics

10

Dissymmetry of Lift
Difference in Lift Associated wit, t,e Advancing 4 Retreating *ides of t,e Rotor *ystem %om(ensated for &y 5lade Fla((ing 4 %yclic Feat,ering

Aerodynamics

11

Blade Flapping
3(6Down 1ovement of t,e Rotor 5lade A&out A Fla((ing +inge %auses 5low&ack 7Rearward ilt of Rotor Disk8

Aerodynamics

12

Blade Lead & Lag (Hunting)


Fore 4 Aft 1ovement of t,e 5lade in i( "at, "lane Due to %,anges in 5lade *(eed %oriolis #ffect
Angular Velocity Changes with Blade C-

Aerodynamics

13

Retreating Blade Stall


9ut&oard *ection of Retreating 5lade *talls at +ig, Forward Airs(eed %auses
Blade .lapping " Cyclic .eathering that /0ceed Critical Angle

Aircraft "itc,es 3( 4 Rolls Left %onditions %onducive to Retreating 5lade *tall


1 2igh - T 1 2igh DA 1 Tur(ulent Air
Aerodynamics

1 !ow Rotor RP3 1 2igh 4-5 3aneu#ers

14

Retreating Blade Stall

Aerodynamics

1!

Compressibility
9ut&oard *ection of Advancing 5lade #2ceeds t,e *(eed of *ound at +ig, Airs(eed Aerodynamic %enter 1oves Aft
!arge Down Pitching 3oment at Out(oard Tip Structural .ailure of Blade ill Cause

Aircraft "itc,es Down %onditions %onducive to %om(ressi&ility


1 2igh Airspeed 1 2igh - T 1 !ow Temperature Aerodynamics 1 2igh Rotor RP3 1 2igh DA 1 Tur(ulent Air
1'

Settling with Power


(Vortex Ring State) Formation of an Inner :orte2 on t,e 5lade %auses *u&stantial Loss of Lift Increased %ollective Results in Larger :orte2 Rings 4 +ig,er Rates of Descent %onditions %onducive to *ettling wit, "ower
' Very !ow .orward Airspeed ' 6718779 of A#aila(le Power Applied ' :77 ft,min Rate of Descent or -reater

Recover &y #sta&lis,ing Directional Flig,t


Aerodynamics

1-

Vortex Ring State


Induced Flow 5efore :orte2 Ring *tate

:orte2 Ring *tate

Aerodynamics

1.

Offset Hinges

ends to Align t,e +elico(ter wit, t,e Rotor i( "at, "lane

9ffset %reates a +u& 1oment


!arger the Offset; 2igher the 2u( 3oment

Results in ;reater 1aneuvera&ility 4 Faster Aircraft Res(onse

Aerodynamics

1/

Dynamic Rollover
Aircraft #2ceeds %ritical Rollover Angle wit, a Rolling 1oment Dynamic Rollover %riteria
' Pi#ot Point ' Rolling 3oment ' !ift Component and,or 2u( 3oment

ail Rotor %ontri&ution

%ollective is 1ost #ffective %ontrol


Cyclic is also /ffecti#e Due to Offset 2inges
Aerodynamics

20

Fuselage Hovering Attitude


<ose +ig,
' .orward Tilt of 3ain Transmission ' Aircraft C- Aft of 3ain Rotor 3ast

Left *ide Low


' !eft Cyclic Compensating for Translating Tendency

Aerodynamics

21