You are on page 1of 57

VERBAL REASONING

VERBAL REASONING
Verbal

reasoning tests which are usually asked at competitive examinations These tests use words, letters and digits and require logical, commonsense reasoning and reasonable knowledge of the English language.

VERBAL REASONING
Verbal Reasoning contains two sections
SECTION SECTION

I II

GENERAL MENTAL ABILITY LOGIC REASONING

VERBAL REASONING
SECTION I GENERAL MENTAL ABILITY contains following topics

Analogy Classification Series Completion Coding Decoding Blood Relations Puzzle Test Sequential output tracing Direction sense test Logical Venn diagrams Alphabet test

VERBAL REASONING
SECTION II LOGIC REASONING

Contains Following Topics


Logic Statement arguments Statement assumptions Statement courses of action Statement conclusions Deriving conclusions from passages Theme detection Question statements Logical puzzles

VERBAL REASONING ANALOGY

Analogy means correspondence.


A particular relationship is given and another similar relationship has to be identified from the alternatives provided. To test a candidates overall knowledge, power of reasoning and ability to think concisely and accurately.

VERBAL REASONING ANALOGY


KINDS OF RELATIONSHIPS :

Instrument and measurement : Ex: Barometer : Pressure


Barometer is an instrument used to measure pressure

Study and topics : Ex: Ornithology : Birds


Ornithology is the study of birds.

VERBAL REASONING

Word and synonym : Ex: Abode : Dwelling


Abode means almost the same as Dwelling Thus, Dwelling is the synonym of Abode

Word and antonym: Ex: Attack : Defend


Defend means the opposite of Attack. Thus, Defend is the antonym of Attack

VERBAL REASONING
ANALOGY contains following types TYPE 1 : Completing the Analogous pair TYPE 2 : Simple Analogy Type 3 : Choosing the Analogous pair Type 4 : Double Analogy TYPE 5 : Choosing a Similar Word TYPE 6 : Detecting Analogies TYPE 7 : Three Word Analogy TYPE 8 : Number Analogy TYPE 9 : Alphabet Analogy

VERBAL REASONING
Completing the Analogous pair
In

this type of questions, two words are given.


words are related to each other in some

These

way. Another word is also given. The candidate is required to find out the relationship between the first two words and choose the words from the given alternatives.

VERBAL REASONING
Example 1 :
Newspaper : press : : cloth : ? a) tailor b) textile c) fibre d) factory e) mill

Answer is (e)

Solution :
Just as newspaper is prepared in a press, cloth is manufactured in the mill.

VERBAL REASONING
Example 2 :
doctor : nurse : : ? : follower a) employer b) leader c) worker d) manager e) union

Answer is (b)

Just as a nurse follows the doctor instruction, so as follower works as directed by the leader.

Solution :

VERBAL REASONING
SIMPLE ANALOGY

Examples for Simple Analogy:


1.Soap is related to wash in the same way as broom is related to -------a) Clean b) dust c) sweep d) floor Answer is (c)

Solution:
Just as soap is used to wash in the same way broom is used to sweep

VERBAL REASONING
2.Bread is related to bakery in the same way as brick is related to -------a) mint b) kiln c) furnace d) mine
Answer is (b) Solution : Just as bread is manufactured in the bakery in the same way brick is manufactured in kiln so, answer is (b)

VERBAL REASONING
CHOOSING THE ANALOGOUS PAIR
In

this type of questions a pair of words is given, followed by four pair of words as alternatives. candidate is required to choose the pair in which the words bear the same relationship to each other as the words of the given pair bear.

The

VERBAL REASONING
Example for choosing the analogous pair: 1.Chalk : blackboard a) Type : paint b) table : chair c) ink : paper d) Door : handle Answer is (c) Solution: Just as chalk is used to write on a blackboard, So also ink is used to write on a paper

VERBAL REASONING
2. Shrub : prune a) beard : shave b) hair: trim c) lawn: mow d) wool: shear
Answer is (b) Solution: clearly, second is the process of cutting down unnecessary parts of the first

VERBAL REASONING
DETECTING ANALOGIES
In

this type of questions, the candidate is required to trace out the hidden analogy or common characteristics among the given words or to choose the word which possesses the same characteristics as the given word.

VERBAL REASONING
Example for DETECTING ANALOGIES 1.Judo : karate : taekwando a) They are names of martial arts. b) They can be performed by obese persons c) They are performed on stage. d) They are important items of Asian games Answer is (a)

Clearly, judo, karate & taekwando are martial arts and alternative (a) is the most suitable description for all the three.

Solution:

VERBAL REASONING
2. Sweep : Scrub: Wipe a) These are terms connected with rubbing. b) These are games of cards. c) These are terms used by motor mechanic d) These are terms connected with cleaning Answer is (d) Solution:

Clearly Sweep , Scrub & Wipe are the terms connected with cleaning

VERBAL REASONING
THREE WORD ANALOGY
In

this type of question a group of three inter related words is given. candidate is required to trace out the relationship among these three words and choose another with similar analogy from among the alternatives provided

The

VERBAL REASONING
Examples for THREE WORD ANALOGY
1.Pen : Pencil: Ink a) Orange : Banana : Juice b) Table : Chair : Wood c) Cow : Milk : Curd d) Fish : Shark: Water Answer is (a). Solution : Clearly Pen contains ink and pencil belongs to the same category as pen i.e., stationary. Similarly orange contains juice and banana belongs to the same category i.e., fruits.

VERBAL REASONING
2.Dog : Squirrel : Tail a) Cottage : hut : Palace b) Fish : Crocodile : Water c) Horse : Ox : Horn d) Truck : Scooter : Gear Answer is (d) Solution: Here, both Dog and Squirrel have Tail. Similarly, both Truck and Scooter have Gear.

VERBAL REASONING
ALPHABET ANALOGY
In

this type of questions, two groups alphabets related to each other in same way are given. candidate is required to find out this relationship and choose a group of alphabets which is related in the same way to a third group provided in the question.

The

VERBAL REASONING
Examples for ALPHABET ANALOGY
1.ABCD : OPQR : : WXYZ : ? a) EFGH b) KLMN c) QRST d) STUV Answer is (c) SOLUTION: Clearly each letter of the first group is moved fourteen steps forward to obtain the corresponding letter of the second group. A similar relationship will exit between the third and fourth group.

VERBAL REASONING
2. QIOK : MMOKO : : YAWC : ? a) SUEG b) VUES C) USGA D) UESG Answer is (d).
SOLUTION: The first and third letters of the first group are each moved four steps backward to obtain the corresponding letter of the second group.

The second and fourth letter of the first group are moved four steps forward to obtain the corresponding letter of the second group. A similar relationship will exist between the third and fourth group.

VERBAL REASONING
CLASSIFICATION
Classification

means to assort the items of a given group on the basis of certain common quality they possess and then spot the stranger out. candidate is required to choose this one item which does not fit into the given group.

The

VERBAL REASONING
TYPE 1: CHOOSING THE ODD WORD
Choose the word which is least like the other words in the group. EXAMPLE 1 : A. curd B. butter C. oil D. cheese E. cream Answer is (c). SOLUTION: Here ,all except Oil are products obtained from milk. EXAMPLE 2 : Pistol B. Sword C. Gun D. Rifle Answer is (c) SOLUTION: Here, all expect sword are fire arms E. Cannon

VERBAL REASONING
TYPE 2: CHOOSING THE ODD PAIR OF WORDS
In

this type question certain pairs of words are given out of which the words in all the pairs expect one, bear a certain common relationship.

The

candidate is required to decipher this relationship and choose the pair in which the words are differently related, as the answer.

VERBAL REASONING
Choose the odd pair of words :
EXAMPLE : a) Blacksmith : anvil b) carpenter : saw c) barber : scissor d) goldsmith: ornament e) sculptor: chisel Answer is (d) Solution : In all other pairs, second is the tool is used by the first. EXAMPLE : a) cow :calf b) dog : bitch c) line : cub d) insert : larva e) tortoise : turtle Answer is (b) Solution : In all other pairs ,second is the young one of the first while in (b), second is the female of the first

VERBAL REASONING
TYPE 3 : CHOOSING THE ODD NUMERAL
In

this type of question certain number are given, out of which all expect one are alike in some manner while one if different and is number is to be choose as the answer.

EXAMPLE 1: a)12 b)25 c)37 d)49 e)57 SOLUTION: 37 is only prime number so, answer is (c)

EXAMPLE 2: a)21 b)36 c)49 d)56 e)91 SOLUTION : Each of the number except 36 if divisible by 7 Hence the answer is (b)

VERBAL REASONING
CHOOSING THE ODD LETTER GROUP
In

this type of question usefully five groups of letter are given. of them are similar to each other in some manner while one is different and this to be chosen by the candidate as the answer.

Four

VERBAL REASONING
Choose the group of letter which is different from others:
EXAMPLE 1 : a) BD b) IK c) PN d) SU e) WY Answer is (c). SOLUTION : All other groups consists of two alternate letters in order while in this group they are in reverse order.

VERBAL REASONING
Example 2: a) BCD b) KMN c) QRS d) GHI e) WXY Answer is (b) SOLUTION :

All other groups consists of three consecutive letters while this one doesnt .

VERBAL REASONING
CODING AND DECODING
A

CODE is a system of signals.

Coding

is a method of transmitting a message between sender and the receiver without a third person knowing it. coding and decoding test is set up to judge the candidates ability to decipher the rule that codes a particular word/message and break the code to decipher the message.

The

VERBAL REASONING
EXAMPLE .1

LETTER CODING is

If in a certain language MYSTIFY is coded as NZTUJGZ , how NEMESIS coded in that language? a .MDLHRDR b. OFNFTJT c. ODNHTDR d , PGOKUGU

Answer is (B). SOLUTION: Clearly, each letter in the word MYSTIFY is moved one step forward to obtain the corresponding letter of the code. MYSTIFY +1 NZTUJGZ so, in NEMESIS, N will be coded as O, E as F, M,as N and so on. Thus, the code becomes OFNFTJT.

VERBAL REASONING
EXAMPLE 2 : If TAP is coded as SZO, then how is FREEZE coded ? a) EQDFYG b) ESDFYF c) GQFDYF d) EQDDYD Answer is (d)

SOLUTION : clearly, each letter in the word TAP is moved one step backward to obtain the corresponding letter of the code. S Z O -1 T A P Thus in FREEZE, F will be coded as E,R as Q ,E as D and Z as Y So, the code becomes EQDDYD

VERBAL REASONING
NUMBER CODING
In

these questions either numerical code values are assigned to a word or alphabetical code letters are assigned to the number. candidate is required to analyze the code as per the direction.

The

VERBAL REASONING
EXAMPLE 1 : If in a certain language A is coded as 1 , B is coded as 2 and so on, how is BIDDIC coded in that code ? a)204493 b)284563 c)375582 d)394492 Answer is (a) SOLUTION : as given a letter are coded as, A B C D E F G H I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 So in BIDDIC, B is coded as 2 ,I as 9, D as 4,C as 3 thus, BIDDIC is coded as 294493

VERBAL REASONING
EXAMPLE 2 : If PAINT is coded as 74128 and EXCEL is coded as 93596, then how would you encode ACCEPT ? a) 455978 b) 547978 c) 554978 d) 735961

SOLUTION : Clearly, In the given code the alphabets are coded as follows : P A I N T E X C L 7 4 1 2 8 9 3 5 6 So, In ACCEPT, A is coded as 4, C as 5, E as 9 , P as 7 and T as 8 Hence the correct code is 455978 and therefore the answer is (a)

VERBAL REASONING
SUSTITUTION
In

this type of question, some particular objects are assigned code names. a question is asked that is to be answered in the code language.

Then

VERBAL REASONING
EXAMPLE 1 : If cook is called butler , butler is called manager, manager is called teacher, teacher is called clerk and clerk is principal, who will teach in a class? a) Cook b) Butler c) Manager d) Teacher e) Clerk Answer is (e) SOLUTION : Clearly, A teacher teaches in a class and as given teacher is called clerk. So, A clerk will teaches in a class.

VERBAL REASONING
EXAMPLE 2 : If diamond is called gold , gold is called silver, silver is called ruby and ruby is called emerald, which is the cheapest jewel ? a) diamond b) silver c) gold d) ruby e) emerald Answer is (d) SOLUTION : we ,Know that silver is the cheapest. But , as given sliver is called ruby. So, ruby is the cheapest.

VERBAL REASONING
SERIES COMPLETION

It deals with questions in which series of numbers or alphabetical letters are given. The terms of series follow a certain pattern throughout. The candidate is required to recognize this pattern and either complete the given series or find the wrong term in the series.

VERBAL REASONING
EXAMPLE 1 :

NUMBER SERIES

Which number would replace question mark in the series 7 , 12 , 19 , ? , 39. a) 29 b) 28 c) 26 d) 24 Answer is (b)

Solution:

Clearly, the given sequence follows the pattern : +5 , +7 , +9 , . i.e., 7+5=12 , 12+7=19 Missing Number = 19+9 = 28.

VERBAL REASONING
EXAMPLE 2 : Which is the number that comes next in the sequence : 0 , 6 , 24 , 60 , 120 , 210 ? a) 240 b) 290 c) 336 d) 504 Answer is (c) Solution: Clearly, the given series is 1 -1 , 2 - 2 , 3 - 3 , 4 - 4 , 5 - 5 , 6 - 6 . Next number = 7 - 7 = 343 7 = 336 .

VERBAL REASONING
EXAMPLE 1: What terms will fill the blank spaces ? Z , X , V , T , R , (.) , (.) a) O , K b) N , M c) K , S d) M , N Answer is (e) Solution: Clearly, the given series consists of alternate letters in a reverse order. So, the missing terms would be P and N .

ALPHABET SERIES

e) P , N

VERBAL REASONING
EXAMPLE 2:
What will be the next term in : BDF , CFI , DHL , ? a) CJM b) EIM c) EJO d) EMI
Answer is (C)

Solution:
Clearly, the first , second and third letters of each term are respectively moved one ,two three steps forward to obtain the corresponding letters of the next term. So, the missing term is EJO.

VERBAL REASONING
BLOOD RELATIONS

In

these tests, the success of a candidate depends upon the knowledge of the blood relations.

VERBAL REASONING
Example 1 : Anil introduces Rohit as the son of the only brother of his fathers wife. How is Rohit related to Anil ? a) Cousin b) Son c) Uncle d) Son-in-law e) Brother Answer is (a) Solution: The relations may be analyzed as follows : Fathers wife Mother ; Mothers brother Uncle Uncles son Cousin. So, rohit is Anils cousin.

VERBAL REASONING
LOGICAL PUZZLES
In each of the following questions, examine the given statements carefully and find out which two of the statements cannot be true simultaneously, but can both be false.

VERBAL REASONING
Questions
I. 1. All animals are carnivorous 2. Some animals are not carnivorous 3. Animals are not carnivorous 4. Some animals are carnivorous a) 1 and 2 b) 2 and 3 c) 1 and 3 d) 3 and 4

VERBAL REASONING
II. 1. All children are inquisitive 2. Some children are inquisitive 3. No children are inquisitive 4. Some children are not inquisitive
a) 1 and 3 b) 1 and 4 c) 2 and 3 d)3 and 4

VERBAL REASONING
III. 1.Some nations wish for peaceful coexistence 2.All nations wish for peaceful coexistence 3.Some nations are not wishing for peaceful coexistence 4.No nations are wishing for peaceful coexistence

A) 1 and 2 B) 1 and 3 C) 2 and 4 D) 3 and 4

VERBAL REASONING
IV. Examine the following statements regarding a set of
balls 1. All balls are black 2. All balls are white 3. Only some balls are black 4. No balls are black Assuming that the balls can only be black or white. Which of the two statements given above can both be true, but cannot both be false?
a) 1 and 3 b) 1 and 4 c) 2 and 3 d) 2 and 4

VERBAL REASONING
Assuming that the balls can only be black or white. Which of the two statements given above can both be true, but cannot both be false? a) 1 and 3 b) 1 and 4 c) 2 and 3 d) 2 and 4